Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 24 Our Pride
India’s history is splendid. To achieve this pride there is an important role of scholars, scientists and artist, amongst them knowledge about a few scholars like Chandra Bardai, Brahmagupta (Mathematician) Maharishi Sushruta, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Mahakavi Magh, Sutradhar Mandan, Maharishi Parashar, Chakrapani Mishra, Sharangdhar etc. are given here.
Born in Lahore in 1148. His father Rao Vain was Purohit of Ajmer Chauhans. Because of this he came in contact of Royal family. He proved to be meritorious right from his childhood and very soon, he acquired the knowledge of language, literature, grammar, sonet, puran, astrology etc. He was not only declared as the state poet of Samrat of Delhi by Prithviraj Chauhan but also become his advisor and friend.
He was not only a poet, he also gain formal knowledge of weapons, at the time of war, he always remained with the army and showed his warfare skills. ‘Prithviraj Raso’ was his famous creation. It was called the first Maha Kavya (epic) of Hindi. From this scripture introduction of Chandbardai’s intelligence, bravery, kindness and friendship is found in a great quantity.
Great Mathematician – Brahma Gupta:
He was born in 598 at Bhinmal (Jalore) in Rajasthan. He was a great astronomist. At the age of 30 years in 628, he composed Brahmasphut Sidharta Scripture. His another well known work was Khandkhadkam. In this specially interpolation and in both plane trigonometry and circular trigonometry principles of sine (jya) and cosine (kotijya) are available by the medium of translation of these Brahamagupta’s scripture in Arabi and Persian languages. India’s knowledge of Arithmetic and astronomy, reached to Arab and later in western countries.
He has given simple method to write cube root and square root in his scriptures, properties of zero is also explained. He has a special contribution in geometry. His scriptures were translated in the Arabic and Persian languages.
Generally it is a suspicious that surgery first started in Europe, but in our country it was in advance stage from ancient times. In the field of surgery the foremost name is of Sushruta. He was the first surgeon who gave surgery a systematic form. He was from the great Rishi Vishwamitra’s generation.
The First Surgeon of the world: His famous scripture is Sushruta Sahinta. It is considered as an authentic scripture even today. Plastic surgery is considered an important achievement of medical sciences. Though American Scientists took its credit, but Sushruta had illustrated about it in his scripture hundreds of years ago. This is a great contribution of India to the world. For his plastic surgery he had invented more than 100 tools and devices, amongst them the most are even used today.
He was a great mathematician, was born on 22nd December, 1887 in Irod city of Tamil Nadu. His parental place is Kumbakounam in Tanjore district. His father’s, name was Srinivas Ayenger and mother’s name was Komal Tammal.
His mother was a religious lady. From his early childhood he was very inquisitive and intelligent and had a great interest in Mathematics. He passed his high school examination in 1904 and for his good rank he was given scholarship. On 16th Jan, 1913 Ramanujan wrote a letter including 120 theorems to G.H. Hardy, the famous Mathematician, Prof, of Cambridge University.
G.H. Hardy was so impressed by his work that he called him in London. On 14th April, 1914 he reached London and there he did research work with Prof. Hardy. Within a year Prof. Hardy and Ramanujan published nine research work. Ramanujan was awarded graduation degree in March, 1916 without appearing for examination on the basis of his research work.
On 27th March, 1919 he came back to India and on 29th April, 1920 he breathed last, at the age of 33 years. He was so spendthrift that he used to solve his mathematical problems on slate and then write the final result on his note book. He was decent in culture and civilization. During his stay in London he cooked his own food and did his own personal works. Despite all this he lived in lacking of facitilies but he continued his studies, research and written works till the last moment of his life.
The Great Sanskrit poet was born in Shrimalnagar (Bhinmal, Rajasthan). Time period of Magha is considered in between later 7th century and early 8th century. He was very generous, benefactor, a great donor and kind. He was married to a girl named Malhan Devi who belonged to a higher family. Some of his critics considered that if you want to worship Lord Krishna then study Kavya of Magha. Perhaps Magha created Shishupal Vadham for the worship of Lord Krishna. His father’s name was the Duttak. He was very great philanthropist and his wife was like him.
It is believed that he lived the last days of his life in poverty because of his and his wife’s nature of being great donors. It is said once in condition of economic backwardness one Brahamin came to him as beggar for his daughter’s marriage. It was the first part of night Magha went inside and take out golden bangle from his wife’s hand and gave it to Brahmin. His wife awoke and came out with bangle of other hand and gave it to Brahmin and said your daughter should wear bangle in both hands.
