Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 7 Glories of Rajasthan
Rise of Bappa Rawal (in Gehlot descent) is a major historical event. Hareet Rashi Pashupat was of Lakuleesh cult, Bappa gave his great services to him. Hareet Rashi was impressed with personality, thoughts and intelligence of Bappa. He saw all those qualities in him which could change the adverse conditions into favourable. Keeping this in mind, he educated and trained Bappa. He blessed Bappa to become the ruler of Mewar.
Beside this boon, he also helped him financially and gave him title Rawal. After the death of Hareet Rashi, Bappa organized an army and occupied Mewar after attacking it. He extended his kingdom. At that time western India was struggling against attacks of Arabs.
By understanding the adverse conditions, he decided to face Arabian army. His army had a great struggle with the power of khalifas. He defeated Mohammad-bin-Kasim. Bappa extended the kingdom of Mewar up to Iran, Iraq and Khurasan. He made administration of his state strong and did many constructions. He issued gold coins for trading. He was the brave ruler of an independent, and vast empire. He was a pioneer in the history of Rajasthan. He was respected among people and became eternal by his fame.
Bappa Rawal was the great warrior, brave, and intelligent king. He established the fame, greatness and bravery of his ancestors.
He was an able ruler. At end of 12th century Chauhan kingdom had become the most strong kingdom of the North. Its extension was from Kannauj to Jodhpur in Mewar. After the death of Someshwar, Prithviraj Chauhan ascended the throne at the age of 11 years. Mother Karpuri Devi became the guardian of her posthumous son. Prithviraj ruled with the help of his army commander and minister. He appointed his faithful colleagues at high posts.
In view of extension of his kingdom, he adopted the policy of Digvijay as his neighbour states. He defeated Chandel king of Mahoba in 1182 AD. After this, he had struggles with Chalukyas and Gahadwals of Kannauj. From 1186-1191 AD.
In 1192 AD with new preparation Muhammad Gauri again came for battle in the plain of Tarain. He deceived Prithviraj by the promise of war agreement. In morning when Rajputs were busy in their daily activities, he attacked suddenly. Many great warriors like Govind Rai and other died in the battlefield. Gauri surrounded the army of Prithviraj. In this way Turkis established their rule over Delhi and Ajmer.
It is illustrated in Prithviraj Raso that he was captured and taken to Ghazni. There Muhammad Ghazni got Prithviraj eyes pierced with hot iron rods. Chand Bardai said, “Ghori, a king, though a prisoner can get command from a king, so only you can ask him to shoot.” Prithivraj was asked to show the art of archery, where he could aim and shoot first by hearing the sound. Chand Bardai said a few verses which gave the exact location of Ghori sitting on his throne.
Prithviraj sent an arrow racing to Ghori’s throat. Thus, Ghori was stuck dead by Prithiviraj. After this deed, Prithviraj killed himself. But many historians don’t have same view regarding this event.
After Maharana Kumbha, Maharana Sangram Singh who became famous with the name Rana sanga was the most important ruler. He extended kingdom of Mewar and organized all kings of Rajputana under his reign. After the death of Raimal in 1509, he became the king of Mewar. He organized his power by joining hands with Rajputs leaders. He struggled with Mahmud Begda of neighbouring state Gujarat. To achieve Kumbha’s glory, continued struggle with Muslim powers, he had a struggle with king of Gujarat in 1520 and achieved victory. He defeated Sultan Mahmud Khilji but released him after promising of good behaviour. He joined parts of Delhi Sultanate in his kingdom which were near the territory of Mewar.
Khatoli war was held between Sanga and Sultan of Delhi Ibrahim Lodhi in 1517. In this, Lodhi was defeated. He was also defeated in the battle of Badi (Dholpur). In local literature, it is illustrated that many times Maharaja Sanga defeated the sultans of Mandu, Gujarat and Delhi.
Babar occupied Delhi by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat. He had real challenge from Sanga as he was the only ruler at that time who had capability to occupy Delhi. At this time Mewar became the centre of war. All neighbouring states recognized Sanga’s power.
