Rajasthan Board RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
RBSE Class 10 Social Science The Rise of Nationalism in Europe InText Questions and Answers
In what way do you think this print (Text Book Fig. 1) depicts a utopian vision ?
This picture was prepared by a French artist Frederic Sorrieu, visualising his dream of a world made up of democratic and social Republics. This figure shows the people of Europe and America-men and women of all ages and social classes marching in a long train and offering home age of the statue of liberty as they pass by it. This figure depicts a utopian vision because it is actually unlikely to exist. Jesus, saints and angels from heaven have their eyes on this scene. That situation would be idealistic at that, time. Thus, this picture reflects the imaginative vision of the painter.
Summarise the attributes of a nation, as Renan understands them. Why, in his view, are nations important ?
According to the understanding of Renan, the attributes of a nation are following ones:
- A nation is the culmination of a long past of endeavours sacrifice and devotion.
- A heroic past, great men, glory that is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea.
- A nation is a large – scale solidarity. Its existence is a daily plebiscite.
- If any one has the right to be consulted, it is the inhabitant.
- A nation never has any real interest in annexing or holding on to a country against its will
- The existence of nations is a good thing a necessity even.
Importance of Nations:
In Renan’s views, the existence of nations is a good thing because their existence is a guarantee of liberty which will be lost if the world has only one law and one master.
Describe the political ends that List hopes to achieve through economic measures.
Friedrich List, Professor of Economics at the university of Tubingen in Germany, described what economic measures could help forge a nation together. According to Friedrich List, the political ends could be achieved through the following measures:
(1) To create a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital.
(2) Free economic system is the only means to engender national feeling. Tariff barriers should be abolished. The creation of a network of railways further stimulates mobility harnessing economic interests of a nation.
What is the caricaturist trying to depict ? (Fig. 6)
Conservative regimes set up by Vienna Congress in 1815 were autocratic. They did not tolerate criticism and dissent. People were denied freedom of writing and speech. These regimes imposed censorship laws to curl the freedom of writing in newspapers, books, plays and songs. No body was allowed to reflect the ideas of liberty and freedom. The caricaturist is depicting his resentness and painful feelings on the set up of conservative regimes.
Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
The importance of the language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity is given below:
- It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularised.
- Language and traditions play an important role in developing nation a list sentiments.
- Language and traditions provide the people the feeling of equality in the sphere of the weavers culture.
- Language and traditions unite people and tie them in the threads of pride.
Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.
The causes of the Silesian weavers uprising against contractors were as given below:
- Contractors gave them orders for finished textiles but drastically reduced their payments.
- The viewpoint of the journalist Wilhelm Wo lb was that the condition of the weavers was very miserable. The desperate need for jobs had taken advantage of the w eavers by the contractors to reduce the prices of the goods they ordered.
Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology ?
(i) The liberal politician Carl Welcker w as of the view7 that w orking sphere of men and women was different from each other. Man is meant for public tasks in the domain of law; production and defence. But the woman is weaker, dependent and timid. Her sphere is the home. Equality between man and woman would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family.
(ii) Louise Otto Peters was a political activist. She was of the view7 that untiring efforts of men are intended for the benefit of only men. and not for all the benefits of all mankind. But liberty is indivisible. Therefore, free men must not tolerate to be surrounded by the unfree.
(iii) According to the anonymous reader of the newspaper, it is ridiculous and unreasonable to deny women for political rights. It is a disgrace that even the stupidest cattle-herder has the right to vote, simply because he is a man whereas highly talented women are excluded from the right to vote. It is evident that the above writers have different opinions regarding liberal ideology. There is no unanimity among the writers regarding the question of women rights.
Describe the caricature. How does it represent the relationship between Bismarck and the elected deputies of Parliament ? What interpretation of democratic processes is the artist trying to convey ?
In the figure (Figure 13 given, on page no. 20). Bismarck has been shown with a hunter in his hand in the German Parliament. The rest of the Parliamentary7 members are afraid of him. They bow their heads to show their respect to Bismarck. This caricature depicts that Bismarck ruled on the minds of the members of German Parliament. In this figure, the artist has explained comically the functioning of the democratic sy stem in which the existence of democracy is only nominal. In reality, it is autocracy of Bismarck and he had no faith in democratic processes. The artist has made fun of the democracy of Bismarck through this figure.
Look at Fig. 14 (a) of the Text Book. Do you think that the people living in any of these regions thought of themselves as Italians ?
