Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 3 Ancient India and the World
Causes of the spread of Indian culture in Greater India
- Geographical reasons: India is located in the middle of South Asia. Hence, it naturally had relations with other nations.
- Economic causes: India was a prosperous nation. In ancient time, Indian goods were in great demand outside. Indian traders went to foreign nations for trade, out of them many established there while some came back. It spread the culture of India there.
- Religious causes: Those traders established in South-east Asia before the advent of Buddhism and spread the rituals and traditions of Hindu religion there. Later Buddhist monks not only spread religion but Indian civilization and culture also. Cholas of south sent religious preachers along them. Artists, literalists also went. Hence, Indian culture, language, literature, art and religion spread afar.
- Political causes: Many kings and princes went to parts of South-East Asia and established their rule. In this way, Indian culture and civilization easily spread in foreign lands. Indian culture not only confined to India but spread in central, East, North and South Asia.
- Central Asia: In cultural view, central Asia was completely in the impact of India in ancient India. Cities like Khotan, Kucha, Karashahar, Torfan, etc. were main centres of Indian culture. In archaeological excavation of this region remains of idols, wall paintings were found. In ancient literature of this region, stories of Kings, etc. clearly prove that there was spread of Indian religion, art, language and script.
- Khotan was a very large centre of Indian culture. Here followers of Buddhism sect Mahayan lived in a great number. Such a large number of Indians settled here that they influenced the local people in the colour of Indian culture. In same way Kucha was also the main centre of Indian culture. Here too people were followers of Buddhism. Approximately one thousand Chaitya and Viharas.were constructed here. Sanskrit language, Indian astrology, ayurveda, and art were in trend.
- Karashahar and Turfan were also centres of Indian culture as Khotan and Kucha. Both were separate states. About Karasnahar it is said that it was an important part of Kanishka empire. In Turfan state Buddhism was spread up to 5th century.
- Afghanistan: It was a part of India in ancient time. In Rigvedic period, Indian settlements were spread upto here. In Mauryan period also it was a part of India. In fact, it was a part of North India where people speak language of central India. Buddhism flourished here. Beside Buddhism, Hinduism also spread here.
- China: Ancient relationship between China and India are illustrated in Mahabharata, Manusmriti and play Abhigyan Shakuntalam by Kalidasa, but it was started in form of exchange in the first century before Christ, and 65 BC. Chinese emperor Meengti had taken with himself two Buddhist monks Dharmratan and Matang from India to China. They translated Buddhist literature in Chinese language. In China also a great impact was held in spread of Buddism architecture, sculptor art and painting. India’s arithmatic, astrology, medical and music also spread there. Many rock-cut caves and Buddha temples were built in China by following Indian style of paintings, wall paintings were made. From China, Buddhism spread in Korea and Japan.
- Tibet: In north, India’s neighbouring country Tibet is also a creditor of Indian civilization and religion. King of Tibet Srosang established marital relation with India. Here too Buddhism spread and viharas were built. They adopted Sanskrit language and Indian script Brahmi and Kharoshthi. Many Tibetian scholars came to India to study in Indian ancient universities.
- Sri Lanka: India and Sri Lanka had relations right from the ancient time. It is firstly illustrated in Valmiki Ramayana when Lord Rama had got victory over Lanka (Sri Lanka). From history of Mauryan periods, it is proved that king Ashoka sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sanghmitra to Sri Lanka to preach Buddhism, then the king of Sri Lanka Tirsa accepted Buddhism.
- Burma: The present name of Burma is Myanmar. Here Indian culture spread before 1st century BC. Here in Arakan, Tangog, Shrishetra, Yaton and Pigo, the Hindu lifestyle was developed in a great way. Many inscriptions of Burma are in Sanskrit and Pali languages. Many monuments of Hindu gods and goddesses are found in main state of Burma. This state had a great and the most impact of Hindu religion. In 9th and 10th century Pagan state was established. Ananda temple of Burma is built by the Indian architects.
- Kamboj: Kamboj or Combodia was called Phunan earlier. Here in 1st century BC, an Indian named Kodinya established his empire. He got married with Sobha, a girl belonged to Nagi caste. He made learn people living here to wear clothes. During the rule of descendants ofKodinya, Cambodia progressed a lot and Indian culture spread here.
