Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 20 Calamities and Management
- On the basis of origin disasters are of two types: Natural and man-made
- Both cause great destruction to life and property. To protect from such destruction, security and management, the detail of both disaster are as follows:
- Natural Disasters: For disaster one reason is not responsible but combined reasons are responsible. External and internal forces of earth directly affect the disaster, for example, Earthquake, Volcano etc. unwise and continuous exploitation of resources by man, use of earth in different ways by growing population have deformed the earth. Deforestation, weathering of rocks, water crises are the result of such activities. Such problems have given birth to global warming.
- All these above mentioned causes are combinedly responsible for natural calamities.
- Natural balance is disturbed by man due to man’s greediness and consumer satisfaction view. For his blind development he has disturbed the balance of nature. Man’s activity are indirectly inviting these natural disaster.
Classification of Natural disaster on the basis of origin:
- Calamities which occur due to sudden change inside the earth. For example: Earthquake, rock sliding, glaciers sliding and volcano. In India volcanoes are not active.
- They are caused by seasonal change. For example, Cyclones, Tsunami, flood, etc.
- They are caused by bacteria and living things. For example, epidemics, dead animals, plague, malaria, etc.
- The weaning of management is to get relief from danger at each step what were *. responsibilities are set following honestly them. Introduction of character if nation and societyafter natural disaster is seen by the social service done by man.
Following factors affect the Management:
- Economic status
- Positive thinking of individual
- Feeling of co-operation
- Honesty and dedication towards society
- Geographical conditions
- Condition of transport and communication
- Density of population
- When any part of the earth has vibrations due to any event occurs inside the earth is called an earthquake. It is one of the greatest destructive calamities. It can cause great destruction in a moment.
- Earthquakes intensity can be measured by an instrument seismograph in Richter scale. It was discovered by Charles Richter so it is named after him. On this intensity of an earthquake could be measured up to 12 up to 5. It is said normal as the speed increases, it takes the most destructive form.
- Causes of Earthquake: It is caused due to the movement of tectonic plates of the earth. Contraction and expansion due to vapor inside the earth is also a cause of earthquake.
- Earthquake-prone Area: If we study the earthquake occurred in India, we conclude that Northern mountains and foothills is the most young fold mountain. Himalaya is the part of this young fold mountain which is still in the stage of formation. Still the balanced stage is not developed in Himalayas. Hence, it is the most earthquake-prone area while Deccan plateau is a balanced and stable part of earth but after the earthquake of Koyna and Latoor this region is also considered as earthquake zone. Region of Kachchh and Bhuj of Gujarat is also falls in earthquake zone.
- Earthquake a danger: It is a natural disaster which causes the greatest change in a moment on earth which shock the heart of people. It causes thousands of death, cracks in earth surface, destruction of roads, collapse of buildings which convert into heap of soil and stones. Bridges, dams collapse and become danger in future.
Relief from Earthquake and Management:
- Often, all government took relief measures after earthquake. India is described as a unique geographical landmass and it is densely populated. Hence, it is necessary to implement network of instrument related to earthquake measures. So possibility of destruction of lives and property could be decreased and an alert can be declared through radio and television to make people aware.
- At individual level, same decisions should be taken individually before earthquake like:
- To leave the place and go in open.
- Switch off the switch of electricity and regulator of cylinder.
- Domestic animals should be tie off.
- Irrespective of caste, crud, religion, etc. we should help each other on the ground of humanity. India has set examples such of help in the past.
- Process of rolling down soil and rocks from upper slopes is called landslide. If the rock landslide is in a great scale then a great sound of thunder occurs. Landslides are of different
- on the materials involved in down slope movement.
- Causes of Landslide: A single reason is not responsible for landslide but many factors combindly gives birth to this calamity.
- Natural Causes: Formation of rocks, slope of earth, folds in rocks, rainfall, pattern deforestation are important and main causes of landslide. In young fold mountains this is common because due to continuous formation process joints of rocks become weak slopes are also steep in such condition if heavy rainfall occurs it causes landslide.
