Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 5 Main Events of the World
French Revolution in 1789 AD was more important event compared to America’s War for Independence in 1776 and British Revolution in 1688 AD of England. It was a revolt against despotic and autocratic rule. It was an awakening against economic exploitation and inequality.
- Political conditions
- Social inequality
- Religious unrest
- Impact of American struggle of freedom
- Emergence of Middle class
- Intellectual awareness
- Fall of Bastille
Characteristics of the Revolt
- Fall of the Bastille Fort was the symbol of success of the revolt done by the people against the autocracy of the king.
- Abolition of the privileges of feudal class on the August 1789 by National Assembly.
- Declaration of liberty, equality and fraternity on 2nd August 1789.
- Imprisonment of king, queen and their children on 5 Oct., 1789.
- A new Constitution in 1791 AD with Separation of powers, the first written Constitution, constitutional monarchy, etc.
- The basis of the Constitution was democratic, i.e. powers were separated among the -* Parliament (Karyapalika), Executive (Vyavasthapika) and Judiciary (Nyaya Palika). In this way, constitutional monarchy was started and arrangement of written Constitution was made first time. At night on 20 June 1791, Louis-XVI, his wife and prince changed their look and fled away from Paris. But on next day near the border of France, at midnight they were recognized and brought back to Paris. Now Louis-XVI was kept in prison and hanged in 1793.
Russian Revolution (1917 AD)
The Russian Revolution was held due to then autocratic ruler Czar. He was an inefficient, corrupt and despotic ruler. This revolution ended the rule of Czar. There were two revolutions held in Russia-in March 1917 and November 1917. March revolution ended the rule of Czar and revolt of November gave birth to the emergence of Farmer-Worker Republic. It is also called as Bolshevik Revolution.
- Autocracy of Czar
- Social Inequalities
- Farmers’ Revolt
- Intellectual awareness in Russia
- Corrupt and disabled bureaucracy
- Discontent among labor
- Disabled rule of Nicolas-ll
- Impact on Russianization policy
- Problem arose due to First World War
Characteristics of the Revolt
In March 1917 workers went on strike due to severe hunger in Petrogard. Slogans were raised like ‘Give Bread’ destruction of autocratic rule. Arms of police were snatched. Czar dissolved the Parliament (Duma). Army was ordered to fire on workers, but they refused to obey. Czar left his throne in pressure.
A temporary government was formed under the leadership of Kerensky. It did not last long. In 1917, Bolsheviks and army took control over all the government buildings, telephone centers, railway station, etc. Rule came under the control of Lenin leader of the revolutionaries. Hence, Saravhara established in Russia. Now, Russia was known as Soviet Union.
Consequences of the Revolution
- In Russia, autocratic rule of Czar was ended. In July 1918, Czar Nicolas and his family was. killed.
- Sarvahara Adhinayak Tantra (communist) was established in Russia under the leadership of Lenin.
- Brest Lelovask Treaty was signed between Russia and Germany and Russia was separated from the First World War. After the revolution, Russia emerged as the world power.
- Adhinayahvad was encouraged in the world. It was developed in Germany under the leadership of Hitler and in Italy under Mussolini.
- Due to success in Russia, communism movement was appreciated in the world.
- Condition of farmers and laborers was improved. Management of the Industries was given to labor organizations.
- Equality in society, free and compulsory education and freedom to women were encouraged.Due to increasing power of Russia and philosophy, world was divided into two groups-Communist group under the leadership of Russia. Capitalist group under the leadership of America. Feeling of freedom and nationalism spread in other nations of Asia and Europe.
The First World War (1914 AD-1918 AD)
The First World War is an important event in the history of the world. It put a great impact on whole world. It brought many revolutionary changes in the world.
- Diplomatic Treaties and formation of two groups
- Division of Europe into two opposite camps
- Armament and Spirit of Militarism
- Impact of Socialism
- Impact of Newspapers
- Ambition of William Kaiser-ll
- Lack of International Institution
- Impact of Balkan war and International crises
The Second World War (1939-1945)
The Second World War proved true the prophecy of Marshal Fitch, i.e., “Versailles treaty is not a peace treaty, but a ceasefire treaty for twenty years”. Famous scientist Einstein said, “I cannot say anything about the Third War, but the Fourth War will be fought with stones.” This declaration became true on 1 September 1939. Attack of Germany on Poland gave birth to the Second World War.