By seeing this view tears flew down from the eyes of Mahakavi Magha. In his epic Shishupal Vadham, he incorporated literature, grammar, ethics, puran, ayurveda, justices, astrology, natural beauty, rural life, birds and animal’s life, beauty, Kavya, Padlalitya and principles of politics in one scripture ‘Shishupal Ved’. Hence, there was no need to create these scriptures.
Sutradhar Mandan gave a great contribution through his scripture to Indian tradition of architecture and keeping it immortal. He belonged to that era when temples sketches and paintings art were in danger. In such conditions he gave rules for architecture through his scriptures and contributed in the construction of palace, house, residence, ponds, temples, sculptors etc. His greatest contribution is considered in the field of vastu shastra. Fort of Kumbhalgarh which is unaccessible constructed under the planning and guidance of Mandan.
His plan was to make a Pratima Griha under banyan tree in Kumbhalgarh, which was not completed but those sculptors are preserved even today in the state Museum of Udaipur. Amongst the famous Indian Architects in theoritical and practical knowledge about the rules of the Indian Vastu Shastra, the name of Sutradhara is important. In Vastu Shastra his facts in the field of art, arithmetic, astrology are followed from last five hundred fifty years.
He had a great experience of architectural work regarding Dev Prasad, Vapi, Pratima etc. Mandan was the dearest Vastu Shilps of Maharana Kumbha of Mewar. He was related to sompura shilpagya family of Gujarat. His relatives were perhaps related to Somnath which is called as sompur in puranas. His fathers name was khetrark (kheta). The main scriptures wrote by him are Devta Murti prakarn, Prasad mandanam, Raj vallabham, Vastu Shastra, Vastu mandanam, vastusar and vastu Manjari.
According to him grain is produced from crops and crops by agriculture. Hence by leaving every thing agriculture should be done with great efforts. The main creator Maharishi Parashar’s birth place was present day’s Pushkar (Ajmer). He wrote, “Krishi Prashar” scripture in which he had written about ancient concept of cow-worship on Padava after Deepawali. He gave agriculture a very high status that in many shastras Parashar Rishi is remembered as the founder of agriculture. In his scripture he has forecasted about rain which are even today used by the farmers.
The scripture act as a agriculture calendar (panchang). This scripture was rewritten in 10th century. It deals with crop right from souring seeds to heavy and scare rainfall, behaviours with animals used in agriculture, maintenance of Goshalas, direction of wind, forecasts of weather etc.
He was the great Pandit in Maharana Pratap’s court and has written four granthas-Vishv-vallabha, Muhuratmala, Vyavaharadarsh and Rajyaabhishek Padyati. He took inspiration from Varahmihir and his material source for writing ‘Vishvavallabha’ was Varahmihir’s creation vrihatsahinta. In his second creation Rajyaabhishek Padyati, he had used Varahmihir’s material. He had written about Haravas who know about underground water and through signals he says about the availability and depth of water. He possessed all knowledge about nature of different trees and their medicinal uses. He was a great botanist.
Chakrapani was the son of Ugra Mishra. The village Pupli located at the foots of Chittor was donated to them. He used material from Vishnu Dharmattar Puran to Vrihat Sahinta of Varahmihir and created ‘Vishwavallabha’. In his scripture Vishwa Vallabha, mantras about irrigation of trees, plant bath (fountain or sprinkling). Dhoopan are main. These are used even today. He also said to give stress on water resources. Under Vastu Shastra he had knowledge about water resources. In his scripture Rajyabhished padyati prepared the shlokas of Raj Vallabha and in vrikshayurveda in context of description of ponds were extended. As a creator of scriptures on architect, his place is comparable to a Rishi.
He was the son of Darnodar and grand son of Rashav Dev. He wrote ‘Hammir Raso’ and ‘Sharangdhar Samhita’, The musical style created by him gave him a great name and fame and it is known as the Sharangdhar style.
In this the Invisible scripture of music Gandharva Shastra’s short form is preserved which is a base to know about the Medieval periods of Indian art and music. In the same method (padyati) the short form of ‘Vrikshayurveda Scripture’ is included on the basis of which many kings and subjects have contributed in the development of grants and construction of environment. In his method yoga is also included in this scripture. The scientific form of ‘Ashtang Yoga’ is joined with health and Nirapad life (spiritual life). His contribution of presenting use of knowledge in a scientific way is praised by foreign intellectuals.