- Champa: In ancient times, Champa was an eastern state of Cambodia. Its modern name is Vietnam. It was also a colony of India in ancient times. The first king of Champas was a Hindu king named Shrimar. Many Hindu kings ruled over here for a long period. Among them Gangraj, Pandurang, Bhrigu and Hari Verma were main. By seeing historical remains of ancient Champa, it is proved that the Indian varna
- system prevailed there. The marriage ceremony was also like India and there was a tradition of wearing Yagyopaveet. In Rajkufs, Sati Pratha existed. Widows lived a simple life. Indian festivals were celebrated there. The state language of Champa was Sanskrit. Indian Grammar, philosophy, and literature were studied there. Shaiv cult was more in tradition. In Cambodian temples, Chalukyan, a style of architecture, was followed.
- Malaya: Malaya Islands which is now called as Malaysia. Many Hindu states were developed here in ancient times. Among them Karmrang, Kalashpur Katah and Pahang were main. In many parts of this island, remains of ancient temples, idols, and inscriptions engraved in Sanskrit are found. It proves that this state had influence of Indian culture. Here names of kings like Gautam, Samudra Vijayavarman, etc. were similar. Buddhism was spread and stupas were built. Still here Brahamin families are existing whose ancestors went there from India and settled. Rajendra Chola-I, a brave king of Chola dynasty of southern India, had trade control over this island.
- Siam: It is called Thailand in the name of Thai caste. But Thai caste did not have its influence here before 13th century. It had Indian influence completely in terms of culture and civilization. Here Mahayana Buddhist sect was in great practice. Pali language was spread. Here too kings built Buddha temples and viharas.
- Java: Located in present Indonesia was a colony of India where India established its colony in 65 BC. According to description of Fahiyan in the beginning of 5th century, Hindu religion had spread in Java while Brahaminism was at its peak. Thousands of remains of Buddha and Hindu temples are found here. Influence of Indian culture prevailed in Java upto the 15th century BC, before the attack of Kubal Khan. With the attack of Kubal Khan, Islam spread here, and influence of Indian civilization declined slowly.
- Sumatra: Sumatra which is now called Indonesia. It was known as Gold island in the ancient times. Srivijay was its famous city. From 4th century BC to 7th century BC, Vijay dynasty ruled here. It was a Hindu dynasty. Sumatra progressed very much during this period. Rajendra Chola-I, also had its influence here. Srivijay was the centre of Hindu culture and religion. Here Buddhism also spread. In 15th century emperor of here also adopted Islam, and due to this, influence of Indian civilization went on decreasing slowly.
- Bali: Located in Indonesia this Hindu state was established here in the 4th century. Buddhism and Hinduism both practiced here. Shiva and Vishnu were worshipped, while with the passage of time Islam entered here, but it did not influence Hinduism. Hence, remains of Hinduism and Indian culture still prevailed here.
- Borneo: In 4th century Borneo (Bakalpur) became the state of Hindus. In those days, Mool Verma was its ruler. He was a fan of ancient Indian culture. In Borneo, idols of Buddha, Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha, Mahakal and Nandi are found, which prove the influence of Indian culture and religion here.
- Lovdesh: At present it is known as ‘Lhasa’. It was known as Luvpuri on the name of Luv, the son of Lord Rama. The Adi God of Lhase is Bhdraveshwar. Sometimes ago here Shaiv Verman was prevailed and had great influence. The first king of the Lhase was Shrut Verman who established a city named Shreshthpur.
Trade, Industries and Commerce in Greater India
- Trade: India was famous as a Golden bird in ancient time. From different corners of the world traders came to India to purchase its goods. Foreign trade was done through water and land routes. Trade relations in East were progressed through land routes with Tibet and China while in West with Iran and Arab. In east Tamralipti seaport was main, traders went to China, Lanka, Java and Sumatra, etc. countries through this seaport. Foreign traders brought with them gold, silver, ruby, diamonds and jewellery. In place of these items, they took from India cotton, silk and zari clothes, etc. From western countries sweet wine and silk from China and wool from Nepal were import. Cloves and sandalwood were exported to Sri Lanka and from there these things were exported to Western nations.
- Pearl, precious stones, fragrances, clothes, spices indigo, medicines and coconuts were chief exports. In place of them, things like gold coins were imported from foreign countries. Internal trade was also at its peak in India. There was proper arrangements of state ways and waterways for internal trade. Waterways was more appropriate and convenient in trading point of view. Ganga, Brahmaputra, Narmada, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers were used for trade, and for this large boats were made.
- Textile Industries: Ancient Indian industries were in advanced stage. Artisans of India had dominance all over the world. Textile mills were established at Banaras (Varanasi), Vats, Bangal, Madura, etc. Beside cotton clothes, silk and woollen clothes were also manufactured in enough quantity. In Chanakya’s Arthashastra, many types of woollen blankets are discussed. Bengal was famous for manufacturing malmal clothes. Cloth were of vivid colours.