Examine Fig. 14 (b) Which was the first region to become a part of unified Italy ? Which was the last region to join ? In which year did the largest number of states join ?
(a) The people living in the state of Sardinia-Piedmont, though they themselves were as Italians.
(b) (i) The region of Lombardy was the first to become a part of unified Italy.
(ii) Papal state (Rome) was the last region to become a part of unified Italy.
(iii) In the year 1860, the largest number of states joined.
The artist has portrayed Garibaldi as holding on to the base of the boot, so that the king of Sardinia-Piedmont can enter it from the top. Look at the map of Italy once more. What statement is this caricature making?
In 1860, Garibaldi along with a large number of armed volunteers attacked the kingdom of two Sicilies and captured them. Garibaldi submitted these two sicilies to Victor Emmanuel II, the king of Sardinia-Piedmont who was proclaimed as the king of united Italy in 1861. The fig. 15 depicts the contribution of Garibaldi in the unification of Italy, ‘
With the help of the chart in Box 3, identify the attributes of Veit’s Germania and interpret the symbolic meaning of the painting. In an earlier allegorical rendering of 1836, Veit had portrayed the Kaiser’s crown at the place where he has now located the broken chain. Explain the significance of this change.
According to the chart given in Box 3, the attributes of Germania and their symbolic meaning are as follows:
|Attribute of Germania||Symbolic Meaning|
|1. Broken chains||1. Meaning|
|2. Breastplate with eagle||2. Being freed|
|3. Crown of oak leaves||3. Symbol of German empire-strength|
|4. Sword||4. Heroism|
|5. Olive branch around the||5. Readiness to fight|
|6. sword||6. Willingness to make peace|
|7. Black, red and gold tricolour||7. Flag of the liberal nationalists in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the German states|
|8. Rays of the rising sun||8. Beginning of a newera|
This figure shows that Germany has attained his independence on account of his bravery and military power. Bismarck adopted the policy of “Iron and Blood’ and defeated Denmark, Austria and France. Consequently, a new German Empire came into existence. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves which stands for heroism.
Describe what you see in Fig. 18. What historical events could Hubner be referring to in this allegorical vision of the nation ?
In Figure 18, the allegory of the German nation, Germania has been depicted as lying in a desperate mood. This picture was painted by Julies Hubner in 1850. In this picture Germania who was on allegory of German pride and heroism is lying fallen in front of Kaiser’s crown. This picture shows that All the German National Assembly, which was held as Frankfurt Parliament ended unsuccessfully. It shows the deep sense of disappointment and anger that the Germans expressed at the failure of Frankfurt Parliament in 1848.
Look once more at Fig. 10. Imagine you were a citizen of Frankfurt in March 1848 and were present during the proceedings of the parliament. How would you (a) as a man seated in the hall of deputies, and (b) as a woman observing from the galleries, relate to the banner of Germania hanging from the ceiling ?
- If I were seated as a man in the hall of deputies I would feel to see the banner of Germania that the time has come now to become free from the dominance of the foreign powers.
- If I were seated as a woman in the hall of deputies, I would feel to see the picture of Germania that to deprive the women from political rights in the movement of unification of Germany would hurt the cause of movement of German unification of Germany and the liberal nationalist ideology would face failure.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Textbook Questions and Answers
Write in brief
Write a note on :
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini,
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour,
(c) The Greek war of Independence,
(d) Frankfurt parliament,
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles.
(a) Giuseppe Mazzini:
Giuseppe Mazzini was a great revolutionary of Italy. He was born in Genoa in 1807. He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. As a young man of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first young Italy in Murscillcs. and then, young Europe in Beme whose members worked like minded youngmen from Poland, France. Italy and the German States.
Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forget into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty7. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany. France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Mctternich the chancellor of Austria, described Mazzini as The most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour:
Cavour was the Chief Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont. He wanted the unification of Italy under the leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont. He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian exile, he spoke French better than he did Italian. Due to his efforts, there was a diplomatic alliance between France and Sardinia- Piedmont. As a result of his alliance Sardinia- Piedmont succeeded in defeating Austrian Forces in 1859, Thus Cavour played a significant role in the unification of Germany.
