Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 22 National Movement
India is always in favour of freedom. This is the reason that India spread its culture in the world but can’t established Political Dominions (colony). Some of the foreigners came here to plunder its wealth while some came as traders to trade. Slowly they tried to establish their rule over here. But as soon as the people of here felt that efforts are being made to make us slave then at once struggle was started against them. This struggle continued. In this way the process of national movement was going on continuously.
India’s freedom movement was such a process in which people of India felt that there is a fundamental controversy between British rule and Indians. By the result of which Indians always have to face harm. The solution of this controversy could be only possible when British left India and India will be run in the hands of Indians. When British came to India Indians opposed them by different methods. Though sometimes people opposed British and sometimes worked with them but the fact is that every person of India directly or indirectly was being affected by the British rule. He wanted his country to free from their slavery.
Some of the historian’s considered that the movement which occurred in the 19th century by making modern political parties is the freedom movement but in real from the war of 1857 the struggle for freedom was started. Hence some historians called it as ‘First war of the Independence’.
National movement in the later period of the 19th century:
In 19th century Indians had formed many parties. Some belonged to feudals of Bengal, while some of English educated people and other belonged to traders of South or west. All these groups wrote letters of complaints to federal government demanding to decrease the ‘tax’. Indians should enroll in the government jobs. Schools should be opened, Indians should be given equal status in law and order. More seats would be given to Indians in the Legislative Councils and council should work according to them etc.
In the end of December 1885 Allen Octavian Hume took initiative and called a conference of such parties to give legal form to unrest against British. A.O Hume named the new institution Indian National Congress. In this way on 28 December 1885 A.D. Indian National Congress was founded in Bombay. Its first President was made Vyomesh Chandra Bannerjee of Bengal and A.O. Hume became General Secretary.
In the coming year it was cleared regarding the resolutions brought by the Congress that British government gave no attention to these. Even people felt that government was finding new ways to trouble them. This doubt confirmed when in 1890 when the Central India was in the grip of famine, the government continued its policy of collecting revenue from the farmers and at the .:ame time the wheat was being exported from India. There was an epidemic of plague in the entral and the Western India.
There was an unrest among people regarding the inactivity of the government. Beside cholera out fuel in the fire.
Events of National Movement in the 19th and the 20th Centuries:
Many Indians raised their voice against the government. Bal Gangadhar Tilak wrote many articles in his news papers ‘Maratha’ and Kesari that gave a big jolt to the British. He gave the slogan of ‘Swaraj’ and awakened the people of Maharashtra by celebrating the Ganpati and Shivaji festivals.
We cannot achieve anything. He inculcated the feeling of Swaraj among masses. The British eyed him with alarm. Chapekar brothers killed Commissioner Plague. This news was published in the newspaper of Tilak. He was charged for violence and treason and awarded severe imprisonment of 18 months. On his arrest the angry people reacted and made him ‘Lok manya’.
After being released from prison he started Home Rule Campaign to prepare common masses for Swaraj. Lucknow pact was reached only with the efforts of Lokmanaya Tilak. He breathed his last in 1920.
National Movement in the Early 20th century:
- In 1905 Lord curzon ordered the partition of the province of Bengal in the name of administrative efficiency. This gave rise to the Swadeshi Movement.
- In 1907 in the Surat session of the Congress a hot discussion was held. It divided congress into two parts-Extremist and the Moderate. The Extremist were led by Lala Lajpat Rai, Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, popularly known as Lal-Bal-Pal.
When no results came through strikes then few youngsters of Bengal decided to decrease the fear of British in people. There must be a revolutionary attack on British. They made small groups and learnt to use arms and ammunition. Some attacked severaly on British, an effort was made to loot government treasury. In December 1911 the partition of Bengal was declared null and void and capital of the country was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
Different phases of National Movement from 1st World War to 1947:
- First World War broke out in Europe in 1914. The Indian wealth and men were forcibly indulged in this war. All Indian states provided soldiers and wealth to support British in the hope that after war they would be free. On the contrary the British government implemented an Act in 1919, unfavorable to the Indians, known as the Rowlatt Act. It empowered the British government to detain the rival political activists without trial and arrest any individual suspected of sedition without a warrant.
- To oppose the Rowlatt Act, the peaceful meeting was being held in Amritsar (Punjab) at Jallianwala Bagh on 13th April 1919. When General Dyer ordered his soldiers to fire at unarmed crowd killing many of them. General Dyer was awarded for his act of bravery. Later the revolutionary Udham Singh shot General Dyer to death.
- In 1919, the Government of India Act was passed, introducing Dyarchy in India.
