Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 5 Mineral and Energy Resources
Mineral is a naturally occurring substance with a definite chemical composition. In general meaning we could say that substances obtained by digging the earth are called minerals.
Types of Minerals:
- Metallic Minerals: Those minerals in which metal is present. They are hard like- iron ore, manganese, copper, gold, silver, lead and zinc etc. generally found in the form of ores mixed with other elements. Metals are obtained from these mixtures by chemical reactions. The mixture of metal and elements is called an ore.
- Non metallic minerals: Those minerals in which no content of metal is found like marble, granite, sandstone and gypsum, limestone, dolomite, silica, sand, and mica.
- Energy Minerals: Those minerals from which we receive energy are called energy resources like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium, thorium etc.
- Methods of Mining: The general process of taking out or extracting mineral is called mining.
- Types of Extracting Minerals are
- Open-Cast mining
- Shaft mining/Deep mining
- Mineral Resources: Minerals became resources only when they became useful to the man. E.g. coal became a resource only after the invention of steam-engine otherwise it was only a mineral.
- Main Minerals of Rajasthan: As many minerals are found in Rajasthan it known as the Museum of minerals. It is the second state after Jharkhand where most of the mineral deposits are found. The production of volestonite and jasper minerals is done only from Rajasthan in India.
- Classification of Energy Resources:
- On the basis of their renewal:
- Renewable Resources and
- Non-Renewable Resources.
- On the basis of convention:
- Conventional Resources and
- Non-Conventional Resources.
- Renewable Resources such as hydro-electricity, solar energy, wind energy, bio-gas, tidal energy.
- Non-Renewable resources as coal, mineral oil, natural gas, uranium, thorium etc.
- Conventional as coal, mineral oil, natural gas, hydro-electricity.
- (iv) Non-conventional resources as solar energy, wind energy, bio-gas, bio-mass, tidal energy, atomic energy, etc.
- Coal: It is classified into four- (a) Anthracite (b) Bituminous (c) Lignite (d) Peat In Rajasthan best quality lignite is found. Its mining is done at Barsinghasar and Palana of Bikaner and from Jalipa, Kapurdi and Giral of Barmer. It is used to produce electricity. The main thermal power stations of Rajasthan are located at Kota and Suratgarh. It is harmful for environment.
- Petroleum or Mineral oil: It is an important mineral. In India it was first discovered in Assam. At present the main leading producer in India is Bombay High located in the Arabian Sea.
In western part of Barmer Mangala Saraswati oil field in Jaisalmer Ghotaru, Tanot, Manihari Tibba, etc., petroleum is found.
Hydro Power: It is an ideal energy resource as it does not cause pollution beside non-exhaustible resource. The main hydro power plants in India – Bhakra Nangal, Hirakud, Damodar etc. In Rajasthan Chambal and Mahi Bajaj are important hydro power plant.
Solar Energy: It is a renewable resources and does not cause pollution.
Wind Energy: Jaisalmer and Pratapgarh in Rajasthan.
Nuclear Energy: In Rajasthan Rawat Bhata near Kota. It is known as the energy of future.