Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 4 Social Reforms and Religious Renaissance
- In India, Bhakti is an ancient tradition. It was first started in South India in Medieval period. In South India between 7th and 9th centuries, the Nayanars and Alvar saints, who were devotees of Shiva and Vishnu spread the message of Bhakti and devotion to God among all section of the society, irrespective of their castes. Some of the saints came from lower classes. They preached values of Bhakti.
- In India, three cults existed in Medieval and pre-medieval periods:
- Shiv (Shiva) cult
- Vaishnav (Vishnu) cult
- Sufi cult
- During medieval period, these three cults played a major role in social and religious renaissance. Later in 19th and 20th century, religious and social movements were also started. These movements not only eradicated social and religious evils but they also put new life in national movements causes of social and religious renaissance.
Social and Religious Causes
- Indian religions and society were dominated by orthodoxy in the 18th and 19th century. Indian society was divided into many castes and sub-castes. Christian and Muslim missionaries took advantage of this situation and started converting people into their own religion. Then Hindu missionaries became aware and thought that religious evils which entered Hinduism or Hindu religion, should be stopped. Hence, reformers lit a new inspiration among country people. All this caused a new pride to be born in the hearts of the people of India regarding ancient glory and ideals. It gave impetus to national movement.
- Due to British rule in India, spread of western education took place. It gave opportunity to Indians to study thought of the western philosophers and intellectuals.
- Activeness of Christian missionaries created a great reaction in Indians, and they put efforts to remove socio-religious evils and bringing awareness. Literature, magazines and newspapers gave birth to National feelings. Among them Anand Math, Samvad Kaumudi and Shivaji (a Marathi novel) are main.
- Due to establishment of Printing Press in India, newspapers and magazines in English were published up to 1875. They make Indians aware of social evils.
- During this period, a wave of Buddha philosophy was prevailing in Europe. In this stress was given on independent thinking. Indians also adopted the same and introduced Indian knowledge and culture to Europeans.
- William John and Maxmuller translated the Indian scriptures in English. Indians and Europeans took inspiration from these glorious past of India.
- In the mid of 19th Century, Calcutta Hindu College was established in Bengal, it became the medium of change among Indians. In this, thought of European professor Dezoreo was important.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekananda, Keshav Chandra Sen, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Jyotiba Phule, etc. took birth in Indian society. These reforms awakened a new wave among Indian religions and society.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Brahmo Samaj
- A great social reformer Raja Ram Mohan Roy founded the Brahmo Samaj, which was mainly based on the principles of Vedas and Upanishadas.
- Later Brahmo Samaj was split into two parts
- Adi Brahmo Samaj by Devendra Nath Tagore and
- Bharatiya Brahmo Samaj by Keshav Chandra Sen.
Dayanand Saraswati and Arya Samaj
Swami Dayanand Saraswati was the founder of Arya Samaj. His objective was to remove social-religious evils from Hindu religion and society. He had great devotion in ancient vedas culture and religion.
Ramakrishna Mission and Swami Vivekanand
This mission was established by Swami Vivekanand to carry on humanitarian relief and social work after death of his Guru Ramakrishna. He urged people to inculcate the spirit of liberty, equality and free thinking. He worked for emancipation of women.
Aacharya Tulsi and Anuvrat Movement
Aacharya Tulsi was the founder of Anuvarat movement. He was the 9th Aacharya of the Shwetambar Terapanth tradition. He advocated service of mankind and promoted the feeling of people’s welfare.
- 1972 : Birth of Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Bengal
- 1824 : Swami Dayanand Saraswati was born in Gujarat.
- 1828 : Eatablishment of Brahmo Samaj by Raja Ram Mohan Roy
- 1829 : The law against Sati Pratha came into existence.
- 1833 : Raja Ram Mohan Roy died in England.
- 1863 : Swami Vivekanand was born in Calcutta (Kolkata).
- 1867 : Prarthna Samaj was established.
- 1874: Composition of ‘Satyagrah Prakash’ by Swami Dayanand Sawaswati.
- 1875 : Arya Samaj was established by Dayanand Sawaswati.
- 1881 : First meeting of Swami Vivekanand with Guru Ramakrishna Paramhans in Dakshineshwar
- 1883 : Swami Dayanand Saraswati died in Ajmer.
- 1887 : First Ramakrishna Mission was established at Taranagar by Swami Vivekanand.
- 1893 : Swami Vivekanand participated in the Sarv Dharm Sammelan in Chicago (USA).
- 1897 : Ramakrishna Mission at Belur (Kolkata) by Swami Vivekanand
- 1971 : Aacharya Tulsi was born in Nagaur.
- 1997 : Aacharya Tulsi died in Bikaner.
Renaissance: This term is used for that time period, when creative activities are run at a large scale. The movement started in the 19th century for reformation in religion and Indian society in India was called social and religious renaissance.
Naynar: In South India, devotees of Shaiv (Lord Shiva) were called Naynar.
Alvar: In South India, the devotees of Lord Vishnu were called Alvar.
Sufi: The saints who wore cloak of white cloth.
Nationalism: The feelings of national integration amongst the people.
Anuvrat Movement: The moral movement established by Aacharya Tulsi which was not related to any of the religions or communities.