The leaders who opposed colonial rule:
- In 1920 Gandhiji started the Non-cooperation Movement which had to be called off following the Chauri-Chaura incident in 1922 after the revolutionaries attacked police station killing many policemen.
- On 3rd Febuary 1928 the Simon Commission of six members (all British) headed by Sir John Simon reached Bombay. The Indian agitated under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai as there was not a single Indian member in this commission.
When the Lala Lajpat Rai was leading the demonstration in Lahore against Simon Commission, the then police officer Sanders charged him with lathis, by which Lajpat Rai had severe head injuries and later he was succumb to his injuries.
To avenge attack on this beloved leader, the young revolutionary, Bhagat Singh and his companions murdered the police officer, Sanders. They exploded a bomb in the premises of the Central Vidhan Sabha (Legislative Assembly) On 23rd March, 1931, Bhagat Singh along with Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to death at the age of 24 years. On 27 February 1931 Chandra Shekhar also become martyr being fighting with British. In 1930 started the civil Disobedience movement in the country.
British government put more atrocities on people to curb this movement. People ignored the government rules with peaceful method. Without the permission of government people even cannot make salt, people decided to break salt law under the leadership of Gandhiji. People marched from Gujarat to Dandi to make salt inspite of heavy lathi-charge. On the way without counter attack they marched forward by saying ‘Bharat Mata Ki Jai’ and thus the British law of not allowing the Indians to make salt was violated.
Till then there was a great curiosity arose among the people of the rest of world that what is happening in Hindustan. Many press reporters and film makers came to India. They exposed in front of the world that how government is doing injustice towards people. Now people of the world realised that the demands of Indians is that British should leave India. In 1942 during the Second World War, people raised the slogan British ‘Quit India’. All the leaders were arrested. As this happened in August, 1942, it is also known as the August Revolution or Quit India Movement. It was a national mass movement. Its impact was seen in whole India. Youth took part in it with a great enthusiasm.
Some Revolutionaries of the National Independence Movement:
Martyr Hemu Kalani:
This young martyr of Indian freedom movement took birth on 23 March 1923 A.D in a Sukhkhar family of Sindh. He started going in Prabhat pheries by influencing from Mahatma Gandhi. He inspired people to use Swadeshi and boycott foreign goods.
In 1942 Hemu got information that the British military train loaded with ammunition would pass Rohadi city (Sindh), his native place. He planned to damage the railway track but unluckily was arrested before he could do anything and was sentenced to death. Before hanging he was asked for his last wish then he wished to take birth again on sacred land of Bharat Varsha. By chanting ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ and ‘Bharat Mata Ki Jai’, this young freedom fighter hanged on slang cheerfully.
On 28 May 1883 A.D. Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar took birth in Bhagoor village district Nasik of Maharashtra. His father Damodarpant Sawarkar was a patriot and mother Radha Bai was a religious woman. He went to Pune for his matriculation there he came in contact with Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Vinayak considerd him his Guru, for studying law he went to Bombay. At that time the famous revolutionary Shyamji Krishna Verma arranged scholarship for the higher education for Vinayak in London and he was sent to London for his higher studies. In London he made Shyamji Krishna’s India house as the centre for his activities.
Here, he wrote a revolutionary book ‘Swatantrya Samag’ of 1857. Later it was banned by the British due to his revolutionary activities. He was arrested after keeping sometime in the prison. He was sent to Bombay by ‘Marrigan Ship’. On the way he betrayed the securities and escaped, and reached to the border of France by swimming, but coast guards caught him and handed over to the British. Later he was trial in the court for inspiring patriotism and fear of his courage the British government awarded him two whole life imprisonment and send him to celluler Jail of Andaman and Nicobar. He faced harsh atrocities and punishment called Kala Pani for 11 years. After his return to India he was kept under house arrest in Ratnagiri (Maharashtra). From where he got freedom in 1937, he severely opposed the partition of India. This great freedom fighter took his last breath on 26 January 1966 A.D.
Subhash Chandra Bose:
Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 A.D. He passed the I.C.S. examination but he did not join job. Later he actively took part in India’s freedom movement, He was elected President of the Congress twice. In 1943 he took responsibility of the ‘Azad Hind Fauj’ and fought war for the freedom directly. In 1944 under the leadership of Subhash Chandra Bose a campaign of Azad Hind Fauj launched and in 1946 form a revolt of navy.
British government came to know that now Indian soldiers also don’t want to work with the government. It is said that on 18 August 1945 A.D. in an aeroplane crash Subhash Chandra Bose died mysteriously which is even today a conflict. After 2 years English divided the country into two parts on 14 August 1947 and on 15 August 1947 got freedom from British.
