Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 6 Industrial Scenario
Our day to day activities related with our earnings to support ourselves and family members in general are known as economic activities. Agriculture, forestry, animal rearing, mining, transport and many other services, whose aim is to earn profit are called Economic activities.
Our professional or occupational activities are of three types:
To prepare useful things for people with the help of raw material or turning raw material into finished foods at a place is called an industry. In such process utility and cost of raw material both increases.
In Rajasthan many type of industries are being developed. Different types of manufacturing industry such as garment, cottage and domestic industries are age old. These small and cottage industries have been developed into large scale units gradually which have a great contribution in the economy of Rajasthan.
Skill – Development:
Skill Development Scheme means introducing professional education courses from the school level so as to prepare the students to get employment opportunities at the local level soon after completing education. In such a scheme beside industrial skill more focus is given on special skills related to electronics, electrical, food processing etc. which enable trainers either to start their own industry or to get employment. For this Enterprising Development Programme (EDP), Enterprising Skill Development Programme (ESDP), Business Skill Development Programme (BSDP), Industrial Motivating Compaign (IMC). Business and Educational Training etc. programes being run or introduced.
Classification of Industries:
- On the basis of size:
- Cottage Industries
- Small Scale Industries
- Large Scale Industries
- On the basis of ownership:
- Private sector
- Public sector
- Joint sector
- Co-operative sector.
- On the basis of raw material:
- Agriculture Based
- Sea or Marine Based
- Mineral Based
- Forest Based
Development of Small and Cottage Industries:
The Rajasthan small scale industries corporation advances technical assistance, loan on concessional rate and marketing facilities to promote small scale and cottage industries and to provide employment in the state. Major problems of small scale industries are lack of financial resources, lack of raw material, limited market, quality of produced goods, lack of energy, limited possibilities of using waste, lack of knowledge in latest research and technology.
Small Scale and Cottage Industries:
Our government is implementing many schemes for the development of handicraft industries. Weavers of Rajasthan are assisted by the government under the Integrated Rural Development Programmes. They are given financial assistance, housing facilities, training assistance, tax exemption, working capital free of interest,transportation allowance etc. Woollen shawls, Kota Doria sarees, Durees, Nawars etc. are important handicrafts.
Cotton, woollen and silken threads are weaved to prepare variety of clothes, durries, blankets, shawls etc. The Jaisalmer Bardi, Bikaner Blanket and Marina Khadi of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer are well known products in the Woollen.
Other examples of cottage and small scale industries in Rajasthan are:
Manufacturing pulses from cereal crops like Gram, Moong, urad, Chavle etc. Juggery and Khandsari are prepared from sugarcane in Kota, Bundi, Bhilwara and Udaipur districts. Oil cakes industry of groundnut oil in Ajmer, season oil cakes industries in Kota.
In Rajasthan ornaments of brass and ivory are made. Utensils of brass and copper are made in many districts of Rajasthan. Cutting and polishing of many precious stones has become a major cottage industry. Johari Bazar in Jaipur is a world famous centre of silver and gold ornaments and precious gems.
In Rajasthan a variety of stones are found in abundance. Cutting, polishing and grinding of stones related industry has developed fast in Rajasthan, e.g. marble in Rajsamand, Nagaur, Udaipur, Ajmer, Banswara districts, red stone in Dhaulpur, Yellow stone in Jaisalmer, Kota stone in Kota and Granite in Jalore.
Beside above the electronic and electrical related industries, printing of greeting and invitation words by computers are working as cottage and small scale units.
Large Scale Industries:
1. Cotton Textile Industry
2. Cement Industry
3. Sugar Industry
Other Industries such as Engineering and Instruments Industries in Kota, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Ajmer and Alwar, Khetri, Copper Complex, Hindustan Zinc Ltd etc.
Due to expansion of basic facilities through Five Year Plans in Rajasthan like means of energy, transport, communication, banking etc. State has got identification at national level in the industrial view beside a great change in industrial scenario.
- Cotton textile: It is the oldest industry of Rajasthan. The first mill was established in 1889 at Beawar in Ajmer district. Bhilwara is known as the ‘Vastra Nagri’ (city of Garment) city of Government of Rajasthan and Manchester of Rajasthan. Tie and Dye and Bandhej of Jaipur (Sanganer, Bagru), Jodhpur, Churu, Bikaner and Nagaur are main centers for readymade clothes. Jaipur and Jodhpur are famous for stitched clothes.
- Cement industry: It is a main construction material. State’s first plant was opened in 1915 at Lakeri of Bundi district. The raw material for cement is limestone, gypsum and coal. Chittorgarh is an ideal district in availability of raw material.Sugar industry: It is an agricultural and seasonal industry. The first mill in Rajasthan was established in private sector at Bhupal Sagar in Chittorgarh district presently not is operation. The units at Sriganganagar and Keshoraipatan are not working currently.
- Other industries: Engineering and instruments industries Khetri Copper complex, Hindustan Zinc Limited SEZ, (Special Economic Zones) are established with an objective of speedy industrial development and means of employment. State’s first SEZ is established at Sitapura in Jaipur