Rajasthan Board RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World
RBSE Class 10 Social Science The Making of Global World InText Questions and Answers
Page – 56
Explain what we mean when we say that the world ‘shrank’ in the 1500s.
In the sixteenth century’ due to the economic and cultural exchange, many countries had began to come nearer to each other. Due to the trade and cultural exchange, intimacy increased among themselves. In the sixteenth century, the European ships had discovered the sea-route of Asia and they had reached America. America came into contact with mam’ countries in the sixteenth century and economic and cultural exchange started among these countries. Thus we can say that the world had begun to shrink in the sixteenth century and different countries of the world came closer to one another.
Page – 59
Imagine that you are an agricultural worker who has arrived in America from Ireland. Write a paragraph on why you chose to come and how you are earning your living.
By 1890, a global agricultural economy had taken shape accompanied by complex changes in labour movement patterns. I was an agricultural worker and arrived in America from Ireland. Due to the import of cheeper food items, thousand of peasants were unemploy ed in Ireland. On account of unemployment, I had to migrate to America. Nearly 50 million people emigrated from Europe to America and Australia in the nineteenth century. Now’ food w7as not grown by a peasant living his land, but by an agricultural worker. Hence I began to work on a large farm. I have begun to live with my family near my employer’s farm. He is satisfied with my work and I have been earning a good income working on the agricultural farm.
Prepare a flow chart to show how Britain’s decision to import food led to increased migration to America and Australia.
The flow chart shows the reasons of increased number of people migrating to America and Australia when Britain decides to import food items.
Page – 64
Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity.
Language and popular traditions play important role in the creation of national identity. People attach great importance to their languages and popular traditions. These bring the people close to each other. They feel joys and sorrows of each other and help them in adverse circumstances. They begin to think that they are inseparable part of the country and they should live and die for the same of their country.
Page – 73
Who profits from jute cultivation according to the jute growers’ lament ? Explain.
The jute producers grew raw jute that was processed in factories for export in the form of gunny bags. But as gunny exports collapsed, the price of raw’ jute crashed more than 60 percent. Peasants, who borrowed in the hope of better times of increase out-put in the hope of higher incomes, faced over lower prices and fell deeper and deepes into debt. The jute growers lament in his poem that they should grow more raw jute in the hope of greater money but costs and debts of jute would make good hopes to get them dashed. When you have spent all your money and got the crop off the ground, jute traders sitting at home would pay only ? 5 a maund.
Page – 75
Briefly summarise the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience.
Economist and politicians drew two key lessons from inter-war economic experience:
1. First an industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption there was a need for high and stable incomes. Incomes could not be stable if employment was unstable. Thus stable incomes also required steadily, full employment. But make alone could not guarantee bill employment. Therefore, the governments would have to step into minimise fluctuation of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be earned only through the intervention of the government.
2. The second lesson, related to a country’s economic, links with the outside world. The goal of full employment could only be achieved if government had power to control flows of goods, capital and labour.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science The Making of Global World Textbook Questions and Answers
Write in brief
Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.
1. Asia continent:
Chinese silk and poltery, textiles and spices from India and south east Asia through silk-routes, were taken to different countries of the world. In return, precious metals gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.
2. America continent:
Many common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes and so on were not known to our ancestors until about five centuries ago. These foods were only introduced in Europe and Asia after Christopher Columbus accidentally discovered America.
Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.
The Spanish soldiers invaded America in the mid-sixteenth century. The Spanish soldiers carried on their person the germs of smallpox. America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these disease that came from Europe. Smallpox in particular proved a deadly killer. It spread deep into America’s continent and killed decimated whole communities paving the way for conquest. The Spanish soldiers were mostly immune to smallpox but the American had no immunity against smallpox. Due to this reason, the Spanish soldiers easily conquered America.
Write a note to explain the effects of the following :
- The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
- The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
- The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
- The Great Depression on the Indian Economy.
- The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.
(a) Effects of the British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws:
From the late eighteenth century. Britain government restricted the import of com. The law allowing the goverment to do this were commonly known as the ‘Com Laws/ Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the Com Laws.
After the abolition of the Com Laws, food could be imported to from Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country’. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were not left uncultivated and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
(b) The effect of the coming of rinderpest to Africa:
Rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa. Rinderpest or cattle plague disease come to Africa through the same animals from Asian countries. Rinderpest moved to west like ‘forest fire’ reaching Africa’s Atlantic coast.
- Rinderpest killed 90 percent of the cattle of African continent.
- The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods.
- Planters, mine owners and colonial governments now successfully monopolised what scarce. cattle resources remained to strengthen their power and to force Africans into the labour market.
- Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonizers to conquer and subdue‘Africa.
(c) Effects of the death of men of working age in Europe because of the World War:
In the first world war, most of the killed and maimed were men of working age. These deaths and injuries reduced the able¬bodied work force in Europe. With fewer numbers within the family, household incomes declined after the war. As men went to battle, women came forward to undertake jobs that earlier only men w’ere expected to do.