- Man-made causes: The intensity of landslide is increased by man’s uncontrolled development. Deforestation causes the looseness in binding of soil with roots. It causes soil erosion which slowly converts into landslide. Building of roads, railway tracks, tunnels mining by man increase landslide.
- Landslide-prone Area: In India Himalayan region and Western Ghats where rivers flow have their drainage system and cause landslide. In mountain where roads are built coasts of oceans, tides of oceans, etc. are causes of landslide.
- Landslide a Danger: It blocks the way of rivers, roads which results in the imbalance life of man. Balance between demand and supply fails life and property are destroyed in densely populated regions. Uttarakhand is also landslide-prone area where loss of life and property occurs. ’
- Blocking of rivers results in formation of lakes. When such lakes broke their banks cause flood which are responsible for loss of property and lives. Example, Flash-flood in Kedarnath in 2013 due to heavy rainfall.
- Landslide and Management: In India 90% of landslide occurs in rainy season. Hence in mountainous region where roads are built there would be proper management of water drainage on both sides. During building of roads at 45° angle remains should be removed from both sides. If not removed then a wall should be built to support rocks.
- Flood is described as the rush of water. When due to heavy rainfall water in rivers spread on banks by breaking them is called flood.
- Causes of floods: Heavy rainfall in the rainy season becomes the main cause of flood in India. Every year flood comes in most parts of India. Many areas in India are considered under flood-affected areas. Due to simple and satisfactory attitude Indians consider them an unseen force and tolerate them.
Cansequences of Floods:
- Non-availability of drainage due to excess rainfall
- Drainage of river become narrow and shallow due to debris brought down by river blocks the way
- Deforestation and pastures destruction
- Building of roads for inhabitants living in flood zone
- Destruction of traditional water resources
- Building of constructions ignoring the natural drainage
Flood-prone Zones in India:
- In India flood zones are based on distribution of rain.
- 90% of flood destruction in India occurs in north and northern plains.
- North western flowing rivers such as Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum bring for less flood destruction.
- While east flowing rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Gomati, Ghaghra, and Gandak are responsbile for floods.
- Kosi and Damodar rivers cause great flood in Bihar and West Bengal. Therefore, Kosi in Bihar and Damodar in West Bengal are called sorrow of Bihar and West Bengal.
- In north eastern part of India Brahmaputra Valley is flooded every year as average rainfall in this area is more than 250 cm.
Flood-Problem and Calamity:
- In India more than 2000 deaths occur due to flood every year.
- 80 lakh hectares of land is flood-prone.
- 35 lakh hectare of land crop destroys every year.
- Life in 3 crore acre land becomes unbalanced.
- Loss of one thousand crore rupees every year.
- The greatest effect of flood occurs on animal wealth.
- More than 12 lakh animals and houses destroy every year.
- 60% loss caused by flood in India held in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam and Odisha are main. .
- Floods disturb communication, transport, sources of water, and destroy crops and cause epidemics.
- In 1954, National Flood Control Plan was launched to check the great loss done by flood. Under this plan bank of rivers, water flowing drains were built.
- Under multi-purpose projects scheme dams were built on Mahanadi, Damodar, Satluj, Vyas, Chambal, Narmada rivers.
- To control flood regions of river origin should be covered with forests it would check soil erosion and result in check on loss due to floods.
- Exploitation of forests should be ban.
- Water holding capacity of river should be increased by removing debris and spreading it on banks.
- In 1954, floods forecast/prior information organization was established. At district headquarters flood control cells were established.
- In 2007, the NDMA (National Disaster management Authority) of the Government of India pointed about 13 areas of flood management. These include zoning, forecasting, risk maps, structural measures, maintenance of river banks, river basin management, construction of flood shelters, etc.
- Meterological department and irrigation department keeps a regular observation on amount of rainfall and its flow
- during rainy season. People are informed regularly through Television.
- At individual level, people should listen radio and watch television regularly in rainy season. If they are living in flood prone area and should follow the instructions and orders of government strictly. Electric appliances should switch off. Precious things food etc. should be shifted at secure places. Vehicles, animals, etc. should be shifted at secure places.
