Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 10 Local Administration
- It is that administration of local level where administration is run by those institutions which are elected by the people and they have been given certain rights and responsibilities to fulfill the needs of local people under the control of central-state government.
- The base of local administration is that local people can know and understand their needs and problems the best and can solve them far better. Decentralized system to let the local people solve their problems, formulate and implement welfare plans for the local areas i.e., Rural or urban.
- Rural local self-governing Institution includes Gram Panchayat, Gram Sabha, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad. An urban local self-governing institution include, Municipality and Municipal Corporation.
- There is a trend of local self-administration in India.
- The word ‘Panchayat’ indicates the group of five people by which numerous rural people were governed. In ancient India beside monarchy system, Republic system was also prevailed. Under this system, the king was elected by the people.
- India’s early period of history indicates the facts of presence of small Janapadas like, Kashi, Kosala, Anga, Kamboja, Kuru, Magadha, Matsya, Vats, Shivi, Jangal Pradesh, etc.
Local Administration in Vedic period
- In Rigveda, sabha and samiti two types of institutions are mentioned.
- According to Shanti parv of Mahabharata, for a good administration, state was divided into many units like one, ten, twenty, hundred, thousand villages in separate units.
- Village (Grama) was the smallest unit which was managed by a Gramik Pradhan. The officer of the ten, twenty, hundred, thousand villages was known as Dashap, Vishpati, Shatpal and Sahastrapati.
- Planned arrangement of roads and drainage system of Indus Valley Civilization proves that local administration of those times had a proper management for transport and drainage system.
Kautilya in his book Arthashastra, favoured the local self-administration for decentralisation of power. He explained co-ordination between local officer and Gope (Sarpanch) i.e. the ruler officer to run the local self-administration smoothly. The best example of local administration in ancient period is found in Chola dynasty of South India. Nadu Parishads worked in villages during Chola dynasty.
Hence, in ancient India from vedic age to Mahabharata, from Arthashastra to Indus valley civilisation period, from north India to south India, Democratic, Decentralization of power and Republican system were main organs of local self-administration.
Development of local self-administration in Rajasthan
- Before present Rajasthan, in the Riyasats of Rajasthan e.g., Bikaner (1929), Jaipur (1938), Sirohi (1943), Bharatpur (1944) and Karauli (1949) Panchayati Raj laws were made.
- With the establishment of Panchayati Raj, Rajasthan became pioneer. It first organised attempt in 1948 with Panchayati Raj ordinance by Samyukta Rajasthan Rajya. In 1949 after the formation of Rajasthan, a separate Panchayat Department was established under the Panchayat officer.
- In 1953, the Rajasthan Panchayat Act was set up. Rajasthan Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad Act, 1959 was introduced. On 2 Oct., 1959, Pt. Nehru at Nagaur inaugurated three-tier system, and according to him it was a historical step. Hence, Rajasthan became the first state which implemented three-tier system. According to73rd and 74th amendments, 1992 gave constitutional status to Rajasthan. At present for Urban local self-administration Rajasthan Nagar Palika Act, 2009 is in enforcement.
Rural Local Self-Administration
- Gram Sabha (Legislature) under Rajasthan Panchayat Raj Act, 1994 as given in Ariticle 3. One Gram Sabha for each village.
- Composition: Members of Panchayat Samiti (18 years old and enrolled as voter in the voter list).
- Meetings: Twice a year (i) in first three months and (ii) in last three months by ordinance of 2000, four meetings 26 Jan., 1st May, 15th August and 2nd Oct., or if asked by 1/3rds members.
- In first meeting, following points would be discussed:
- Details of previous financial year budget.
- Plans for financial and physical development to be done for next year.
- In second meeting following points would be discussed:
- Detail of expenditure during the year.
- Presentation of solution related to changes to be done in plans decided in the first meeting.
- Budget of Gram Panchayat and bill on taxes to be implemented on the notification of more than 1/10th of the total members of Gram Sabha or Panchayat Samiti or Zila Parishad or State Government. The meeting of the Gram Sabha would be called within 15 days.
- Development officer of the concerned Panchayat Samiti or a person recommended by him/ her is a part of all meetings of the Gram Sabha. Secretary of the Panchayat reads in front of all at the end of the meeting after by the signing of all its members. According to Bill, any promise related to any subject made responsible would be passed only by the majority of
- the present members who will cast their vote. Gram Panchayat is accountable to the Gram Sabha for its activities.