Battle of Khanwa was faught between Sanga and Babar. During this war, Sanga was wounded by an arrow. He was taken away from the battlefield and, therefore, Babur won the battle. After this, Babur became the emperor of India and the Mughal empire was established permanently. The unity among Rajputs and their glory came to an end after Maharana Sanga.
Meerabai was born in village Kudki in 1498 AD. It is considered that from her childhood, she was completely devoted in Krishna-bhakti. According to her, ‘Mere to Girdhar Gopal Doosro Na Kot.
She got married in 1519 with Bhojraj of Mewar, the son of Maharana Sanga. After 7 years of his marriage Bhojraj died, Meera had virakti from this material world after the death of her father Ratan Singh and husband Bhojraj. Now she focused her concentration in Krishna Bhakti.
The new ruler of Mewar, Vikramaditya, gave many tortures to Meera but she didn’t leave her faith in Lord Krishna. First she went to her paternal place then to Vrindavan. She spent her last time in Dwarika.
Mirabai had religious discussions with great saints. She was an ‘idol worshipper’. She did not follow any one sect or thought or philosophy. She composed many bhajans expressing her love and devotion to Krishna. Her devotional songs are sung even today. Many of her songs belong to the caste of ‘untouchables’ like Kabif.
The name of Panna Dhai is a symbol of motherhood, courage, loyalty and sacrifice. There was instability in Mewar (Rajasthan) after the death of Maharana Sanga. After Sanga, Ratan Singh ascended the throne but he also died in 1531 AD. Then Vikramaditya became the ruler of Mewar. Due to and his mother’s behaviour, people and samants were unhappy.
Banveer, son of Prithviraj (Brother of Sanga) murdered Vikramaditya and sat on the throne of Mewar. He also wanted to kill child Udai Singh, younger brother of Vikramaditya to rule over Mewar.
Panna Dhai was the Governess of Udai Singh. The caring of small child was the responsibility of Panna Dhai after the ‘Johar’ of Karmavati. Udai Singh was the future king or successor of Mewar. Hence by killing him Banveer wanted to secure his kingdom. But Panna Dhai was a brave lad. To save Uday Singh, by the feeling of Swami Bhakti, she kept her son Chandan (who was same age of Udai Singh) on the bed.
She sent child Udai Singh by covering him with leaves in fruit basket out of the palace with her faithfull servant. As the greedy Banveer came she pointed her finger towards her own son. Banveer thought that Chandan to be Uday Singh and killed him. Then, she took Udai Singh to Kumbhalgarh, a secured place. Thus, Panna Dhai saved the future of Mewar and shown an example when a mother sacrificed her own child.
Veer Durga Das
He was born in 1638 AD. He was the son of Askaran Karnot (Rathore) of Salwa, minister of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. He proved his loyalty by defending Maharana Ajeet Singh of Jodhpur from Mughal rulers.
Durgadas played an important role in the Marwar-Mughal battle through his diplomacy and taking the help of Mewar, he tempted Akbar, (the son of Aurangzeb) to make him a ruler and took him to his side. Akbar declared himself king at Nadaul. Aurangzeb tried to repress the revolt but the struggle of Rathores against the Mughals continued. Finally, with the help of Durgadas and after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 AD, Rathore dynasty re-captured Marwar.
Rathors of Marwar gained great power under the leadership of Rao Maldev. He extended the kingdom of Marwar up to Delhi. Though unstability occurred in Delhi and Mewar after the death of Babar and Sanga but Maldev was the most powerful among Rajputs. He defeated neighbouring states of Bhadrajan, Raipur, Nagaur, Medta, Ajmer, Fatehpur, etc. He took advantage of struggle between Humayun and Shershah Suri and extended his power up to Hindaun and Bayana. He occupied Siwana, Sanchor and Jallore.
He has an important place in history of Marwar as well as History of India. He converted his small kingdom into a vast empire of Marwar. He himself was a great scholar of Sanskrit also but lacked in farsightedness.
Today many programmes are implemented for plantation and forest conservation. To save trees an event was held in Khejadli village of Marwar nearly. 300 years ago.
