Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 1 Bharat and Science
- We are living in an era of science. Today there is no work which can’t be done by the help of science. Progress of the country and the society depends upon the progress of science. Modern researches and inventions have changed our way of life. Man is not satisfied only with motor vehicles, radio, aeroplanes, computers, video etc., so he has made the preparations for space travel. In future, human beings will be able to reach and return back from the moon and other planets. Science has done many wonderful works. Many new things are seen today due to science.
- Science is not an individualistic effort. It is the effect made by many people. Science is a medium which helps to understand rules and means of nature in a suitable way. Study of Science is based on observation, experimentation and drawing conclusions.
Definition of Science
Word Science is derived from the Latin word Scientia,which means to know. A systematic knowledge of nature verified by experiments is called Science.
Objectives of Science
The main objectives of science are:
- To understand the functional role of nature and explain it in a complete form.
- To provide knowledge of the laws of nature after verifying them, by experiments.
- To control nature by the applications of results of experiments performed and through keen observation.
- To improve and make easier human life by the use of available resources of nature and solving the problems.
- To eradicate superstitions (false notions) prevailing in the society.
Branches of Science
Broadly main divisions of science are:
- Social Science: It includes Political Science, Civics and Sociology in which human relationships are studied.
- Abstract Science: It includes Mathematics and Statistics.
- Natural Science: It covers the study of nature which comprise of plants, animals, other living organisms and the non-living components interacting with these life forms.
- Physical Science: It includes the study of non-living things and comprise of Chemistry, Physics, Geology, Astronomy and Mathematical Sciences.
- Life Science: It includes the study of all living beings and cover biology.
Examples: Medical Science, Botany and Zoology.
To study science in a simpler way, it is divided into more than 100 branches.
Following branches has special contribution in development of humanity:
- Genetic Engineering
- Computer Science
- Information Technology
- Scientific Method: Science is based upon productive type of methodology called scientific method. A scientist works in different process finally leading to the facts
It includes sequence of following steps
- Identification of problem
- Formulation of hypothesis
- Testing or experimenting the hypothesis.
- Data collection
- Developing a theory
- Modification in theory
- Generalised the principle or law
- Tradition of Science in India: The history of science is related to the history of man. There are many evidences which prove the development of science in India before 3000 B.C. In Indian sub-continent records of early, middle and late stone ages are available. During this period, humans started domestication of animals, cultivation of plants, agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Before 2000 B.C there are many evidences found, which shows the scientific thinking of Aryas. They believe in astronomy. They also knew the Mathematics and Geometry. Their base of Panchang was motion of sun and moon. They also know about Nakshatras.
- Due to changes in season the micro bacteria reproduce which is the main cause of illness.The indigenous system of Indian medicine is known as Ayurveda. It is the Science of longevity based on the ideas from doctrines of Charaka Samhita. Indian Ayurved System was adopted by Arab, Greece and Romans. Metallurgical Science is very old. There is description about seven metals- silver, gold, copper, iron, tin, lead and mercury in ancient Sanskrit Sahitya included Rigveda, Yajurveda and Atharveda. We can say that the origin of chemistry in India is thousands year before Christ. .
- About 400 B.C Nalanda, Varanasi and Taxila are the famous colleges about 600 B.C. Susruta was a surgeon who studied human anatomy and is considered father of plastic surgery. He performed a surgery of nose. His book Susruta Samhita was translated in Arabi. Charak was the first physician who gave the concept of immunity, metabolism and digestion. He described occurrence of three doshas in human body. When balance of these dosha disturbed it causes illness. To restore the balance he prescribed the treatment. 500 years before Christ Kanad put hypothesis of atom in his book Vaiseshik Sutra. In 200 B.C Patanjali gave knowledge about Chakras.
- Yama: It symbolises self discipline. There are five Yama, i.e., Non-violence, Satya, Astay, Brahmacharya and Aprigrah.
- Niyama: There are five rules:
- Purity of mind and body,
- Self evaluation
- Devotion or complete surrender to God
- Rigorous penance.
- Asana (Yogic postures)
- Pranayama (Regulated breath)
- Pratyahara (Sense detachment)
- Dharama (Inner abstraction)
- Dhayana (Meditation)
- Samadhi (State of bliss) All these elements of eight fold path are the universal commandants for all human beings. In fact, Yoga is not only the physical concept but more than that, it controls the mind, body and the entire human actions and reactions.
