Rajasthan Board RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Nationalism in India InText Questions and Answers
Read the text carefully. What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said satyagraha, is active resistance ?
According to Gandhiji, ‘Satya-graha’ is not a physical force. A Satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the opponent and it does not want to destroy him. In the use of ‘Satyagraha’, there is no ill-will whatever. ‘Satyagraha’ is pure soul – force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called Satyagraha. Non-violence is the supreme Dhama without seeking vengeance or being aggressive. A satyagrahi can win the battle through non-violence. This can be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj ? Give reasons for your response.
If I were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920,1 would respond to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj to participate in the nonviolence movement. At that time talukdars and landlords were demanding from peasants heavy high rents and many other cesses. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords’ farms without any payment. Gandhiji had opposed the heavy rents and ‘begar’. Local leaders told peasants that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the poor.
Find out about other participants in the National Movement who were captured and put to death by the British. Can you think of a similar example from the national movement in Indo – China.
The revolutionaries had made a plan to start a revolt in the military regiments in Punjab in 1915 but this plan could not succeed.
The British police captured 46 revolutionaries and put them to death. Master Amirchand, Avadh Bihari, Bal Mukund Bissa and Basant Kumar were hanged on 8th May, 1915. On 18th April, 1898 Damodar Hari Chapekar was hanged. Anant Kanher, Vinayak Rao Deshpandey, Khudi Ram Bose, Madan Lai Dhingra, Sardar Bhagat Singh, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaq Ullah, Rajendra Lahiri, Rajguru, Sukhdev, Sardar Udham Singh and many other revolutionaries were also put to death by the British government. When Abdul Ghaffar Khan a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested in April, 1930 angry crowds demo¬nstrated in the street of Peshawar facing police firing. Consequently, many persons were killed. A large number of Vietnamese participated in the national movement of Indo-China. They fought for the freedom of their country in which thousands of Vietnamese were killed.
Why did various classes and groups of Indians participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement ?
Various classes and groups of Indians participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. The causes of their participation were as given below:
- For the rich peasants, the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
- For the poor peasants the meaning of Swaraj was that they would have their own land, would not have to pay the rents or do ‘begar’.
- Most businessmen came to see Swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints.
- The industrial working classes participated in the movement against low wages and poor working conditions.
- For the women Swaraj meant equality with men in Indian Society and acquirement of high status.
Read the Source D carefully. Do you agree with Iqbal’s idea of communalism ? Can you define communa- lism in a different way ?
No, I do not agree with Iqbal’s views/ideas of communalism because his ideology puts communal interest above the nation. They demand a seperate electorate on the basis of community, which would later prove disastrous for the country. Inspired by his thoughts, the demand for Pakistan arose.
Yes, I can define communalism in a different way. In my view, communalism refers to the ideological differences between philos-ophical concepts of two different sections. A nation cannot be built on this basis. Different communities in the same nation should get an opportunity to spread and flourish. The community cannot be on the national interest.
Look at Figs. 12 and 14. Do you think these images will appeal to all castes and communities ? Explain your views briefly.
No, I do not think that these images will appeal to all castes, and communities of India. The Mala in one hand gives a religious outlook. The images have been drawn from Hindu iconography but the feelings of other castes and communities have been ignored.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Nationalism in India Textbook Questions and Answers
Write in brief
(a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti colonial movement. ?
(b) How the First World War helped in the growth of the National Movement in India ?
(c) Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act ?
(d) Why Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement ?
(a) Growth of Nationalism in the Colonies:
In India like many other colonies, the growth of modem nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism. The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different grounds together, they felt that without the abolition of colonial rule, their hardships would not come to end. This feeling aroused the sentiments of nationalism in the Indians.
(b) Contribution of the First World War in the growth of the National Movement in India:
1. The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
2. During the war, prices increased double between 1914 and 1918. Due to the increased prices, the common people had to face many hardships.
3. During the war, the villagers were forcibly recruited in army that led to cause wide-spread anger in the rural areas.
4. In 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of the country resulting in acute shortage of food. On this occasion influenza epidemic spread. Due to the famines and epidemic, about 12 to 13 million people died. But the British government did not take effective steps to help the Indians.