National Movement and Rajasthan:
In Rajasthan the farmers class was tired of atrocities of Jagirdar and Thikadars. It was felt first time when in Bijoliya farmers movement started against Jagirdars. In Bijoliya farmers have to pay 84 types of taxes. In 1913 under the leadership of Sadhu Sitaram farmers revolted against such terrible system of taxes. In 1916 the farmers led by Vijay Singh Patha and Manikaya Lai Verma refused to do begar and stopped giving taxes. In the beginning every state has its own farmer movement. They started joining freedom movement. In every state Praja Mandal was established.
Praja Mandal were raising demands on farmer problems as well as disorder in the states. Every state demanded for a responsible government. Some of the leaders of Praja Mandal were included in local ministry. In 1942 when Quit India movement was started in the country. Then Praja Mandal demanded British to left relations with the states also. Many leaders were put behind bars. In Dungarpur Praja Mandals raised the problem of Adivasi (tribals). In Pratapgarh under the leadership of Amrit Lai Harijan Seva Samiti was established.
Revolutionary Leaders of Rajasthan:
Arjun Lai Sethi:
He was born in Jaipur in 1880, passed BA from Allahabad University. When the post of Prime Minister of Jaipur was offered to him, he said “Shriman! If Arjun Lai would do job then who will drive away British from India?”. He established a Revolutionary Association in Rajasthan with the help of Kesari Singh Barhath end Gopal Singh Kharwa. Within a short period Vardhaman Vidyalaya located in Jaipur become a great centre of training of revolutionaries.
He was arrested being suspicious of Nizam massacre and Delhi conspiracy. He was put behind the bar. He was kept under house arrest (Nazar band) in Jaipur for 5 years, later he was sent to Vellore jail. There he did fast into death for the misbehaviour of the jail officials. In 1920 when he was released he joined Congress, but due to conflict over policies he separated and for livelihood started teaching children in Dargah of Ajmer. He died on 22 September 1941 A.D. in Ajmer.
Rao Gopal Singh Kharwa:
Rao Gopal Singh Kharwa of Ajmer was a revolutionary of Merwada. He was greatly influenced by Arya Samaj right from the beginning. During the First World War Ras Bihari Bose and Sachin Nath Sanyal prepared a plan in North India for an armed revolution. Rao Gopal Singh joined it, but one of the campanions of revolutionary informed to police that result in failure of the plan. In June 1915 A.D. British government ordered to Gopal Singh to leave Kharwa in 24 hours and go to Tadgarh. He escaped from Tadgarh and was caught in Salemabad. He was sent to Tihar Jail. He was released in 1920 A.D. Later he indulged in creative activities. In March 1956 he died.
Kesari Singh Barhath:
He was born in 1872 A.D. in village Devpura near Shahpura of Bhilwara. Later he went to Maharana of Udaipur. During this he had contact with Ras Bihari Bose, Shyamji Krishna Sharma and other revolutionaries. In 1903 revolutionaries got information of attending Delhi Durbar about Maharana Fateh Singh of Mewar.
It was not like by revolutionaries and they considered it illegal. Then when Maharana was going to attend Delhi darbar Kesari Singh sent 13 shorthas, ‘Chetavani Ra chungtya’ to Maharana. Maharana reached Delhi but did not attend the Darbar.
According to secret report of government. He was charged for treachery, revolt provoking Indian soldiers against British administration and conspiracy, beside murder of sage Pyare Ram Sadhu. He was punished for 20 years, jail and sent to Hazaribagh Central Jail. From where he was released in 1920. His rest of the life was spent in Kota. In 1914 this freedom fighter died.
Pratap Singh Barhath:
Son of Kesari Singh, born in Udaipur on 24 May 1883. He took birth in family which had great feeling for patriotism. Kesari sent him in Vardhaman School of Arjun Sethi. Pratap Singh also involved in revolutionary activities. When he was returning from Hyderabad (sindh) to Bikaner he was arrested by mischievers of the station master on Asha Nanda station near Jodhpur. He was kept in Bareily jail. English officer Charles Cleveland pressurized him to give information about Ras Bihari Bose and other revolutionaries but he did not utter a single word.
Charles Cleveland said “ your mother is sad without you, she flows tears”. Then he replied “you say that my mother cries day and night and she is very sad but I cannot become the cause of tears of hundred mothers”. He was tortured severely due to which he died in jail on 27 May 1918.
Zorawar Singh Barhath:
This famous Revolutionary was younger brother of Kesari Singh. He threw bomb on demonstration of viceroy Lord Hardings in Delhi. Viceroy was saved, but Mahawat was killed and Zorawar Singh become underground. Later most of the time spent in the form of a Vairagi Amar Das in the region of Malwa and Bagad region, but he was never caught by the British.