Amrita Devi Bishnoi was the resident in village Khejarli Jodhpur. In her village, the trees of Khejadli were being cut by the orders of Maharaja Abhay Singh, King of, Jodhpur. Amrita Devi protested it bitterly and said, “I am ready to sacrifice my life for the trees.” She embraced a tree with her three daughters. At this opposition, the,soldiers of Maharaja beheaded Amrita Devi and her three daughters. That day was Tuesday which is known as Black Tuesday.
After this, 363 more Bishnoi villagers were killed by the king’s soldiers against opposing cutting of tree. In Bishnoi Samaj, cutting of trees is banned.
This event made the atmosphere aggressive, and gave birth to condition of revolt. Finally soldiers came back to Jodhpur and told whole event to king. He stopped the mission and declared this region reserved for trees and animals. To sacrifice lives in a form of group to save Khejdli tree is a unique example in the world. In the remembrance of Amrita Devi and other people, a monument is built up there.
After the death of Maharaja Badan Singh his son Surajmal Jat became the king of Bharatpur in 1756 AD. He had great political skills. Agra, Meerut, Mathura were parts of his kingdom. He was a powerful king in comparison of the other kings of India. He had about 1500 horse riders in his cavalry and 25000 infantry. He curbed Afghan leaders Asad Khan, Mir Bakshi, Salawat Khan. He confronted Ahmad Shah Abdali when he came to destroy the Braj Teerth with his soldiers. Finally Abdali went back.
In his reign Jats were at highest peak of prosperity. He made Bharatpur so powerful that Mughal and other political powers were always keen to take his help.
Govind Guru did great efforts for social and moral upliftment of Bhils living in Vagad region (Doongarpur, Banswara). He was a great social reformer. He was born on 20th December 1858 in Basiyan village of Doongarpur state. He was greatly impressed by the thinking of Swami Dayanand Saraswati when he came to Udaipur, then he started working for Bhil. He started a freedom movement among Bhils. He established Samp Sabha to organize Bhils socially and bring them in mainstream. He also established (Bhagat/cult) to keep Bhils in the limits of Hinduism.
Great Folk Deities
The great people who struggled and sacrificed their lives to protect religion, earth, and cows are called the folk deities. People have great devotion in them even today. Among them names like Tejaji, Gogaji, Pabuji and Dev Narayan are
praiseworthy They all are included in the cadre of folk deity.
Tejaji was a folk diety, saviour of cows. He was born in Kharnal village in Nagaur district in 1130 Vikram Samvat. He belonged to a Jat family. His mother’s name was Ram Kunvari and wife’s name was Pemal. He became injured during a fight to snatch the cows of Lachha Gujari from the thieves and he died due to snake bite.
The information of his death was brought by his mare Lilan (Singari) to his house. The news of Tejaji’s action of freeing the cows spread everywhere. The people suffering from snake bite come to his Than for remedy. He is worshipped as god of snakes, well wisher of agricultural activities.
A popular belief is that a person or cattle wearing Teja’s amulet (thread) is protected against snake bite. A biggest mela (fair) is held in Bhadrapad Shukla Dashmi where animals are purchased and sold.
Gogaji was a folk deity who fought against Sultan Firoz Shah of Delhi. He was born in Chauhan family, at Dadrava village in Churu district. His father’s name was Zewar Singh and mother’s name was Bile. His mother was the devotee of Goraknath. He was pleased with her services and gave her a snake made up of Gpogle Dhoop and said “dissolve it in milk and drink.” She did same and gave birth to Gogaji.
He fought against Firoz Shah, the emperor of Delhi. Gogaji sacrificed his life to protect cows and to defend the country from Muslim rulers. Hence, he is worshipped as a folk deity. He is also considered as a god of snakes. After the rains, the farmers of Rajasthan tie a sacred thread ‘Goga Rakhdi’ to the plough and the person who ploughs before ploughing the field.
The than of Gogaji is called Gogamedi, which is located at the fort of Indramangarh. The fair of Gogamedi is organised every year in which people come from outside Rajasthan also.
