Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 2 Rajasthan General Introduction
Our present civilized life is the result of continuous development. From the beginning of human community many civilizations have orginated and declined in the world. The history of these civilizations is the history of man. Hence, study of these civilizations is must. India is a civilized and prosperous nation from thousand of years. Mesopotamia, Egyptian, Chinese and Greek Civilizations are other ancient civilizations of the world contemporary to India.
Rajasthan can be divided into four physical divisions which are as follows:
It extends from the boundary of Pakistan to the West of India till Aravali hills in the Western Rajasthan. It is spread over 61% part of 12 districts of Rajasthan, and inhabited by 40% population of Rajasthan. It is slope towards Pakistan in the west. The desert as compared to other deserts of the world is more densely populated and animal, rain, mineral diversity, vegetation, agriculture, irrigation facilities are also found.
Therefore it is called the most wealthy desert of the world. It comprises the desert part of Barmer, Jaisalmer and Bikaner and is known as the Great Indian Desert. Sand dunes found here are known as ‘Dhore’ in the local dialect. Here desert vegetation is found whose length is less, leaves are small and thick and roots are deep. Among main trees Rohida (national flower), Khejadi (the national tree) Pilu etc, are grown. The Sewan, Dhaman, Karad are grasses and the bushes are Kair, Aak, Thor, Laana, Fog, Aarna etc. Most of the underground water of the Thar desert is salty. Here an effort has been made to remove the water crisis of this area by bringing Indira Gandhi canal from Satluj river.
It is spread over 9% part of Rajasthan from South-West to North-East in the central Rajasthan. It is among the most ancient mountains of the world which is 692 km long from Khedbrahma in south of Gujarat up to north in Delhi. It divides Rajasthan into the Eastern Rajasthan and the Western Rajasthan. Aravali region is the highest region in Rajasthan.
- Mineral resources of the state.
- Checking the expansion of the desert in the eastern direction.
- Origin of most rivers.
- Presence of the greatest vegetation, wild animals and medicinal herbs.
- Checking of rain bearing winds and making rainfall in south and eastern Rajasthan are the causes which make Aravali to be called lifeline of Rajasthan. In Rajasthan the highest peak of Aravali mountain is Gurushikhar (1722 mts) which is located in Sirohi district.
The Eastern Plain:
This is the most fertile plain of Rajasthan about 40% population of Rajasthan reside. It is drained by the Chambal, the Banas, the Banganga rivers and their tributaries which is a part of Ganga plain. Area around the river Chambal is rugged and uneven and is popularly known as Bad Land Topography. This dense forest extended from Kota to Dhoulpur.
- Plain of Mahi: In the southern part of Rajasthan in Banswara and Pratapgarh districts, there is plains formed by the river Mahi and it’s tributaries.
- Plain of Chappan: In the region of Mahi plain, there is a group of Chappan villages and Chappan rivers and drains which is called plain of chappan.
The Hadauti Plateau or Southern – Eastern Plateau:
The southern – eastern part of Rajasthan was the region of rulers of Hada dynasty in ancient time hence it is also calied plateau of Hadauti. It is spread over appear 7% of the state, most of the soil of this region is formed by lava, is moderate black, which is very fertile. The other plateaus of Rajasthan are Uriya, Abu, Bhorat, Messa, Upparmal and Lasariya etc.
Climate and Cycle of Seasons:
Rajasthan is the only state of India which has five types of climatic conditions due to its latitudinal location and its strategic North-West position in the Indian sub-continent, extent of the state and position of the Aravalis. 61% part of the Western Rajasthan has arid and semi- arid desert climate. To the east of the Aravali hills Jaipur and other north-east districts have semi humid climate, Sawaimadhopur to Udaipur experience humid climate, and Banswara in south and Jhalawar in the south east have extreme humid climate.
Average annual rainfall in Rajasthan is 57.51 cm, and less than 50 cm in the desert region. On the basis of average climatic conditions it could be said that Rajasthan is dry state as compared to other regions of India.
Seasons in Rajasthan:
1. Summer Season (March to June)
2. Rainy Season (July to September)
3. Winter Season (October to February)
- Summer Season: Temperature normally above 30 to 40 degree and in the Western Rajasthan districts of Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Sriganganagar and Churu above 40 to 45 degrees. The Thar desert is the hottest region of Rajasthan due to sand because sand gets cold and hot easily, hence there is a great difference in daily and annual day and night temperature. The coldest place in Rajasthan is Mount Abu because of its height.
- Rainy Season: The monsoon brings 90% to 95% rains in Rajasthan in the monsoon season between the months of July to September, monsoon arise both from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea but Monsoon winds from the Bay of Bengal shed more rains mainly in the Eastern Rajasthan. The Arabian sea mansoons shed more rains in the southern Rajasthan. Jhalawar district of Rajasthan gets the highest amount of rainfall (about 100cm). Jaisalmer district gets the least rainfall (about 10cm), Mount Abu gets the maximum rainfall i.e. 150cm. As proceeding towards north-west of Rajasthan from the south-east part, amount of rainfall decreases. The eastern Aravalis receive more than 50cm rains whereas the western part gets less than 50cm. Aravali divides the Rajasthan into two parts.
- Winter Season: Temperature of Rajasthan decreases gradually in the winter months in Rajasthan touching 0° centigrade in the Western Rajasthan. Mount Abu remains comparatively cold due to its height. The sky remains clear. Cold winds coming from the Himalayas are called ‘Cold Waves’.
Drought and Desertification:
Rains in Rajasthan are periodic, uncertain, insufficient, untimely and unevenly distributed. Hence state has to face often drought and famine like conditions. Most part of the Western Rajasthan faces drought conditions every year. Due to these drought the shortage of fodder and water for animals, and deficiency of water and grains for the people prevails which is called famine. Less rainfall is the natural and general condition of this part.
When the fertile land converts into barren land and sandy soil due to physical and man made processes, it is called the desertification. The Western Rajasthan is constantly experiencing the expansion of desert though efforts are being made to check its expansion by green belts.