Contribution of India in the development of Science
Modem age is an era of science. The achievements of Science are possible due to the continuous efforts and research of scientists. Aryabhatta was the first scientist who told that the earth is spherical and it rotates on its axis by which day and night formed. Brahmagupta was the first Mathematician who gave the law of working with Zero. Raman effect was given by Chandra Shekar Venkataraman.
He passed the monochromatic light rays of mercury through some transparent substance and obtained spectrum on an ordinary spectrograph. He saw new lines in spectrum and named them Raman Lines. He declared Raman effect in a meeting of scientists on 16th March, 1926. He was awarded Noble prize of Physics in 1930. Raman effect helped in understanding the molecular structure of a substance. Much research work was done on Raman effect after Laser rays.
Homi Jehangir Bhabha Discovered Meson
- First atomic reactor Apsara was started in Trombay under the leadership of Dr. Bhabha. Thorium and Uranium-235 for nuclear fuel was obtained from sea shore of Kerala. Cirus Nuclear reactor was established with the help of Canada. Sir J.C.Bose showed that plants and trees are sensitive like other living beings and they are affected by cold, hot, light, sound and other stimulants. He studied the sensitive effect of manures on plants, wireless and light on plants.
- A comet was named Bappu-Boak-New Quark on the name of first Indian astronomer M.K. Venu Bappu. The inventor of Indian chemical industry, Prafull Chandra Roy discovered Mercurous nitrate in 1896.
- Born on 14th November in the year 1891 at Behra in Saharanpur District of West Punjab, Birbal was the third son of Ishwar Devi and Prof. Ruchi Ram Sahni. Birbal Sahni received his education at the Government College University of Lahore and later from Punjab University. He attended the Emmanuel College at Cambridge in the year 1914. And after this, he pursued further studies under Prof. A.C Seward and was given the D.Sc. degree from London University in the year 1919. Birbal Sahni then came back to his native country India, to work as the professor of Botany at the highly esteemed Banaras Hindu University at the holy city of Varanasi.
- Birbal Sahni, whose fabulous research work was honored by the University of Cambridge that decided to present him with the degree of Sc.D in the year 1929. He holds the credit of establishing the Paleobotanical Society that went on to set up the Institute of Paleobotany on 10th September 1946. Professor Sahni was respected by all academicians and scholars of his time both in India and abroad. He was appointed the Fellow of Royal Society of London in the year 1936, which is the biggest British scientific honor. For the first time since its inception, this award was given to an Indian botanist.
Birbal Sahni was a renowned paleobotanist and geologist of India. He is credited for setting up the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany at Lucknow in the state of Uttar Pradesh. In the year 1929, he received the degree of Sc.D from the University of Cambridge. He was also appointed the Fellow of the Royal Society of London in the year 1936, which is the biggest British scientific honor. Birbal Sahni was a renowned paleobotanist of India, who studied the fossils of the Indian subcontinent.
Also a great geologist, Sahni is credited for establishing the Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany at Lucknow in the state of Uttar Pradesh. He performed research on age of South Indian Plateau and on origin of Himalayas.
- Meghnad Saha was born on 6th October 1893 in a small village near Dhaka. His father had a big’family of 10 persons and his economic condition was very poor. He studied in a Dacca school. He was turned out from school because he boycott the welcome of the governor of Bengal and his scholarship was stopped.
- He passed High School examination in first division privately, he got admission in Presidency College of Calcutta. Teachers like Prof. Prafulla Chandra Ray and Jagdish Chandra Bose taught him. He passed M.Sc from Presidency College in 1915. He became lecturer in Science College of Calcutta. Prof. C.V. Raman became the principal. He became busy in the research work under the guidance of C.V. Raman.
- He submitted a research paper on a new law in electric action. So, he was granted the degree of D.Sc. He thoroughly studies Astrophysics. He researched on selective Radiation pressure and its application to Astrophysics. Many great scientists such as Prof. Fowler, Lord Rutherford etc. were affected. He became Prof, in Science College after returning from England in 1921. He become Prof, of Physics in Prayag University, Allahabad in 1923. He was made Fellow of Royal Society of England.
- Why seven colours are seen in sunlight? What are the similarities between the light of other stars and sun light? Such type of questions came to the mind of young scientist Meghnad Saha while teaching students in Science College of Calcutta University. He wrote several research papers about the light of the sun and stars. He gave Ionisation formula. On the basis of which astrologers studied the temperature of the sun and stars, the intensity of their light, their size, etc. He established National Academy of Sciences for preparing scientists, Indian Physical Society and National Institute of Science of India. Hq again became professor in Calcutta University in 1938. He organised the Indian Institute of Nuclear Physics.