5. The Indians hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.
(c) The Rowlatt Act:
The Imperial Legislative Council passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919. It gave the British government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. This led to widespread resentment among the Indians. The Indian felt that the British government was determined to suppress the nation movement.
(d) Withdrawl of non – cooperation movement by Gandhiji:
There was a violent clash on 5th Feb., 1922 between the Satyagrahis and the police at Chauri – Chaura village in Gorakhpur distt. of Uttar Pradesh. The crowd burnt a police station resulting in death of 22 policemen. Gandhiji was shocked to bear this violent incident and decided to withdraw the non – cooperation movement on 12th Feb., 1922.
What is meant by the idea of satya- graha ?
The Idea of Satyagraha
1. Satyagraha is not physical force:
According to Gandhiji, Satyagraha is not a physical force. A satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the opponent and he does not want to destroy him. In the use of Satyagraha there is no ill will whatever.
2. Satyagraha is pure soul – force:
According to Gandhiji Satyagraha is pure soul- force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called satyagraha.
3. Emphasising on the power of truth:
Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause was true, and struggle was against injustice, physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
4. No feeling of vengeance:
There is no feeling of vengeance in Satyagraha. Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non – violence. This, could be done appealing to the conscience of the oppressor. People including the oppressors had to be persuaded to see the truth instead of being forced to accept truth through the use of violence.
5. Victory of truth:
By this struggle, truth was bound to win ultimately. According to Gandhiji, this ‘dharma’ of non-violence could unite all Indians.
Write a newspaper report on :
(a) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre
(b) The Simon Commission.
(a) Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:
On 13th April, 1919, the infamous Jallian-wala Bagh massacre took place. On 13th April a large crowd gathered in the enclosed ground of Jallianwala Bagh to celebrate the Baisakhi fair. Many people gathered there to protest against the government’s new repressive measures
adopted by the British government. Many villagers were unaware of the marshal law that had been imposed in Amritsar. Gen. Dyer along with troops, entered the Jallianwala Bagh, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd; killing hundreds of innocent persons. His object was to produce a moral effect, in the minds of Satyagrahis and feeling of terror and awe. The Jallianwala Bagh incident was bitterly criticised throughout the whole country.
(b) Simon Commission The British government constituted a statutory commission under Sir John Simon. It was set up in response to the nationalist movement. The commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.
There were seven members in the Simon Commission. They were all British. The commission did not have a single Indian member. Hence the Indians decided to boycott the Simon Commission. When the Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted by the Indian with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’. All parties including the congress and the Muslim League participated in the demonstrations.
Compare the images of Bharat Mata in this chapter with the image of Germania in Chapter 1.
|Image of Bharat Mata||Image of Germania|
|(i) In 1905, Abanindra- nath Tagore had painted the image of Bharat Mata.||(i) The picture of Germania had been painted in 1848 by Philip Veit.|
|(ii) Bharat Mata is the allegory of the Indian nation.||(ii) Germania is the allegory of the Germ an nation.|
|(iii) Bharat Mata has been shown as an ascetic figure. She is calm, composed, divine and spriritual||(iii) Germania has been shown wearing a crown of oak leaves because the German oak stands for heroism Bharat Mata has been shown as dispensing learning •food and clothing. The mala in one hand emphasises hr ascetic quality.|
|(iv) In another image of mother India, she is shown with a trishul, standingbe – side a lion and an elephant both symbols of power and authority.||(iv) The second portrait of Germania is built guarding the Rhine. There is a sword in Germania’s hand and sword reads ‘The German sword protects the German Rhine’.|
|(v) The image of Mother India was painted in such a way that the Indian mind can be truly understood.||(v) Whereas the image of Germania was inspired by German history and culture.|
List all the different social groups which joined the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1921. Then choose any three and write about their hopes and struggles to show why they joined the movement.
The different social groups joining the Non-cooperation Movement The different social groups which joined the Non – cooperation Movement in 1921, were:
- Middle class people in towns like students, teachers, lawyers, doctors etc.
- Merchants and traders,
- Political parties except justice party,
- Peasants and tribals in rural areas,
- Plantation workers, specific aspiration of the various social groups participating in the movement
There wvere specific aspirations of the various social groups participating in the Noncooperation Movement
1. Middle – class people in cities:
The movement started with the middle – class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges,
headmasters and teachers resigned and lawyer gave up their legal practices. The council elections were boycotted in most of the provinces except Madras. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. Middle-class peoples began to discard imported clothes and wear only Indian cloths.