(c) The Greek war of Independence:
Greece had been the part of the Ottoman Empire since the fifteenth century. The Greeks wanted freedom from the Ottoman Empire. Therefore, the growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence among the Greeks which began in 1821. Nationalist in Greece got support from other Greeks living in exile and also from many Europeans who had sympathies for ancient Greek culture. Poets and artists lauded Greece as the ‘cradle of European civilization’ and mobilised public opinion to support struggle against Muslim Empire. The English poet Lord Byron organized finds and later went to fight in the war where he died of fever in 1824. Finally, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(d) Frankfurt Parliament:
Frankfurt Parliament also tried for unification of Germany, on 18th May 1848, 831 elected deputies of various German States took their places in the Frankfurt parliament. The members drafted a constitution for a German nation. The presidency of this nation was entrusted to a king who was to remain under the Parliament. The Parliament proposed the unification of Germany under the King of Prussia and the members offered the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia. But the King of Prussia rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. Thus the Frankfurt Parliament failed to unite Germany.
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles:
The women played an important role in the nationalist struggles. The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large number of women had participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this, they were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitor’s gallery.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people ?
- The French revolutionaries took the following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
- The ideas of labatric (the father land) and ie citoyen’ (the citizen). Emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
- A new French flag, the tricolour was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
- The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
- New hymns were composed, oaths were taken and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
- A centralised administrative system was set up to formulate uniform laws for all citizens within French territory.
- Internal custom duties and dues were abolished and uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
- Regional dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.
- The revolutionaries further declared that it was the mission and the destiny of the French nation to liberate the people of Europe from despotism, in other words to help other people of Europe to become nations.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed ?
Marianne was the female allegory of France. During the French Revolution, artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as. Liberty’, Justice and the Republic. These ideas were represented through specific objects or symbols. In France, she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of people’s nation. Fler characteristics were drawn from those of a Liberty and the Republic-The red cape, the tricolour, the Cockade. Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the public of the national symbol of unity. Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
Germania was the allegory’ of die Gennan nation, hi visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism. The inscription on Germania’s sword reads : The German sword protects the German Rhine. Germania’s portrait reflects symbol of unity, integrity and independence.
The figures of Marianne and Germania encouraged the feeling of nationality in the people and gave France and Germany identity as different nations.
Briefly trace fthe process of German unification.
The Process of German Unification :
The process of German unification can be described under’ the following points:
1. In 1848. the middle-class citizen of Germany tried to unite the different region of the German confederation into a nation state governed by an elected parliament. The members of the Frankfurt parliament drafted a constitution for a German nation. When the members offered the crown the king of Prussia, rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. Thus the attempt for the unification of Germany did not succeed. This attempt to unite Gennan nations was foiled by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military supported by the large landowners of Prussia.
2. Prussia took a leadership of the movement for national unification. The Chief Minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Bismarck adopted the policy of “Iron and Blood’ and during the period of seven years he defeated Denmark, Austria and France. Thus the process of unification of Germany was completed.
3. In January, 1871, the Prussian King William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremory held at Versailles on 18th January, 1871.
What Changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him ?
Describe the role of French for the development of colonies.
To make the administrative system more efficient, Napoleon introduced the following changes:
- In the administrative field, Napoleon had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more national and efficient.
- Napoleon introduced the civil code in 1804 which is known as ‘Napoleonic Code’. Napoleonic Code abolished all privileges based on birth.
- It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- Napoleon simplified administrative division, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- In the towns, guild restrictions were removed.
- transport and communication systems were improved.
- Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen were given freedom.
- Napoleon standardized weights and measures and a common national currency was introduced.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals ?
The meaning of the 1848 revolution of the liberals:
The 1848 revolution of the liberals in France brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage was proclaimed. The liberals wanted to establish a nation-state on parliamentary principles a contribution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
Meaning of Liberalism:
The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new7 middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Thus, liberalism is based on parliamentary ideas of republic, nation-state, constitutionalism freedom of press and freedom to form organisations. The Ideas Supported by the Liberals
The liberals supported the following ideas:
1. Political Ideas:
- The liberals emphasised the concept of Government by consent.
- They wranted to create a nation-state on parliamentary principles a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
- The liberals emphasized on formation of assemblies based on universal suffrage.
- They were supporters of the equality before law.
2. Economic Ideas:
- Liberals laid stress on the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of governments and capital.
- The hberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.
3. Social Ideas:
- The liberalism stressed on the abolition of serfdom and bonded labour.
- The liberals demanded that the women should be given political rights.
Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
What do you understand by Romanticism ? How did Romanticism contribute to develop the idea of nationalism ? Explain.
Romanticism Culture played an important role increasing the idea of the nation – art and poetry, stories and music helped in expressing and shaping nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement – which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The Romantic artists and poets wanted to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
Contribution of Romanticism in the development of nationalist feeling.
