Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 9 Contemporary Indian Society
Characteristics Of The Indian Society:
- Unity in diversity.
- Live and have mobility.
- Continuity with social change.
- Combination of modernity and traditional institutions and values.
Marriage, Family and Relationships:
In Indian society marriage is considered a sacred custom. There are many changes in its nature and form but at present marriage is converted into an agreement rather than a sacred custom. Trend of divorce is increasing in Hindu society also specially in urban areas. The causes behind these changes are impact of western education and culture reducing the value of joint families, urbanization and industrialization.
Impact of Urbanization on Joint Family System:
- Lifestyle of cities is increasing in trend.
- It has weakened the form of joint family system.
- A trend towards small and nuclear family is increasing mainly in the urban areas.
- Relationship bonds are breaking up.
- Traditional occupations are being replaced by the demand for new entrepreneurs.
- The educated people move from their original homelands in search of suitable Jobs.
- Trend has developed fast to take various decisions at personal level rather than depending upon the senior most member of the family. The urban people depend for any sort of moral, economic and social help on their neighbors, acquaintances and colleagues and friends rather than their relations and caste people.
Under the impact of modernity and institutionalization a big change is seen in our customs, traditions and festivals.
The system of sati pratha is eliminated or ended in our society. Though dowry system and child marriage is legally banned but still prevailed in the society. Extravagance and pomp and show are increasing in the marriage ceremonies but on the other hand trend of community marriages is increasing. Many evil systems of the society are ended. The methods of rites and rituals are changing under the pressure of market and modernity.
Impact of education, (commercialisation) and consumerisation:
Education has widened the mentality of the people. People have become materialistic due to the rise of industrialization and the middle class. Our social values have been changed.
Logical thinking has increased Individual’s equality and importance of legal thinking. Women are gaining economic liberty by getting education and jobs. Commercialisation is expanding, for example social and family tasks are conducted by the ‘marriage bureaus’. It was earlier as task of family to teach good behaviour and personality development. People had never thought of commercialisation of water, sold as water bottles even in villages.
Due to commercialisation consumerism is increasing. In consumerism how do you decorate your house, dress yourself, what type of entertainment you like, how you organize marriage ceremony, which model of a commodity you are using, are all associated with our lifestyle.
All these are linked with the economic status and pride of the people in the society. Purchasing habits of people are increasing day by day that became a trend in the market and a part of this life. Culture has also become the part of market. The influence of commercialisation is clearly seen on glory of Indian Culture – Yoga, Ayurveda and Pushkar fair, etc.
The religion based on caste system is ending but caste is strengthening as a social institution. Casteism is increased in the form of politics. Caste based organisations have been strengthened universal adult franchise. Democratic electoral system has given political power to those castes, whose number is very large. These castes are playing a decision making role in political system.
Inter-caste marriages are increasing. Educated class gives importance to individual and ability. Now an individual can do and change his profession though he was born in a particular caste, there are no social, traditional or caste based laws that restrict him. Rich or poor is not related to or confined to caste. Restriction on intercaste dines are weakening.
Modern activities and policies have influenced tribal culture, society and economic system. As far reservation and other reserved castes and classes is concerned. Among them also one educated powerful middle class has emerged. Demand of reservation is increasing and it has taken political form.
Increasing Urbanization and Urban Lifestyle:
As compared to 11% in the 20th century, now 31.16% population lives in the urban areas in the 21st century. The main reason behind it is that social and economic importance of agriculture based rural lifestyle is decreasing. While on the other hand influence of industrial based urban lifestyle is increasing. The contribution of agriculture in GDP was more than half, it has decreased up to one fourth. A large number of rural people migrate to nearby city for jobs as opportunities of earning cash in villages are less.
Rural people have become familiar with facilities and trend of urban life through means of communication like radio, television and newspapers. They are influenced by the lifestyle of urban people. The structure of society of India has become urban rather than rural.
Literacy based Disparities:
The literates are more awakened and their participation increases in the cultural and economic welfare works. In India diversity is found in different social groups related to literacy.
In India literacy rate among males is 82.14% and among females it is 65.48%. In Rajasthan 79.02% males and 52.10% females are literate. The scheduled caste and the scheduled tribe are quite backward in literacy.
Declining Sex- Ratio:
Presently India is one of the most young countries as about 60.29% of the total population of India comprise working class. As per 2011 population census sex ratio in India is 943 per 1000 males, and in Rajasthan it is 928.
Such situation shows the discrimination towards female though the reason responsible for such situation is female infanticide. Laws are implemented to check and control it. It is declared as a punishable offence. The other effort are being done in this direction by launching campaign such as ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ scheme, but for this there is a need of change in mentality of society. This was an analysis of contemporary attitude of Indian society. Indian culture will survive among westernization and modernization systems. We will go ahead with the feelings of pride for our glorious past, reality of present and ambitions for future.