Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 13 Rivers and Lakes of India
Drainage System of India:
- The river system of an area is termed as the Drainage System. On the behalf of origin and flow the Indian Drainage system is divided into:
- Rivers of Himalaya or of Northern India.
- Peninsular rivers or rivers of Southern India and the rivers of Inland drainage.
- Inland drainage system.
Rivers of North India:
Rivers mostly originating from the Himalayan mountain, are perennial. They are:
- Indus River System,
- Ganga River System and
- Brahmaputra River System
The Indus River System:
- It Includes the Indus and its tributaries – Sutlej, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas. The upper flow of this drainage system is in India and the lower flow is in Pakistan. These rivers get water from Western Himalayas and drain into the Arabian Sea.
- The river Sutlej rises from Rakshastal near Mansarovar lake in the southern slopes of the Kailash mountain. Bhakra-Nangal Dam is constructed on it near Ropar in Punjab. On river Jhelum is situated a tourist city, Srinagar.
The Ganga River System:
- It includes the Ganga, and its tributaries originates from North and the rivers originates from Plateau e.g. Chambal, Betwa, etc. The river Ganga, the most prominent river, originates from the Gangotri Glacier, acquires its name after its two streams. The Alaknanda and the Bhagirathi join at Devprayag. Near Haridwar the Ganga enters the plains and here it is joined by Yamuna, Gomti and Ghaghra rivers.
- Yamuna originates from Yamunotri and merges with Chambal, Betwa, Ken, etc. When the Ganga enters Bangladesh near Farakka, it is called Padma river. Before falling into the Bay of Bengal, it forms a delta with Brahmaputra. Sundarvan is the largest delta of the world. The Chambal is the only perennial river of Rajasthan. Its tributaries are Banas, Parvati, Kalisindh, etc.
The Brahmaputra River System:
- Brahmaputra, the largest river of India, originates from Mansarovar lake near Kailash mountain in Tibet. It flows parallel to the Himalayas, eastwards, is called Tsangpo in Tibet, turns to South, then towards west and flowing through Assam enters Bangladesh where it joins river Ganga.
- Dibang, Luhit, Tista, Dihang, Janjhi, Kulsi, Manas, Kapili luhit etc. are tributaries of Brahmaputra. In between the rivers are found islands, known for the horrible floods. Besides, the fourth system of rivers, originates from the Aravalli range, there is an Inland Drainage system too. Such rivers, very few extend- from Sambhar lake in Rajasthan to Ghagghar in Haryana. Some rivers as Mantha, Medha, Khari, etc. end in Sambhar lake and the Kakani river of Rajasthan ends in the Bhuj lake of Jaisalmer.
Rivers of South India:
- Amount of water is low in these rivers during summer, they flow from West to East and a few drain in the Arabian Sea and the most in Bay of Bengal.
- Two parts of the rivers of the South are
- Rivers draining in the Bay of Bengal,
- Rivers draining in the Arabian Sea.
Rivers draining in the Bay of Bengal:
- Most of the rivers of Peninsular Plateau as the Damodar, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, etc. originate from West and are drained in the Bay of Bengal.
- River Kaveri, the Ganga of the South, originates from Durg (district) of Karnataka, became the cause of dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur i.e., ‘Garden of South’ is fertile due to the Delta of Kaveri.
- River Mahanadi originates from Raipur and Hirakud dam is constructed on it.
- River Krishna originates from Western Ghat near Mahabaleshwar and drains into Bay of Bengal.
- River Godavari originates from Western Ghat near Nasik, forms triangular delta and has many islands in its end.
Rivers draining in the Arabian Sea
Besides the major rivers Narmada and Tapti, others as Mahi, Sukari, Badi Sharavati, etc. drain into the Arabian Sea.
Narmada, the longest river originates from Amarkantak. The river Tapti originates in Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
Lakes of India
- India has many lakes. They are different from each other in size and other characterstics. Most of the lakes are permanent while a few have water in them only during rainy season. Some-of them are formed due to glaciers while a few by wind, rivers and man’s activities.
- Most of the sweet water lakes are located in Himalayan region. Due to obstruction of rocks and soils such lakes are filled with water. Most of them are found in Kumayun region of Himalayas. Among them Dal, Rakshastal, Nainital, Naukuchiya Tal and Bhimtal are important.
- Due to depression of earth, the famous ‘Wular lake’ of Kashmir was formed.
- Due to dormance of volcanoes water collects in their mouth. ‘Lonar’ lake of Maharashtra is formed in such a way. Oceanic currents forms the soil dunes at the delta of the river and separate the water from the main ocean. Such beautiful lakes are characterstics of Indian sea coasts.
- Chilka lake of Odisha, Pulicat of Nellore, Koleroo lake of Andhra are the examples of such beautiful lakes.
- In desert region of Rajasthan the low land between sand dunes allows water to collect and in the formation of lakes Sambhar, Didwana, Lunkaransar and Pachpadra are examples of such lakes. Such lakes in Rajasthan are called Dhand and Sur (Talai) in local language.
- Gohana lake was formed in 1893 in the way of Alaknanda river due to rock sliding.
- Due to lack of slopes in plains river slows down and spread soil brought down by them on their banks which helps in the formation of ‘Gokurakpr lake’ (shape of cow’s). Such lakes are found in the valleys of Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers.
Coral Islands: Formed by organisms which live in shallow, warm and mud-free waters.
River System: A river along with its tributaries.
Drainage: The river system of an area.
Lake: A ditch of land filled with water.