- Meetings: Twice a year (i) in first three months and (ii) in last three months by ordinance, 2000, four meetings 26 Jan., 1st May, 15th August and 2nd October, or if asked by 1 /3rd members.
- Quorum: 1/10 of total members. Decision by majority of the present and voting.
- According to notification of State Government, every Panchayat Samiti is formed from a village or group of villages. It is also called the executive body of Gram Sabha. Every Gram Panchayat works as a Nigamit Nikaya which would have eternal right and common seal.
- Composition: Panches, Sarpanch and Deputy Sarpanch; Sarpanch and Panch are elected by the voters of the ward, Sarpanch by voters of the Panchayat area and Deputy Sarpanch by Panches from among themselves.
- Qualifications for Panch and Deputy Sarpanch: A citizen of India, at least 21 years of age name registered as a voter in Panchayat area. Rajasthan has about 9188 Gram Panchayats.
Formation of Wards for Elections
- According to the Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act 1994, the smallest unit of rural local self-administration, Panchayat area to be fixed by the State Government notification. One Sarpanch, nine wards and Panch for population of 3,000 and then 2-2 wards for next 1000 and part thereof.
- Elections: Under the supervision of Election Commission, reservation for schedule castes, schedule tribes, backward classes, women class-wise is 50%. Decision for reserved seats is based on lottery system before elections.
- If needed, panchayat can be called as many meetings, otherwise at least one meeting in 15 days is must.
- Quorum: 1 /3rd of the total members.
- Supervision: Basically Sarpanch and in his absence Deputy Sarpanch.
- Decision: It is taken by the majority of present members. If there would be tie, Sarpanch and Deputy Sarpanch can give his vote for final decision. Sarpanch and Dy. Sarpanch by 2/3rds elected Panches cannot be removed before 2 years.
Function of Gram Panchayat
- Ordinary Functions: According to first list of 1994, Rajasthan Panchayat Act, annual development plans, annual budget, help in natural calamities, preparing statistics and demolition of encroached property.
- Administrative Functions: Data collection for buildings, Census programme to enhance agricultural production, financial
- arrangement for implementing development schemes, right use of government help, survey, registration of birth-death and marriage, and preparing Panchayat report.
- Other functions:
- Development of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry and fisheries in villages.
- Cattle breeding and Dairy development and development of sterile land, etc.
- Maintenance of water resources, promotion of khadi and cottage industries, maintenance of road, drains, parks, electricity, primary schools, libraries, village cleaniness, health centres poverty alleviation plans, primary and adult ducation programmes, etc.
- The middle level of the three-tier system of Panchayati Raj is called Panchayat Samiti. All institution of Panchayati Raj System in Rajasthan including Panchayat Samiti have tenure of 5 years. At present, about 295 Panchayat Samities are actively working.
- According to Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act 1994, State Government can declare any internal local part of a district in form of Khand (Block), there would be a Panchayat Samiti for that Khand (Block). Every Panchayat Samiti would be a Nigamit Nikaya (autonomous) which would have an eternal right and common seal.
- It comprises of elected members like Pradhan, Deputy Pradhan and ex-Officio members. Development officer and other workers are included in its functioning.
- From every electoral area one representative is elected by the voters through Universal Adult Franchise. In this process, Pradhan and Deputy Pradhan are elected by the elected members from among them. They also have right, rfemove them by no-confidence motion through 3/4th majority.
- It conducts minimum one meeting in a month. For the Quoram of meeting presence of 1/3 members is fixed. All questions should be decided by the majority of present voter members. Functioning of the meeting is written in the book.
Each Panchayat Samiti has following members
- All directly elected members by the voters of the electoral area.
- All MLAs representing from the area of Panchayat Samiti.
- All Sarpanchs of the Gram Panchayats of the area of Panchayat Samiti.
- Panchayat Samiti area with one lakh population will have 15 electoral constituencies, and then 2-2 for every 15000 or fraction thereof.
- Reservation of seats for STs, SCs, OBCs, and women are allotted according to serial of cycle one by one.
- The responsibility of Panchayati Raj election is given to the State Election Commission.