- Metal Industries: The second main industries of ancient India was metal industries. Variety of metals were dug from mines, then melted in furnaces and refined and by which different utensils, arms and ammunitions, ornaments, idols, etc. were built. The metals were of gold, silver, copper, iron, zinc, etc. From sea, variety of pearls, Ratnaseep etc. were mined, which were used in making ornaments.
- Wooden Industries: The wooden industries were also at advanced stage. From wood large boats, ships, doors, furniture, bullock carts, chariots, boxes, household wares, bed, toys, etc. were made. Other industries were of leather, ivory, construction, sugar, salt and indigo.
- Commerce and economic Institutions: In the beginning of ancient India, trade was done through Barter system. Later coins took place of goods. There were gold, silver and copper coins in trend. Trade unions came into being. These organizations were called ‘shreni or Gann. Chief of the shreni was called Flead (Mukhiya). These organizations secured their own interests. Different businesses had their different shrenis and separate laws. They also worked as modern bank and provided loans on interest and kept Hundis and ornaments as mortgage. They encouraged to trade and art.
Ancient Indian Art
Architecture: The monuments of Architecture are found in three forms:
- Stupas and Buildings
- Rock-cut caves.
Education in Ancient India
- India is called Vishwa Guru or Jagat Guru (the teacher of the world). The world’s first university in 700 BC was in Taxila, where about 10000 students from all over the world studied. Second university in 400 BC, was established in Nalanda. To get knowledge and education foreign students Magasthenes, Fahiyan, Fluen Tsang came to India. Beside Taxila and Nalanda, Ujjain, Banaras, Rajgriha, and Pataliputra were famous centres of higher education. In them, beside Dharmashastra, other subjects like, Politics, Nitishastra, Grammar, Veda Upanishad, Purana, literature, astrology, medicine, etc. were taught. Scholars from Greater India also came here to get education.
- There were three languages in trend in ancient Indir
- On the basis of language we can divide ancient India into three parts – Sanskrit literature, Buddhist literature and Jain literature.
- Science: India’s advancement in technology has great evidence in Iron Pillar situated in Delhi from last 1600 years, which is a great attraction for tourists all over the world.
- Arithmetic: Invention of zero is the greatest contribution of India in the field of arithmetic which was used by Aryabhatta in 5th century. To express whole number with fraction use of a decimal is a revolutionary base of the presentation of decimal system to develop arithmatic. In fact decimal system invented in India, and spread in whole world through the medium of scriptures. After 7th century these were translated in Arabian language from Sanskrit.
- The two scriptures Leelavati and Siddhant Shiromani of Bhaskaracharya are Amulya Nidhi (treasure) of the world. In arithmatic, at present use of Pythagorus theorem was propounded by ‘Bodhayan’ 2500 years ago which is known as Chitti Prameya.
- Astrology and Astronomy: Astrology progressed in ancient times on the basis of Arithmatic. Aryabhatta was an astrologer as well as mathematician. He propounded the principle “The earth rotates on its axis around the sun from west to east, by finding planets and satellite. He explained the phenomenon of solar and lunar eclipse. Varahmihir, Kannad, Nagarjuna, Banbhatta were some other main ancient Indian astrologers and astronomers.
- Ayurveda: It is the oldest medical method of the world. Dhanvantri is called the father of Ayurveda. In medicine and chemical science, India was foremost in the world. In India purification of metals, formation of metal ashes, preparation of medicines through Jadi-Booti (plants, roots and stems), and preparation of many natural colours, etc. have been progressed from ancient time.
- Nagarjuna had knowledge of many chemical reactions. In the field of medical sciences Sushruta is considered as the first surgeon (Shalya chikitsak). He had knowledge of Anesthesia, surgery of cataract, organ transplantation, stone, etc. He has described more than hundered tools used in surgery. In medicine science, Charak had an important place.
- 500 BC : Acharya Latadev had made the 1st calendar to determine the date and time of the world
- 476 AD : Time period of Aryabhatta.
- 427-1197 AD : Nalanda was a Buddhist center of learning.
- 65 BC : Java (present Indonesia) was established. Chinese emperor Meeting had taken with himself two Buddhist monks from India to China.
Words That Matter
- Nishk : The name of a gold coin in ancient time.
- Dharan : The name of a silver coin in ancient time.
- Mashak : The name of a copper coin in ancient time.
- Golden Bird : The term used for India in ancient time to indicate its prosperity.
- Architecture : An art of making monuments, stupas, temples and buildings.
- Stupa : A shrine related to Buddhism.