2. Peasants in rural areas:
A large number of peasants participated in the Non – co – operation Movement. The movement was against talukdars and landlords who demand from peasant high rents and other cesses. The peasants demanded a reduction of revenue abolition of ‘begar’ and social boycott of oppressive landlords. They were told by the local leaders that Gandhiji had declared that no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the poor.
3. Participation of Tribal peasants in the movement:
In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, tribal peasants started a guerrilla movement against the British government. They attacked police stations and tried to kill the British officials.
4. Participation of plantation workers in the movement:
The plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission. When they heard of Non co-operation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They hoped that they would get right to move freely in and out of the confined places in which they were enclosed. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
Dandi March of Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful.il symbol that could unite the nation. Gandhiji demanded to abolish the salt tax. He declared that the imposition of tax on salt and the government monopoly revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
When Gandhiji’s demands were not fulfilled by the British government, he decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement. Gandhiji started his Dandi March or Salt March on March 12, 1930. The salt march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s Ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked for 24 days.
Thousands of people came to hear Mahatma Gandhi. Wherever he stopped, he told them what he meant by Swaraj and urged them to defy the British peacefully. On 6th April 1930 he reached Dandi and there he broke the salt law, manufacturing salt by boiling seawater. This was the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement. Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Mahatma Gandhiji etc. were arrested and about 1,00,000 people were also arrested. Dandi March was an effective tool of opposing against British Rule.
Thousands of people in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. The salt march made the movement spread throughout India. People in large number defied the oppressive laws of the British Government fearlessly and started going to jails for liberation of their country from slavery of the British. A large number of women also participated in the movement and started satyagraha to break the colonial rules. Thus, the Dandi march was an effective tool of resistance against colonialism.
Imagine you are woman participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain what the experience meant to your life ?
My Experience on Participation as a Woman in the Civil Disobedience Movement
1. Participation of the women in the movement:
A large number of women participated in the civil disobedience movement. During Gandhiji’s salt march, thousands of women came.out of their homes to listen to him.
2. To oppose the repressive colonial laws:
Influenced by Gandhiji’s appeal for participating in the movement. I also participated in the civil disobedience movement. I partici¬pated in protest marches, manufactured salt, picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Like other women, I also went to jail. The British government adopted the repressive policy and arrested many women and sent them to jail. I was not frightened by the British police and cheerfully went to jail.
3. Activities of the women in the urban and rural areas:
I saw that in urban areas, there were women from high caste families and in rural areas, they came from rich peasant households.
4. Inspiration to serve the nation:
Moved by Gandhiji’s call, I began to see service to the nation as my sacred duty. Like other women I also felt that this increased public role did not mean any radical change in the way the position of women was visualised. I felt that my job was not only to look after home and health but being good mother and a good wife, it was necessary to serve the nation also.
Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
Differences of the political leaders over the Question of Separate Electorates The political leaders differed sharply over the question of separate electorates. Muslim leaders and leaders of the backward classes were the supporters of the separate electorates but the leaders of Hindu Mahasabha and congress were against the separate electorates.
1. Support of separate electorates by Muslim League:
Leaders of the Muslim League and the Indian Muslims were backward in the social, economic, poltical and educational fields. Therefore Muslim league emphasised on the importance of separate electorates for the Muslim as an important safeguard for their minority of political interests. Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu Majority.
2. Support of separate electorates by Dalit leaders:
Many Dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the Dalits. They began demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate that would choose Dalit members for legislative councils. They believed that political empowerment would resolve the problems of their social disabilities. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar laid a great emphasise on the separate electorates in the second round table conference.
3. Opposing the separate electorates by the leaders of congress:
The leaders of the congress were the supporters of national unity. They opposed the demand of separate electorates. They believed that separate electorates would affect the unity of India adversely. It would create a feeling of hatred and disunity among the various communities and social groups. Thus it would weaken the national unity’.
4. Opposing the separate electorates by the leaders of Hindu Mahasabha:
At the all parties’ conference held in 1928, the leader of Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed the separate electorate.