Functions of Panchayat Samiti
In the second list of the Act, ordinary functions of a Panchayat Samiti are mentioned. They are:
- All functions under Panchayat Act, preparation of annual report of schemes approved by state government and Zila Parishad, reviewing annual plans of all panchayats, performing functions deputed by Zila Parishad, preparing annual budget of Panchayat Samiti, helping in natural calamities and instructing panchayats of the area.
- Agricultural production and expansion of related programmes.
- Small irrigation and water management functions.
- Poverty-alleviation functions as integrated rural development programme, rural youth self-employment training, maru vikas programme, etc.
- Cattle breeding, dairy, poultry and fisheries related functions.
- Primary education functions.
- Other functions as promotion of khadi, rural and cottage industry, provision of drinking water, development of sterile land, construction of public buildings, roads, bridges, etc., health and family welfare, and welfare programmes for handicapped people, helpless, widows, other weaker sections of society, and victims of natural calamities.
- It is the top most level of rural local self-government or Panchayati Raj system. Every district has one Zila Parishad. The tenure of members of Zila Parishad is 5 years. It works as a link between Panchayat Samiti, Gram Panchayats and State government.
- Minimum one meeting in 3 months, functions of every meeting are entered in a Karyavrita pustak by the Karyapalak Adhikari.
- It is organized by the following four types of members:
- Directly elected members by the concerning electoral area as (wards)
- Elected MPs and MLAs from the area of Zila Parishad.
- Elected and enrolled members of the Rajya Sabha from the area of the Zila Parishad.
- All Pradhans of all Panchayat Samities of Zila Parishad area.
- As per Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act, 1994, 17 members for the rural population of 4 lakhs, then 2 for one lakh and 2 for fraction thereof. Reservation of seats for SCs, STs, OBCs and women would be according to rules and as per their turn.
- From every electoral area of the Zila Parishad, voters of that area directly elects one representative. Then elected members themselves elect the Zila Pramukh and Up-Zila Pramukh from among them. They also have right to dismiss Zila Pramukh and Up-Zila Pramukh by 3/4th majority through non confidence motion.
- An Executive Officer, Assistant Engineer, Accounts Officer and other employees also perform functions in the form of Zila Parishad Administrative System. The responsibility of the election of Zila Parishad is of State Election Commission.
- Every Zila Parishad can form 5 permanent samities for each subject mentioned in the Panchayati Raj Act. For other subjects samities can be formed when needed-State Government can also organise 5 members active samiti for each Zila Parishad, which would supervise working and development plans of Zila Parishad.
Functions of Zila Parishad (Schedule III of the 1994 Panchayati Raj Act)
- Economic development of district, preparing plan for social security.
- To co-ordinate the development activities of the Panchayat Samities, to co-ordinate and integrate the development activities between Village Panchayats and Panchayat Samities.
- Agriculture related programmes like-increase in agriculture production, to encourage use of high technology, arrangement of agricuture fairs, etc.
- Conservation of underground water, small irrigation plans up to 2500 acres land water divide development plan, horticulture, etc.
- Publication of datas related to activities of Panchayat Samities and Zila Parishad.
- Encouragement to rural electrification.
- For soil conservation and social forestry development plans, improvement of Barren land and plantation.
- Arrangement of veterinary hospitals, efforts for epidemics, cattle breeding, dairy development, poultry farming, fisheries, etc.
- Domestic and cottage industries development plan, recognition of skilled labour, training programmes for weavers, fulfilment of raw material.
- Construction of rural roads, bridges and their maintenance.
- Establishment of community centres, primary health centres, etc. vaccination programmes, family welfare and mother and child care programmes.
- To purchase books, to provide scholarships to SCs, STs, OBCs children, expansion of grants and education extension programmes.
- Programmes for poverty alleviation and their implementation, social reforms related activities.
- Establishment of primary school, Adult education and libraries, etc.
Urban Local (Self-Administration)
Urban self-administration, 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 passed by the Parliament and implemnted on 1st June 1993 gave constitution status to Urban self-administration in the whole country. On 9th August 1994, self-Administration Department of Rajasthan also implemented this Act after reforming the Act of 1959. At present, urban self-administration are working according to Act 2009. At present, 7 Nagar Nigams, 34 Nagar Parishads and 146 municipalities are working in Rajasthan.