Professor Satyendra Nath Bose:
Satyendra Nath Bose was born on January 1st 1894. His father was a railway officer. He was a brilliant student. He had a special interest in Mathematics. He passed M.Sc in Physics in first division and first position in the university. He was appointed as a professor in Dacca University. He was promoted as reader of Physics in the same university.
He sent a research paper related to malt equation to Albert Einstein, who translated the research paper into German language and got published in a magazine named Zeit for Physik. In this research, a new kind of statistics theory called Bose Einstein Statistics was formulated. The particles used in this statistics were named after his name. He did an important research on heat radiations, in 1924. He also researched with Madam Curie.
He became professor of Physics in Science College of Calcutta in 1945. He became Chancellor of Vishva Bharti after retirement. He was a Fellow of Royal Society. He was made National Professor by Government of India. The President of India gave him the title of Padma Vibhushan in 1959. He make an eye drop from Sulphonamide molecule. He is also the member of Rajya Sabha.
Bhaskaracharya I was born in village Bori, Distt-Probhani at Maharashtra. Bhaskara I was an Indian mathematician of the 7th century, who probably lived between 600-680 B.C. He was most likely the first to use a circle for the zero in the Hindu-Arabic decimal system. While commenting on Aryabhatta’s work, he evaluated an extraordinary rational approximation of the sine function.
He is considered to be the follower of Aryabhatta and one of the most renowned scholars of Aryabhatta’s astronomical school. Bhaskara I wrote two treatises, the Mahabhaskariya and the Laghubhaskariya. He also wrote commentaries on the work of Aryabhatta entitled Aryabhattiyabhasya. The Mahabhaskariya comprises of eight chapters dealing with mathematical astronomy. Bhaskara I suggested a formula which was astonishingly an accurate value of sine. Bhaskara I wrote the Aryabhattiyabhasya in 629, which is a commentary on the Aryabhattiya written by Aryabhatta. Bhaskara I commented only on 33 verses of for many centuries, the approximate value of n was considered as 3.14. But Bhaskara I did not accept this value and believed that it has an irrational value which later proved to be true.
Some of the contributions of Bhaskara I to mathematics are: Numbers and Symbolism, the categorization of mathematics, the names and solution of the first degree equations, quadratic equations, cubic equations and equations which have more than one unknown value, symbolic algebra, the algorithm method to solve linear indeterminate equations which was later suggested by Euclid, and formulated certain tables for solving equations that occurred in astronomy.
In ancient India there were many famous and leading scientists, astrologers and mathematicians who were famous for their outstanding achievements in the world.
Scientific Achievements of India
The noble prize winners in India are:
- Shri Chandra Shekhar Venkataraman -1930
- Shri Har Govind Khurana -1968
- Shri Subramaniam Chandrashekhar – 1983
- Shri V. Ramakrishnan – 2009
- India developed and discovered the products like Button, Calica, Crescograph, Crucibel, Steel, Shampoo, Dye, Testube Baby etc. India performed its first atomic test at Pokharan in 1974 and second atomic test at Khatolai in 1998.
- Aryabhatta, the name given to the satellite, was an indigenously designed space-worthy satellite that set up tracking and transmitting systems in the orbital sphere. U.R. Rao, the chairman of ISRO at the time was the man behind the launch in 1975 that put India on the world map in terms of space research. Mangalyaan, or Mars- Craft, this program by our very own space research organisation has been lauded as one of the most low cost but high functioning space missions till date. We can now proudly claim to be the only nation to reach Mars orbit on its first attempt.
- This space probe was successfully inserted into the lunar orbit in 2008, and pushed India’s space program into the world map, placing us side by side with NASA and the European Space Agency. Chandrayaan’s greatest achievement was the discovery of the widespread presence of water molecules in the lunar soil.
- India’s self sustaining missile developing programme is called Brahmos. Dr. Pillai developed the concept of the joint venture, Brahmos, which makes India one of the few countries to develop it is own ballistic missiles as well as produce and supply missiles in other key areas of the world. The onset of Brahmos led to the negation of the absolute power held by western countries.
- UNO started to celebrate World Yoga Day on 21st June. We are proud of Indian scientists for their discoveries and inventions in different field of Science.