- Treaty of Versailles
- Rise of Imperialism
- Britain’s policy of Appeasement
- Lack of co-ordination among Allied nations
- Economic crises or Recession
- Weakness of League of Nations
- Impact of Aggressive Nationalism
- Failure of Disarmament policy
Two rival camps were formed:
- Axis nations
- Allied nations.
League of Nations (LoN)
The establishment of LoN was the most creative work of Paris Peace Summit (1919 AD). Wilson, the President of America, had the most important role in it. The first 26 articles of Versailles Treaty had the detail of League of Nations. In 1920, LoN got its constitutional status. 32 nations which had signed the Versailles treaty became its founder members. Later their number increased to 55.
United Nations Organization
After the Second World War, keeping in mind the establishment of a new International organization, the world powers started discussions and summits. Among these efforts Atlantic Charter, Casablanka Summit, Moscow Summit, Tehran Summit, Yalta Summit and San Francisco Summit are specially important.
To give final form to Charter of UNO, a summit was held on 25th April 1945 in San Francisco, a city of America. In this, 850 representatives of 51 nations assembled. On 26th June 50 nations signed the Charter. Poland signed it afterwards. Hence, 51 countries became its founder members. All nations completed the process of taking acceptance of their Parliaments by 24th October 1945. Hence, every year 24th October is celebrated as the United Nations Organization Day.
Special Agencies of UNO
To help UNO, different special agencies in different regions are indulged in working in social, economic, cultural and human welfare fields. They have their own working system.
The main special agencies are:
- UNESCO (United National Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization)
- ILO (International Labor Organization)
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)
- WHO (World Health Organization)
- IMF (International Monetary Fund)
- International Re-construction and Development Bank
- United Nations Child Crisis Fund
- International Finance Corporation
- International Citizen Aviation Union
- International Agriculture Development Fund
- World Postal Union
- International Distant Communication Union
- United Nations Environment Programme
- International Trade Center
- International Food Programme
- World Trade Organization
- World Bank
- UNICEF – United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
- UNO has settled the many disputes through peaceful means.
- UNO formed Disarmament Commission in 1952 to check competition in the destructive weapons through important treaties as CTBT and NPT.
- UNO tried to remove poverty and to narrow gap between the developed and the developing countries, to solve problems of illiteracy, malnutrition, poverty, unemployment, etc.
Contributions of India to UNO
- Korean War (1950)
- Suez Crisis (1956)
- Congo Crisis (1960)
- Somalia Crisis (1991)
- Freedom of Zimbabwe and Namibia
- Stress on the reorganization of International Monetary System in NAM held in New Delhi in 1983. In the words of Indira Gandhi “If there is no peace today, there will be no life on earth tomorrow”.
Imperialistic Expansion of West
To fulfill economic interests, western nations discovered the new nations and established their hold there, availed trade facilities and later established their rule. Such attitude of western nations is called Imperialistic expansion of Imperialist empire by the Intellectuals.
During 16th and 18th century to fulfill their economic interests, western nations like Portugal, Spain, England, Holland and France established large imperialistic empires through geographical discoveries. In Africa, western nations had control over 1/5 part specially in coastal region. They did slave trade (a inhuman practice). Africans were made slave and sent them to America and inhuman atrocities were done on them. These nations adopted fair and unfair means to fulfill their economic and political interests.
- 1789 : French Revolution took place
- 1793 : Louis XVI was hanged to death.
- 1914-18 : The First World War took place.
- 1917 : Russian Revolutions (March and Nov.) took place.
- 1918 : Czar Nicolas-ll of Russia and his family was assassinated
- 1919 : Versailles alliance
- 1920 : League of Nations was established.
- 1939-45 : The Second World War took place.
- 1945 : UNO was established.
- 1946 : International Court in Hague (Holland) was established.
- 1948 : Sri Lanka got freedom.
- 2010 : Period of Arab Spring (Vasant).
Revolution: Revolt for social and political transformation.
Estate General: The term refers to French Parliament during the reign of Louis XVI.
Czars: Before 1917, Russian emperors were called Czars.
Duma: Contemporary Parliament of Russia.
Aristocracy: Czar’s favorite rich and high class people in Russia.
Capitalism: An economic system in which ownership, personal control, free industrial competition and uncontrolled distribution system is seen in context of consumed materials.
Dictatorism: Under this, there is no security of public life and property. People are not free to express themselves.
Arab Spring: During 2010, these movements were began for bringing changes in administration and government in Arabian nations.