Nagar Nigam or Municipal Corporation
- It is the top most organ. According to 74th constitutional amendment, in cities with more than 5 lakh population
- (Mahanagar), Nagar Nigams are established. At present in all headquarters of 7 zones of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kota, Ajmer, Bikaner, Udaipur and Bharatpur, Nagar Nigams are established. In view of organization, Jaipur Nagar Nigam is the largest city is an elected independent body which has eternal right and common seal. It can file a suit in the name of Nigamit. Its working period (tenure) is of 5 years.
- Internal Composition or Organization includes Parishqd (Council), Mayor (Mahapaur), Deputy Mayor (Up-Mahapaur).
- Chief Executive Officer, Nigam Commissioner, and Samities are included. State Government divides the Nagar Nigam on the basis of population into electoral wards.
- Reservation of seats for SCs, STS, OBCs and women as per rules. From each ward one candidate is directly elected by the people on the basis of Adult Franchise through secret ballot system.
- In Rajasthan after the 74th constitutional amendment; still five elections are held.
- Mayor is called the Chairman and Dy. Mayor is called Dy. Chairman. They are selected by the elected members for 5 years.
- Seats for the Mayor and Dy. Mayor are also reserved.
- Mayor is the first citizen of the city. His seat gets vacated due to death, resignation or dismiss by the no-confidence motion.
- The post can vacate before time. In such condition, members elect the Mayor or Dy. Mayor among themselves for the rest of the period.
Functions of Mayor
- He presides over the meetings of Nagar Nigam.
- He can ask to give any information related to Nagar Nigam from Chief Executive Officer.
- In the absence of him, all functions are performed by the Dy. Mayor.
- Chief Executive Officer and Commissioners are appointed by the State Government to help.
- Chief Executive Officer can take part in the meetings of Parishad and permanent samities. Documents, Accounts and Budget are planned under his supervision. He is responsible, for the implementation of policies, rules, sub-rules formed by the Parishad. All officers and workers of a Nagar Nigam work under his administration and control. To run the work of a Nagar Nigam smoothly, there is a provision of formation of the different samities in the Act.
Organization of the Executive Body
- Mayor (Mahapaur)
- Deputy Mayor (Up-Mahapaur)
- Leader of opposition party in the council.
- 7 members elected by the Parishad, out of which 2 women and chief executive officer would be the secretary.
- Beside these, finance committee, health and hygiene committee, building and construction committee, rules and sublegal committee, slums reform committee, crime, removal and agreement committee, etc. are organized. More committees can be established as per need.
Functions of Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation)
Generally, it does the three types of functions
- Compulsory functions Discretionary functions
- Special functions.
- It has one elected council. It is divided into wards. According to population, elected member from the ward is called Parishad.
- The number of wards is fixed from time to time by issuing notices.
- Parihads are elected directly by the people through adult franchise by secret ballot. Elected members of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly from that area are also the members of Parishad.
- Provision for reservation are implemented for all places as per Nagar Nigam rules. City Council can form some committees which can be permanent or temporary.
- Some functions as alleviation of poverty, promotion of cultural and educational programmes, protection of interests of the old, handicapped, helpless, etc, management of veterinary homes, butcher houses, parking places, bus stands, etc.
- In our country, population has taken as base for the organization of all institutions in states related to urban local self-administration. In Rajasthan, also one municipality for small cities or towns having population less than one lakh (1,00,000) is suggested.
- The cities which are developed from villages are called Sankraman period region, for these regions establishment of Nagar Panchayat was suggested by the 74th Constitutional Amendment, but Rajasthan Government has organized Nagar Palika (Second, Third and Fourth Grade) in place of Nagar Panchayat. At present, their number is 13,58 and 75. Therefore, in Rajasthan at present approximately 146 Nagar Palikas are working.
- The electoral area of Nagar Palika is divided into wards. On the basis of population for election, the number of ward is fixed from time-to-time by issuing notice by the State Government.
- Voters enrolled in the voter list of minimum 18 years age can cast their votes through secret ballot system to elect the member. Seats for SCs, STs and OBCs are reserved in proportion to their population and for women according to rules serially as cycle based. Reserved seats are decided by the lottery system before election. People belonging to reserved class can fight elections from the general seat also. For ordinary function minimum one meeting of Nagar Parishad in 2 months is must.