Pabuji was a folk deity. He sacrificed his life to save the cows of Deval Devi. He was born in 13th century at Kolhugarh village near Pabuji (Jodhpur). His father’s name was Dhadal and mother’s name was Kamlade. He had a god sister named Deval Charan. He had a mare named Kesar Kalvi. Devil used to guard the cows with the help of mare.
At the time of his marriage, Pabuji got this information that the cows of his god sister Devil Charani had been carried by Jind Rao, Khinchi of Jayal. Hearing this news, Pabuji left the marriage ceremony and rode on the Kesar Kalvi. He followed Jind Rao and sacrificed his life during the fight to free the cows. Respect for women, affection to those who came to him for protection and bravery were his particular traits. His eulogy is collected in the book named ‘Pabuji ki Phad’.
Ramdevji was also a famous folk deity. He was born in 15th century in Ajmalji and Mainna Devi’s home in a village of Pokhran. He gave the message of social equality and opposed casteism. He gave stress on kindness for all living creatures, respect for Guru, labour and mankind. His main functions were-doing Bhajans with Dalits and untouchables. He opposed religious rituals and gave stress on Hindu-Muslim unity.
He stressed on pureness of deeds and greatness of Guru. In rural society Baba Ramdevji is worshipped as a saviour of cows. He was a symbol of social brotherhood. He breathed his last in 1515 Vikram Samvat (1458 AD) in Runecha. A great fair is held every year at this place from Bhadrapad Shulka second to tenth.
Dev Narayanji was a folk deity. He gave stress on the protection of cows. He was born in Bagadawat family near Bhilwara. He belonged to Nag family Gurjar. He fought bravely against the ruler of Bhinay to protect cows. He is particularly considered to be the folk deity of Gurjar caste.
Gurjar people respect his work. He asked his followers to guard the cows. He fought against evils throughout his life and gave birth of goodness. His main temple is located at village Jodypuriya (Tonk). He is worshipped as folk deity. His phad is the largest and popular in Rajasthan.
Saint Peepaji was the first social reformer who spread awareness of Bhakti movement in Rajasthan. He was born in 1417 Vikram Samvat Chaitra Shukla Purnima in Khinchi dynasty. His childhood name was Pratap Singh.
Pratap Singh (Peepaji) was a brave and courageous ruler in the beginning. He defeated Firoz Tughluq of Delhi Sultanate, but by seeing the killings and bloodshed in war, he decided to become a sage (sanyasi). He was against casteism, Veil system, communalism, social discrimination. He believed in Nirgun and Nirakar Bhakti. He had great respect for Guru because he knew that without Guru, salvation (moksha) is not possible.
He was the founder of Bishnoi community. He was born on 1508 Vikram Samwat (1451 BC) Bhadrapad Ashtmi in Peepara village of Nagaur district to Lohalji and Hansadevi. At the age of 20, he became a saint from a cattle herder. He founded first part of Bishnoi Samaj. Rulers and special classes both were impressed with him. His principles are related to people’s daily life. He stressed his followers to keep 29 rules.
Bishnoi is named after (Bees-Noi) numbers (20-9). He was peace-minded, kind, tolerant, liberal thinker, humane, conservator of environment and supporter of Hindu-Muslim unity. He took Samadhi in 1593 Vikram Samvat. His collection of speeches is named Sabadvani. Due to his teachings Bishnoi samaj is continuously fighting for the conservation of environment, trees and animals.
Among social reformers of Rajasthan, the name of Jasnath is very important. He was born in Vikram Samvat 1539 at Katriasar (Bikaner). He opposed casteism, stressed on tolerance and good behaviour. He also considered Guru as the base of salvation. He started Jasnathi cult and propounded 36 rules. He preached his followers to worship only formless god.
He was the main saint of medieval Bhakti movement. He was born at Ahmadavat in Vikram Samvat 1601 on Fhalgun Shukla Ashtami. After the death of his wife, he became an asetic. Most of the time he lived at Sambhar and Amer. He had 52 disciples. His teaching are compiled in Daduvani. He expressed his philosophy in simple language that is why he is considered the Kabir of Rajasthan. He opposed orthodoxy and social inequality and stressed on simple living and high thinking to achieve God.
