Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 11 Foreign Relations
- Foreign policy of a nation reflects systematic statements of national interests, along with the interplay of domestic and external factors.
India’s Foreign Policy
- In the past Buddha, Mahavira, King Ashoka and later Vivekananda preached the way of humanity by following the path of these best values of life.
- Since Independence still India has always tried to make friendship bridge with other nations. It has always put the thinking on International issues clearly and always favored the concept of freedom and self-decision of other nations. Beside it has favored the international organization for co-existence and welfare. India has clearly presented its view in oppose of communalism. Hence, India had cleared her objectives and ideals of foreign policy before independence.
- In Indian foreign policy, a great importance is given to the principles of peace, friendship and equality. India has formulated its foreign policy firmly on the basis of co-operation, kindness, for all.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was the ‘Chief Architect of India’s Foreign Policy’ with the objectives of preserving sovereignty of India, protection of territorial integrity and promotion of rapid economic development. Hence, India adopted Non-alignment to stay away from any military bloc.
- As the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister, Pt. Nehru exercised profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.
- The three significant objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to preserve the hard-earned
- sovereignty, protect territorial integrity and promote rapid economic development. He wished to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non-alignment.
- India’s foreign policy has three basic pillars:
Main Characteristics of India’s Foreign Policy
- It means not to join either of the military alliances which had emerged in the world after the Second World War. One was led by the Soviet Union and the other by the United States of America. India adopted the policy of Non-alignment i.e. to decide the international matters on the basis of justice and rationality, rather than neutrality, which means to remain indifferent to world problems.
- Under this policy, a nation by keeping a balanced relations can achieve the target of economic development through friendship and national interest. As a newly independent nation, India showed a new path in the form of this policy to other nations. By following this policy, they opened the directions of development beside to take decision on the basis of right and wrong, a third platform took birth.
- To give non-alignment as a form of movement, there was a great role played by India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, the President of Yugoslavia Marshal Tito, the President of Egypt Nasser and the President of Indonesia Sukarno. In Fifties and Sixties decade this movement took a wide and systematic form.
Importance of Non Alignment
New challenges and efforts of solving problems have supported the importance of Non- aligned group (organization). This movement has proved its importance by extending its help in difficulties like New Imperialism, human rights, environment, economic and regional problems.
- India’s foreign policy is based on the principles of Panchsheel, which is derived from two words ‘Panch’ means ‘Five’ and ‘Sheer means a ‘Code of Conduct’ for peaceful co-existence. It was signed in 1954 between India and China.
- Co-existence is the widened form of Panchsheel. Peaceful co-existence gives a platform to make international relations strong and friendly.
Opposition to Colonialism, Imperialism and Racial discrimination (Aparthied)
- India, itself, suffered from colonialism and imperialism in the past. Now it has supported struggle against imperialism in Indonesia, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Namibia.
- India strongly opposed the policy of racial discrimination in South Africa. India is a rigid opponent of colour prejudice i.e. discrimination on the basis of colour. Racial discrimination pollutes the International environment. Due to this, India broke its relation with South Africa in past and favoured Blacks and Africans of Rhodesia. It has supported in banning in different ways on those nations who practice it. India also raised its voice through the UNO against policy of racial discrimination.
India’s Nuclear Policy
- India gave shape to its nuclear policy after 1961. It become essential in the interest of a nation.
- India’s Nuclear Policy advocates no first use and reiterates India’s commitment to global verifiable and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament leading to nuclear weapons free world.
- Jawaharlal Nahru was against the use of nuclear weapons, so he placed nuclear disarmament and considered the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as discriminatory. India has always been committed to use these weapons for peaceful purposes.
- India’s former President late Shri A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was considered as the anchor of Indian nuclear power programme. According to his statement, India is located between two nuclear powered nations. Danger on India’s security was clearly seen, hence self-dependence in nuclear weapons and missiles was the demand of time. India has been a peaceful nation right from the beginning and disfavored armament, but due to fast changes in the world scenario and discriminated nuclear programmes, it is important for India to become self¬dependent in this matter. Discriminatory policies of nuclear disarmament and extension treaties like CTPT and NPT policies were not accepted by India.
- Regarding nuclear tests India was following the basic policy.
- India did its first atomic power test in 1974 in Pokharan (Jaisalmer, Rajasthan), and 24 years later the second test in 1998. India’s nuclear power policy was criticized by some countries.
- Though India explained that she is always committed for non-nuclear world, but for this, all nuclear powered nations have to destroy their nuclear missiles. Otherwise India will continue its nuclear test at minimum level for security purpose.
- Today whole humanity is grieved due to terrorism, the states of South Asia recognized it and established friendly relations among themselves which gave birth to the formation of SAARC.
- It stands for the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation having seven members and aims at mutual trust and understanding.
- Violence against government and making innocent people frightened is called terrorism. This matter is a major part of discussion in each conference and seminars between nations, but the problem is the same stage, as it was.
Evaluation of India’s Foreign policy
- India’s foreign policy is being successful in the fulfillment of its interests, beside based on high human values it is said to be glorious. Though it sometimes becomes the part of criticism due to its military and financial interests, still we can say that it has changed itself with the changing world’s scenario. Due to this, there is continuity and mobility seen in it. Now India has started giving importance to its economic system and seriously observes the issues of trade, commerce and planning. Process of reform in Indo-American relations is started already.
- In 2010 and 2015, the journey of Barack Obama, the then President of America to India had given signs of change between both nations. Leadership of South Asian nations and developing nations is a sign of positive change in the policy. India’s nuclear power tests have changed the monopoly of nuclear powered nations over nuclear tests. It proves that India’s foreign policy is committed towards peace and brotherhood, and on the other hand it is capable and strong to defend India’s interests.
- It has given recognition to Indian culture at global level. Indian eatables, costumes, art and culture are spread all over the world. In last two decades, economic and technical development is the result of its foreign policy. India has got new role at global level.
- 1939-45 : The Second World War period.
- 29 April 1954 : Regarding foreign policy, accepted was accepted in an agreement between India and China.
- 1960 : India changed its strategy of nuclear policy.
- 1961 : Non-align Movement (NAM) was formed.
- 3 July 1972 : Shimla Pact was signed between India and China.
- 18 May 1974 : India conducted its first nuclear test in Pokhran.
- December 1985 : Foundation of SAARC between South Asian leaders
- 1998 : Nuclear test was conducted near Pokhran
- December 2001 : Two terrorist groups i.e., Jaish-e-Mohammad and Lashkar-e-Toiba attacked on Indian Parliament.
- April 2007 : 14th SAARC Conference was held in New Delhi
- August 2012 : 16th NAM Conference was held in Tehran (Iran).
- November 2014 : 18th SAARC Conference was held in Napal.
- 2016 : 19th SAARC Conference was h6ld in Pakistan.
Non-alignment: A policy not to join any military alliances created due to cold war.
Foreign policy: It is an interplay of domestic and external factors of a nation.
Panchsheel: Five principles of peaceful co-existence to be signed in 1954 between India and China.
SAARC: It stands for South Asian Association for Regional. Cooperation having seven members and aims at mutual trust and understanding.
Terrorism: It means political violence whose target are innocent citizens, or government properties, so that terror may be created in society.