(d) Effects of the great depression on the Indian economy:
The Great Depression adversely affected Indian trade. India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. As international prices crashed, prices in India fell. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices in India fell by 50 percent. Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Though agricultural prices fell sharply/ the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands. Peasants producing for the world market were the worst hit.
(e) Effects of the decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian Countries:
The industrial world was hit by unemployment that began rising from the mid-1970s. From the late 1970s MNCs also began to shift their production operation to low-wage Asian countries. Wages were relatively low in countries like China. Thus they became attractive destinations for investment by foreign MNCs competing to capture world markets. The relocating of industry to low-wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flows. In the last two decades the worlds economic geography has been transformed as countries such as India, China and Brazil have undergone rapid economic transformation.
Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.
Impact of technology on food availability:
1. Improvement in traffic and transport modes:
Technological inventions like faster railways, lighter wagons and large ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
2. Meat Export:
Refrigerated ships enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances. Now animals were slaughtered for food at the starting point in America, Australia or Newzealand and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced shipping cost and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. Now people could add meat (and butter and eggs) to their diet.
What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement ?
Bretton Woods Agreement:
The main aim of the post war international economic system was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the industrial world. The Bretton Woods agreement was signed between the world powers in July, 1944 at the United Nation Monetary and Financial Conference held at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, U S A. This is called the Bretton Woods Agreement.
The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its members nations. The world Bank was set up to finance post war reconstruction. The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Wood twins. The Bretton Woods system was earned on fixed exchange rates. In this system national currencies, for example the Indian rupee, were pegged to the dollar at a fixed exchange rate. The dollar itself was anchored to gold at a fixed price of 35 per ounce of gold.
Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.
I have to say with distress that here the condition are different from what I had imagined. The agent gave me false information. Here the living and working conditions are harsh. We have to work-hard daily. The task allotted to me is very heavy and I find it difficult to complete it in a day. Deduction are made from wages if the work is considered to have been done unsatisfactorily. We are unable to earn our full wages and are punished in various ways. If a labourer escapes into the wilds and on being caught he is given severe punishment. In fact, the labourers have to spend their period of indenture in great trouble. I shall not stay here on or after my contract has ended.
Your loving son,
Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.
Three types of movement or flows:
There are three types of movement or flows within international economic exchanges:
- Flow of trade: The first is the flow of trade or trade in goods like cloth or wheat.
- Flow of labour: The second is the flow of labour the migration of people in search of employment.
- Flow of capital: The third is the flow’ of capital for short term of long term investment over long distances.
1. Flow of trade from India: All types of clothes and wheat were exported to Britain. Trade of India was also carried out.
2. Flow of labour from India: In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian labourers went to work on plantations, in mines and in road and railway construction projects around the world. Indentured labourers were hired under contract which promised return travel to India after they had worked for five years in their employer’s plantation.
3. Flow of capital:
Many Indian bankers and traders financed export agriculture in central and Southern of Asia using either their own funds or their borrowed from European banks. They had a sophisticated system to transfer money over large distance and even developed indigenous form of corporate organisation. Shikaripuri Shroffs and Nattukottai Chettiar were famous Indian bankers. Indian traders and moneylenders also invested in European and African countries. Hyderabad Sindhi traders invested colonies beyond Europe.
Explain the causes of Great Depression.
Causes of Great Depression:
The Great Depression began around 1929 and lasted till the mid-1930s. Causes of the Great Depression were as given below :
1. Over production in agriculture:
Agricultural over production was a problem. As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production and bring a larger volume of produce to the market to maintain their overall income. This glut worsened the market, pushing down prices even further farm produce rotted for a lack of buyers.
2. Reduction in US debt:
In the mid- 1920s, many countries financed their investments through loans from the US. While it was often extremely easy to raise loans in the US when the going was good, US overseas lenders panicked at the first sign of trouble. They started withdrawing their capital. In the first half of 1928, US overseas loans amounted to over $ 1 billion. A year later it was one quarter of that amount. Countries that depended crucially on US loans now faced an acute crisis.
Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins ?
The Group of 77 (or G-77):
Most of the developing countries organised themselves in as a group the Group of 77 (or G-77) to demand a new international economic order (N.I.E.O.).
G-77 as a reaction to the activities of Bretton Woods Twins :
In order to preserve economic stability and full employment in the Industrial world, the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire U S A. The Bretton woods conference established the two institutions:
(1) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and (2) International Bank for reconstruction and development popularly known as the World Bank. The International Monetary’ Fund (IMF) was established to deal with external surpluses and deficits of its member nations. The World Bank was set up to finance post-war reconstruction. The IMF and the World Bank are referred to as the Bretton Woods institutions or sometimes the Bretton Woods Twins.
Most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth which the western economies experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group the Group of 77 (or G-77) to demand a new international economic Order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them real control over their natural resources, move development assistance, fairer prices for raw materials and better access for their manufactured group in developed countries’ markets.