He was the founder of Ramsnehi cult. He was famous with the name Ram Charanji. His original name was Ram Kishan Vijayvergiya. He was bom on Maghshukla 14, Vikam Samvat 1776 (24 February 1720 AD) at village Soda is Tonk district. He was the founder of Acharya of Ramdwara Shahpura. His childhood name was Ram Kishan and father’s and mother’s name were Bakht Ram Vijayvergiya and Devhuti devi.
He was married to Gulav Kanwar. He was appointed as Deewan of Malpura. After the death of his father, he became sanyasi and became follower of Guru Kripa Ramji in village Dantda (Bhilwara). He was against casteism, idolism and other social evils. His creations are compiled as vaniji which was published from Shahpura (Bhilwara) as Ram Charanji’s Abhinav vani. His follower Ramjan spread his teachings from Vikram Samvat 1817 and established Ramdwaras which are called as ‘Ram Niwas Dham’ or ‘Ram Niwas Baikunth Dham’.
In Jain tradition, origin of Aacharya Bhikshu means New Aalok (Prakash). The birth of this great saint took place in village Kantaliyan (Marwar) on Aashadh Shukla Tryodashi Vikram Samvat 1783 (1726 AD). He became a sage in cult of Acharya Raghunath at the age of 25 years. He was the founder of Teerapanth sect in Jainism.
He wrote wide literature in the form of prose and poetry in Rajasthani language. He spread his teachings all around. He stressed on purity of thought. He believed in religious tolerance and respect to all religions. He made compulsory to take permission of family before taking Deeksha. He banned keeping clothes, Bhiksha patras more than need living in places built for Bhikshus, taking Bhiksha. He stressed on self-discipline. He propounded to follow one Aacharya, one follower, one thought. He followed the principles of Dharma. He breathed his last on 1860 Vikram Samvat (1803 AD) at Seriyari.
- 3250 BC : Complete development of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
- 1713-1753 : Period of Bappa Rawal
- 1178 : Muhammad Ghori, the ruler of Ghazni, attacked over Gujarat
- 1182 : Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the Chandel ruler of Mahoba.
- 1192 : Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the third battle of Tarain, Prithviraj Chauhan died
- 1451 : Jambhoji, the founder of Bishnoi community, was born
- 1498-1557 : Period of Meerabai
- 1509-1528 : Period of Maharana Sanga
- 1509 : Rana Sangha became the Maharana of Mewar after Maharana Raymal. .
- 1519 : Meerabai got married to Bhojraj, son of Maharana Sanga of Mewar.
- 1526 : First battle of Panipat was fought between Babur and Ibrahim Lodhi
- 1527 : The Battle of Khanwa was fought between Rana Sanga and Babur.
- 1544 : Battle of Giri-Sumel was fought between Rao Maldev of Marwar and Sher Shah Suri.
- 1638-1718 : Period of Durgadas Rathore.
- 1678 : Maharana Jaswant ascends Marwar after the death of Aurangzeb.
- 1707-1763 : Period of Maharaja Surajmal
- 1707 : The Rathores regained Marwar after the death of Aurangzeb.
- 1720 : Ramcharanji, the founder of Ramsnehi community, was born.
- 1726-1803 : Period of Aacharya Bhikshu
- 1730 : Amrita Devi sacrificed her life to save trees.
- 1756 : Surajmal, the son of Maharana Badan Singh, became the emperor Bharatpur
Bhagat cult: It was founded by Govind Guru. He tried to keep the Bheel community in the limitation of Hindu religion.
Gogamadi: The place of Gogaji.
Deval or Devra: It refers to the temples of Baba Ramdev, a folk deity of common people are called Deval/Devra.
Stahanak: Than or mounds.
Phad: Painted story on cloth.
Bishnoi: The cult founded by Jambhoji.
Ram Dware: The worship places of Ram Snehi cult, founded by Ramcharanji. They are also called Ram Niwas Dham or Ram Niwas Baikunth Dham.
Terapanthi cult: This law-based cult was founded by Jain Aacharya Bhikshu.