Drought occurs when there is no rainfall or very little rainfall in an area. When in any part of earth such an amount of rainfall occurs which is not sufficient for growing crops beside water is not available to drink for animals and men that part is called drought-prone area. According to irrigation department of India a part that receive less than 10 cm rainfall is called drought area.
Causes of Drought:
- Uncertainty and unequal distribution of rainfall due to monsoon climate
- Low level of under groundwater
- No management of storage of water
- Destruction of natural sources of water collection
- No permanent water policy
- Rapid growth of population put an adverse effect of water resources
- 30% area is affected by drought every year.
- 5 crores people are affected by drought. 25% more than normal uncertainly land areas, Western Rajasthan and Gujarat are included in it. 25% to normal land areas Eastern Gujarat, East Rajasthan, East Punjab, East Haryana, East Uttarakhand, West MP, central Maharashtra, South Andhra, Central Karnataka, North West Bihar, West UP and West Odisha are included.
- Approximately 77 districts of India are declared drought-prone, out of them most are of west India.
Drought: A Problem:
The most greatest danger of drought is famine, less availability of water increased the intensity of famine. There are three forms of famine, occurred by drought.
- Water collection regions, conservation and development.
- Small ancient according to slopes in villages to store water.
- Joint river plans should be implemented so excess water of rivers should be supply to less availability areas.
- It would increase the level of under groundwater and would indirectly help in developing greenery.
- At individual level, it is the most important that one should understand the importance of water. One should personally take interest in water collection and conservation Kachcha and Pucca tank should be built which will help in increasing underground level of water while other for utilizing water when rain do not occur. Water should be collected by making wall around the land. So, water will slap-down less water. Consuming seeds should be grown. Everyone should help each other at the time of famine.
- Sea storms are called cyclones in India. They originate in hot currents and enter in India from Indian Ocean then crossing Bay of Bengal reach to India as well as from Arabian Sea. They are less humid when they reach to coastal regions cause heavy rainfall as they move interior amount rainfall goes on decreasing due to high speed and heavy rainfall they cause destruction in coastal regions.
- Causes of Cyclones: Due to condensation and evaporation in summer season an around the surface of ocean moves up and cause low pressure to fill it and enters from all sides this cause cyclones or storms. Their impact depends upon temperature in North Western
- India and centre of low pressure. In winters also cyclones occurs in North west India they cause rain in winters in North West India called “Mawaf useful for Rabi crop.
- Cyclone-prone Areas: Internal part of east coast and west coast. Sea storms of Arabian Sea during April to June they are parallel to coast of West Bengal cyclones. October to December they affect Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha and West Bengal during.
- Problem and Danger: At the time of origin they small in size as they move interior then intensity become high. There speed becomes 15 km per hour as they cross water bodies they have high humidity. They bring high rainfall with speedy winds. Due to high speed trees rootout, electric poles and communication network fails. Kuchcha houses smash high waves do not allow fishermen to sail them boats. They cause great destruction.
- Forecasting network system should be developed on the basis of pictures received from satellites intensity of storm, speed of wind, way of propagation of storm, amount of rainfall should be announced on radio and television. Secured places should be told to people so that loss of life and property should be minimized.
- Plantation should be encouraged in the coastal region to decrease the speed of storms. In cyclones prone areas combined or group insurance plan should be launched.
- Man should be self-alert and follow the instruction of government honestly and strictly. They should help handicaps, old people, children, women to shift at secured places.
- Relief material send by government and social institutions should be shared.
It takes lakhs of lives every year. In a moment lives and property converts into ash. Careless in use of electric appliances in cities and flammable material like bidi, cigarette used by rural people are responsible for such calamity. Fire crackers are sometimes responsible for fire.
- Measures of Security:
- Carelessness in use of cooking gas.
- High voltage
- Heap of wastes
- Flammable material, explosive material should be avoid and should be kept away in separate part.
- Road Accidents:
For contact and provide better services roads are built speedly in whole world as the network of roads extended. Number of road accident is increased hence traffic rules are formed. But ignorance of these rules, fast driving, driving after taking alcohol, low maintenance of vehicles are some of the causes of road accidents. One lakh twenty five thousand people loss their lives every year in India.
