Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 6 Nationalism in India
According to British scholars Sir John Stretch and Sir John Seeley, due to British colonialism and imperialism, Indian nationalism came into existence in 19th century. But in India the concept of nationalism is very ancient. From vedic literature we get the clear information about nationalism. In Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, explanation of nationalism is given clearly what should be the duty of citizens towards nation. Hence, when concept of nationalism is mentioned in Vedas then the idea that British or western impact has given the birth of nationalism, is not right.
Actually in Indians feeling of respect towards nation and devotion was present, which is the symbol of nationality. Not only this but in India, concept of cultural nationalism had special importance. In ancient period, illustration about Greater India is found, according to which cultural impact of India was over whole of central Asia. From mid-19th century feeling of national awareness against Britishers developed in Indian people, which converted into Indian national movement. Nationalism develops among people leading to the feeling of ‘We’ in place of I .
Renaissance of 19th century India was a reaction of Indian people against economic, political and cultural curbing or exploitation of Britishers. On the basis of the force of feeling of nationalism, Indians compelled the Britishers to leave India. Britishers started occupying India from Bengal. Kolkata was the capital of British India in 1911 AD. Hence, their greatest impact was here.
Causes of National awareness (Renaissance)
- Impact of:
- India’s glorious past
- British rule
- English Education
- Contact with Western thinkers and philosophers
- Social and religious reforms or National Movement
- Contribution of India’s literary people
- India’s economic exploitation
- Starting of Printing Press and contribution of Newspapers
- Discriminated policy of the British for Indians
National Movement and India’s Freedom
Indians ran national movement for a long period to make India Independent due to encourage the feeling of nationalism. Due to sacrifice of revolutionaries, non-violence movement of Gandhiji and efforts of freedom fighters, India became Independent on 15 August 1947. In making India independent, many revolutionaries played an important role.
Revolt of 1857
In India, great unrest was increasing against British. Imperialist policy of Britishers and economic exploitation gave impetus to this unrest. Revolt of 1857 was the result of this unrest. British Intellectuals stated it as military revolt while Veer Savarkar called it the First War of Indian Independence. First time Britishers faced an organized effort of Indians.
Leaders of the Revolt of 1857 or the First War of Independence
Revolt of 1857 shook the roots of Britishers. Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi, Nana Saheb of Kanpur, Azimullah and Tatya Tope, Kunwar Singh of Bihar, Ranga ji Babu Gupte from South India, and samants of Mewar gave the co-operation and support to revolutionaries.
Khushal Singh gave millitary help. Rawat of Salumbar, Kesari Singh gave shelter to Khushal Singh. Thakur of Kothariya, Jodh Singh plundered the property of British officer and gave shelter to Neemji Charan.
War of Independence of 1857 in Rajasthan
- Auwa: Thakur Kushal Singh of Auwa was very much against Britishers. In his struggle- against Britishers, he defeated Jodhpur and British army very badly. He separated the head of Macmasan, the British officer from rest of the body and hanged it on the fort of Auwa. He had support of the people and samants of Mewar. The people of Jodhpur were against the British and even the robbers supported the revolutionaries. The soldiers of Jodhpur encouraged the people to revolt against the British. Thus, the revolt of Auwa was due to the ideology against the British force.
- Nasirabad: On 28 May 1857 soldiers of Nasirabad took over the charge of guns forcibly and looted the treasury. They killed a British officer. British army fled to save their lives. From here soldiers went to Delhi.
- Neemach: Revolt of Nasirabad reached to Neemach. In Neemach, soldiers plundered the Shastragar (weapon stock). British officers fled to Udaipur. Maharana of Udaipur gave them shelter in the palace.
- Kota: In Kota also common people and state military struggled due to supportive policy of Maharav Kota to Britishers. Maharav became the enemy of revolutionaries. There was a great role of Jaidayal, Mehrab Khan, Ratan Lai and Jia Lai in awakening the anti-British feelings. There was a complete hold of revolutionaries on administration of Kota.
- In Kota political agent was Major Burton. Revolutionaries killed him and his two sons. With the support of people they imprisoned the ruler in the palace. Entrance gates of Tonk and Shahpura were closed, but due to lack of proper and universally accepted leadership, Britishers curbed the revolt with help of their military force.
- Jhalawar: Tatya Tope entered in Jhalawar of Rajasthan and took control over it. Revolutionaries took control over weapon stock. Due to entrance of Tatya Tope in Rajasthan, a new wave took birth in revolutionaries, Samant of Kothari, Jodh Singh and Rawte Kesari Singh of Salumbar gave full support to Tatya Tope, but Man Singh, the ruler of Marwar had Tantiya Tope arrested by Britishers and he was hanged on 1859 AD. But this is not true, actually by seeing weakening revolt, he went in exile. With this, the war in Rajasthan was ended.
Causes of the failure of the War of Independence
- Due to lack of definite planning revolutionaries could not come in contact with each other.
- In comparison to English, revolutionaries had limited means and they were also traditional.
- The revolt had to be started on 31st May 1857 but it started before the fixed date on 10th May. As a result, whole planning was failed.
- Lack of public awareness.
- Lack of centralized plans and coordination among the leaders.
- Shortage of weapons with the rebels.
- Support to British by the Princely States.
- Strong Naval power of the British.
- Weak military organisation of India’s revolutionaries
- Lack of able leadership.
- 1774 : Publication of first newspaper ‘India Gazette.
- 1826 : Publication of newspaper ‘Uddant Martand.
- 1868 : Publication of newspaper, ‘Amrit Bazar.
- 1813 : Charter Act was implemented by the British.
- 1837-1857 : Revolt occurred against British policies.
- 1857 : Mangal Pandey was hanged till death.
- 1800 : Printing was started in India.
- 1857 : First War of India’s Independence was started.
- 1862 : Bahadur Shah Zafar, the first leader of the India’s freedom struggle died in Rangoon
- 1861 : Excavation began for archaeological discoveries by Alexander Cunningham.
- 1911 : Calcutta (Kolkata) had been the capital of India till 1911.
- 1912 : The capital of India was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.
- 1947 : India got freedom.
Nationalism: Feeling of patriotism, love, sacrifice and devotion towards the nation.
Nationality: To be associated with a particular caste or on the basis of family, but at present, there is not a single country where all people belong to one family.
Nation: A group of people which independently lives on a certain land and organises itself on the basis of freedom, brotherhood, equality and communal feeling.
Culture: Rules and regulations of the beliefs and traditions.
Excavation: Digging the surface of land.