Romanticism contributed in the development of nationalist feelings as given below:
1. Folk Culture:
The famous German Philosopher John Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people – das Volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation (volksgeist) was popularised. So collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential for the development of nationalist feelings.
Language also played an important role in the development of nationalist sentiments. After occupation of Poland by Russia, the polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. But the nationalists of Poland began to use polish language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction. The use of Polish was seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
In the case of Poland, national feelings were kept alive through music, Karol Kurpinski a polish Citizen celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Development of Nations in the nineteenth century During the nineteenth century, nationalism developed in many countries in which Germany and Italy Were prominent.
1. Development of German nation state:
(i) Attempts of Frankfurt Parliament:
These were severe nationalist feelings in the middle classes. In 1848, they made an effort to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. But this liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large land owner of Prussia. Thus the attempts of the Frankfurt parliament were foiled by the reactionary forces for the unification of Germany.
(ii) Leadership of Prussia:
After the failure of Frankfurt Parliament, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. This unification process was carried out by Otto Von Bismarck the Chief Minister of Prussia.
Bismarck adopted the policy of Iron and Blood and during a period of seven years defeated Denmark, Austria and France. Thus the unification of Germany was completed.
(iii) Proclamation of German Empire:
In January 1871, the King of Prussia, William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles on 18th January, 1871. William I was proclaimed the King of new German Empire. After the unification, the new state placed a strong emphasis on modernizing the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.
2. Development of Italy as a nationstate:
Before its unification, Italians were scattered over serveral dy nastic states and the multi-national Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven years of which only one Sardinia – Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house. The North was under Austrian Habsburgs the centre was ruled by the pope and the Southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
(i) Contribution of Giusepple Mazzini:
Mazzini was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently formed a secret society called young Italy. He also formed another secret society called young Europe. After the failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848, the ruler of Sardinia-Piedmont Victor Emmanuel
II started his efforts to unify the Italian states through war.
(ii) Contribution of Cavour:
Cavour was the Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont. He successfully got into an alliance with France. After getting military assistance from France. Sardinia-Piedmont defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. As a result of the defeat of Austria, Lombardy was annexed into Sardinia- Piedmont.
(iii) Contribution of Garibaldi:
In I860, Garibaldi along with his armed volunteers, attacked Sicily and Naples and captured them. Sicily and Naples were incorporated in Sardinia- Piedmont in 1860.
(iv) Contribution of Victor Emmanuel I Victor Emmanuel II, was the King of Sardinia – Piedmont. He was proclaimed King of united Italy in 1861. In 1870, the Italian forces captured Rome. In this way, the unification of Italy was completed.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe ?
Make a comparative study of the nationalism of Britain and other European countries.
History of Nationalism in Britain In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of along drawn – out process. There was no British Nation prior to the eighteenth century. Therefore in Britain the history of nationalism was different than the other European council.
(i) The spirit of nationalism was visible in England despite of many ethnic groups like English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political conditions.
(ii) As the English nation grew’ in wealth, importance and power, it was able to spread its influence over the other nations of the Islands.
(iii) A revolution broke out in England in 1688. As a result of this revolution, the English Parliament seized power from the monarchy. Now Parliament became the supreme power in England. Thus the English Parliament was the instrument though which a nation-state, with England at its centre came into existance. But in other states of Europe, Kings, bloody revolutions and wars played a major role in the formation of a nation – state.
(iv) Through constitutional measures, united kingdom of Great Britain came into existence. According to the Act of union (1707), Scotland w as annexed in Britain and the united kingdom of Great Britain was formed. The British Parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. Gradually Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed.
(v) in 1801, Ireland w as forcibly incorporated into the united kingdom. A new British nation was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans ?
Causes of the Emergence of Nationalist Tension in the Balkans After 1871, the most serious source of nationalist tension was the Balkan region. Causes of the emergence of nationalist tensions in this area were:
- The Balkan w as a region of geographical and ethnic variations.
- A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The Turks exploited the people of Balkans.
- The Spread of the nationalist feelings in the Balkans. Together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made the Balkan region very explosive.
- All through the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire tried to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but all his efforts failed.
- Gradually many European subject nationalities broke away from the control of Ottoman Empire and declared independence.
- As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan region became an area of intense conflict.
- The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of others.
- During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military’ might.
- Each power Russia. Germany, England, Austro – Hungary was keen on opposing the control of other pow ers over the Balkan and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region out finally the First World War.