- Safety measures:
- Drive and walk in lanes.
- Follow the traffic rules and signs.
- Drive in controlled speed.
- Children less than decide age should not drive.
- Air Accidents:
- Any carelessness and technical mistake can cause severe air accidents. Possibility of technical problem is always rests
- in aeroplane. Driving full carefulness is always needs at the flight and landing of an aeroplane. Aeroplane hijacking,
- terrorists attacks have increased the risk of lives of man. Collide of birds with aeroplanes also become the cause of
- Security measures:
- Pilots should follow the instructions.
- Travellers should tie seat belt.
- Opening of emergency gates should be known to travellers.
- Instruction given by Air hostesses before flight should be strictly followed.
- Rail Accidents:
- Railways has important place in transporting material and land transport. It is the cheapest means of transport but great
- pressure on railways has increased the possibilities of accidents. Technical problems and carelessness are the causes of
- rail accidents. Nowadays wrong shunting and uprooting of tracks by terrorists are also causes of accident.
- Security measures:
- Carefully cross the railway gates.
- Do not carry flammable material during journey.
- Do not stand on doors.
- Avoid boarding while train is in motion.
- Snatch the emergency chain in emergency. Only nuclear, chemical, industrial and biological accidents are also increasing.
- Atomic Weapons:
- Explosive devices that derive their destructive force from nuclear reactions, are called atomic weapons. They have replaced the traditional war system. Wars have become more destructive due to use of nuclear weapons. Use of one bomb can convert whole the city into ash in seconds. For example, air attack on Spain in 1937 and nuclear attack an Japan in 1945.
- Man-made bombs are explosive and strong as well as destructive. They are of two types^ energy released by bomb is based on nuclear fission reactions, and are atom bombs while hydrogen bombs work on nuclear fusion reactions. They release more energy than atom bombs hence more destructive. Due to nuclear explosion clouds are formed which cause dizziness, vomiting, etc. After some time memory of person becomes weak due to radioactivity and eye sight goes.
- Security measures:
- In case of attack one should kept patience.
- Windows and doors should be closed. Eatables should be covered.
- Chemical and Industrial Accidents:
- Technical and scientific development has increased the use of chemicals in daily life in the form of chemical fertilizers,
- pesticides, insecticides, chlorination to purify water plants, etc. These simple chemicals have polluted the atmosphere. Some dangerous chemicals are found in every house like hair spray, deodorant, nail-paint, nail paint remover, toilet cleaner.
- Some very sensitive flammable and cheap explosive chemicals are used by terrorists which * cause great accidents. Unsafe use of their chemicals and their storage as well as leakage is harmful to whole community.
- In India, on 3 Dec. 1984 leakage of poisonous gas from insecticide manufacturing industry ‘ Union Carbide in Bhopal city took 3000 lives in a few hours, those who left are suffering from various diseases.
- Security Measures:
- Such industries should be established away from residential.
- People leaving around and workers should be made informed and trained against such accidents.
- Industrial waste of such industries must treated before disposal so environment could be protected.
- Insurance and security laws should be followed strictly.
- Biological Weapons:
Biological weapons refer to the use of biological to xing or infections agents such as bacteria, fungi, viruses with the intent to kill living things. They are called cheap nuclear weapons of poor. It is easy to prepare them. They can be easily send to destination without any technical system. Poisonous viruses, gases can be spray on crops with simple sprayers plague and small pox viruses spread rapidly even doctors and nurses cannot survive. Use of 100 gms anthrax can cause deaths of 30 lakh people of any city.
- Security Measures
- Information of biological attack should be given to the Health Department.
- Once they are sprayed they are inhaled through breathing through scratch they reach in skin, food then inside body. Through communication people should be informed to control on rumours.
Seismograph: It is an instrument that automatically detects and records the intensity, direction and duration of earthquake.
Land or rock sliding: It is the process of rolling down soil and rocks from upper slopes to down.
Atomic weapon: It is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions.
Biological weapons: It is the use of biological toxins or infections agents such as bacteria, fungi and viruses with the intent to kill humans, animals, etc. as an act of war.