President and Vice President of Municipality
Members of Nagar Palika Board elect one president and one vice president from among themselves. Under the supervision of president, Nagar Palika Board forms the policies of Nagar administration, which are implemented by the executive officer with the help of other officials.
The functions and powers of president and vice president of Nagar palika is same as Nagar Parishad. Seats for the SCs, STs, OBCs and women candidates of the post of President and Vice President of the Nagar Palika are reserved and the number of seats is decided by the state government from time to time.
Following Committees are formed for the smooth functioning of the Nagar Palika:
- Legal Samiti
- Finance Samiti
- Health and Cleanliness Samiti for slums
- Public Transport Samiti
- Rules and Regulations Samiti
- Crime and their eradication Committee
- Agreement Committee, etc.
Powers and Functions of Nagar Palika under 1994 Act
- Development of cities and towns
- Regulation of buildings and land
- Public health, hygiene and cleanliness
- Electrification, Parking, Public facilities, etc.
- Economic and social development
- Alleviation of poverty
- Uplift of slum areas
- Construction and Maintenance of roads and flyovers
- Registration of birth and death
- Fire Brigade services
- Forest and environment conservation, protection of handicapped and mentally challenged, distribution of water for domestic, industrial and commercial purpose, construction and maintenance of parks, gardens, playgrounds, etc.
- All functions done by the all urban self-local administration according to 74th constitutional amendment are illustrated in the 12th list of the Constitution serially.
- The commanding officer of army is the Chairman of the Cantonment Board. The tenure of elected members of the Cantonment Board is of 5 years and for nominated members till they are on the seat.Most of the functions of Cantonment Board is like Nagar Palika as:
- Electrification in local area
- Cleanliness, health and hygiene, etc. for functioning, financial resources as taxes imposed on people or as grant in aid from central government. The elected members of the board are elected by the voters of the Cantonment area directly on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise through secret ballot. The chairman chairs the board, solves local problems. He has executive powers and takes care of the safety of the area.
The praiseworthy efforts of local self-administration in Rajasthan
- If reserved seat for SCs, STs, OBCs and women is removed, then provision is given to make president of the same class.
- There is a ban to contest election on that person who is involved in court case for any crime and charges are under trial or punished for 5 years in jail.
- Ward Sabha is established for the increasing participation of rural people in rural development.
- There is a ban on contesting election on person who has more than two children.
- Rajasthan Rural Development State Service Organization is formed, by which selected officers are linked with panchayati raj development process and made responsible for it.
- The minimum qualification for a person who is taking part in contesting election of Panchayati Raj institutions is decided as follow:
- Members of Zila Parishad and Panchayat Samiti should have passed higher secondary or class 10.
- Sarpanch of Panchayat of Schedule Caste area should have passed class 5.
- Sarpanch of other Panchayats should be pass class 8.
- Contestants contesting the elections should have working toilet in their house compulsorily.
- Hence, contestants for elections of Nagar Nikaya should have the minimum qualification and toilets in the home is made compulsory for them.
- 1948 : Panchayati Raj system was introduced by joint Rajasthan
- 1949 : A separate Panchayat department was formed under the supervision of control of Chief Panchayat Officer
- 1954 : Rajasthan Panchayat Act, 1953 was introduced
- 1959 : Three-tier Panchayati Raj system was by Pt. Nehru at Baghdore village in Nagaur district. Rajasthan Municipal Act,
- 1959 was introduced for local self-government in Rajasthan’s urban areas.
- 1994 : Self-Administration Department of Rajasthan introduced Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act of 1994 and by amending Rajasthan Municipal Act 1959, law format was provided to local self-government
- Sept. 2006 : A law was introduced in which all cantonments are under control.
Universal Adult Franchise: Every adult citizen in the country who is 18 years or above has the right to vote in election without any discrimination over caste, sex, religion, community or place of birth.
Panches: Members of Panchayat.
Sarpanch: Pradhan of Panchayat.
Panchayat: It was a system of five people selected by local people to solve rural issues. Now, members of Panchayat may vary.
Gram Panchayat: Also called Gram Sabha. According to the Rajasthan government, there is a Gram Panchayat in each panchayat circle, made from a village or group of villages.
Ward: Territorial Constituency of local self-goverment.
Ward Panch: A person elected directly by the people of each ward of Gram Panthayat.
Zila Parishad: An apex body of three-tier system of Panchayat Raj.