Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 4 Land Resources and Agriculture
The nature has provided us many natural resources. Among them land is also an important resources. About 11% land of the total area is under cultivation. Low lying and marshy land areas, sandy lands, rugged and uneven plateaus are less populated whereas the fertile lands are densely populated.
On the basis of ownership land is divided into two parts:
- Private land and
- Community land
Pressure increases on land as the population increases because land is a limited resource. The quality of land varies from one place to another. Its utility of resources is depend on the nature of land found. Hence there is difference on the land where man collected herbs, fodder and medicinal plants from this regions in the ancient time. Nowadays it is used for commercial activities settlements in urban region, unauthorised used of land in agriculture in rural region has been started. This is called change in land utilization.
It is the nature of soil which determine the usefulness of the land. Soil is made of rock minerals, organisms and many other elements on the earth surface. Proper mixture of soil and mineral substances add to the fertility of land.
Generally soil is classified on the two basis:
- Colour: black, red, yellow, brown etc.
- Nature: Sandy, alluvial, alkaline and salty, North- East of Rajasthan is rich in alluvial soil.
The thar deserts has sandy soil, Hadoti region of East-West Rajasthan has more of black soil and the Aravali mountaneous region has red-loamy and black soil. In canal regions alkaline soil is found more.
Elements affecting the formation of the soil:
- Parent rock
- Metabolic Activities
The art of cultivating crops in soil is known as agriculture and the land where the crops are cultivated is known as the agricultural land. Indian economy is on based agriculture. It is the main source of most of the livelihood of the people. Agriculture is a primary occupation and it includes the activities related to growing food crops, fruits and vegetables and cattle rearing. It needs suitable climate, geographical conditions, and fertile soil.
Agriculture is divided into two types:
1. Subsistence Farming and
2. Commercial farming.
Subsistence agriculture is again classified into Tribal subsistence farming and Intensive subsistence farming.
- Subsistence farming: It includes shifting agriculture and nomadic pastoral farming. Shifting agriculture is generally done by tribal people. Under this agriculture, a small piece of forest is cleared by felling the trees and burnt to make soil fertile. Such agriculture is called ‘Valra’ in southern Rajasthan and ‘Jhum’ in north-east India.Intensive subsistence agriculture – Farmer grows more than one crop on the same plot. It is practiced in densely populated fertile lands. Nomadic herding agriculture – In this herders along their cattle wander in search of fodder and water.
- Commercial Farming: It is related to the crops meant for profit and earning for livelihoods. They form the base of the industrial manufacturing. A few example are cotton, sugarcane, linseed, tobacco wheat, rice, maize etc. Rajasthan is an agricultural state.
There are three agricultural seasons in Rajasthan-
- Kharif season (Rainy season): Bajra, maize, Jowar, groundnut, rice etc.
- Rabi season (Winter season): wheat, gram, barley, mustard etc.
- Zaid Season (Summer season): fruits, vegetables etc.
The grain crops of Rajasthan are Wheat, Barley, Bajra and Maize.
It depends on the use of improved quality of seeds, extension of land under cultivation, expansion of irrigation facilities, use of fertilizers, careful use of pesticides, mechanisation etc.
Modern Agricultural Farm : Suratgarh:
A mechanised agriculture farm has been set up at Suratgarh in the Srinagar district of Rajasthan. A large variety of fruits and crops are being cultivated on this farm and it is irrigated through Indira Gandhi Canal.