Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 15 Natural Vegetation and Soils of India
- The vegetation found on different heights is called vegetation.
- Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human effort and is left undisturbed for a long time.
- At present, there are about 47,000 plant species found in India.
- Wild animals living in a natural environment and comprising all types of animals, birds, reptiles, etc. are called wildlife.
- There are about 75,000 animal species found in India.
- Diverse vegetation and wildlife are due to a combination of various factors:
- Varied land forms
- Slope of land and altitude
- Temperature and amount of rainfall
- Soil conditions
- The upper most layer of the land, loose, fragmented and useful for growing plants is called soil.
- Different types of soils provides basis for different types of vegetation.
- Vegetation is also affected by rainfall and temperature conditions. It has given rise to following forests in India:
- Evergreen forests or rain forests
- Deciduous forests or monsoon forests
- Thorny forests
- Desert forests
- Tidal forests
- Mountain forests
- Forests are important to us in a number of ways. Indian Government has taken various steps to protect forests.
- The forest policy was adopted in 1894 for the first time in India. After independence, a
- new forest policy was declared on 31 May 1954, and again in 1988, new forest policy was declared.
- For forest conservation various awards are given.
- In India, for wildlife conservation, 18 Biosphere reserves are established.
- There are 537 Wildlife Sanctuaries and 166 National Parks established in India.
- Keoladeo National Park in Bharatpur (Rajasthan) and Kaziranga National Park in Assam are included in World Heritage sites.
- In Rajasthan, 29 tenets of Bisnois are considered the important rules for environment conservation.
- On the basis of color, texture and fertility, soils of Rajasthan are classified in six types
Conservation: The protection of natural environment.
Environment: Physical, chemical and biological conditions as a cover around the earth in which a living being can survive.
Evergreen forests: Forests which remain green throughout the year.
National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary: These are reserved areas for the preservation and development of endangered species of wildlife.
Relief: Physical features of an area.
Endangered: whose existence is threatened.
Poaching: To catch or shoot animals without permission.
Mammal: An animal that feed its young ones through breast.
Fossils: Remains of plants and animals preserved in rocks for a long time.