Rajasthan Board RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Textbook Exercise Questions and Answers.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation
RBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation InText Questions and Answers
Page – 80
Give two examples where modern development that is associated with progress has led to problems. You may like to think of areas related to environmental issues, nuclear weapons or diseases.
1. Environmental pollution:
Modem development has encouraged pollution. The smoke of the factories created the problem of air-pollution. Increase in the noise in the cities created the problem of pollution. The establishment of the factories created the problem of water pollution.
2. Diseases Increase:
The labourers had to live in dirty homes like cattle. They had to work in dirty factories. There was lack of pure air and light in the factories. On account of living in the dirty colonies and lack of pure w ater the workers became the victim of many diseases.
Page – 83
Look at Figs. 4 and 5. Can you see any difference in the way the two images show industrialisation ? Explain your view briefy.
In figure 4, the positive contributions of the industrial development are symbolized in the form of lightening amid the evening twilight implying progress development and march ahead. Whereas in figure 5, the smoke billowing up from various chimneys due to several industries being set-up in Manchester reflects the environmental hazards caused due to the industrial development. Thus, the two figures show the two sides of the process of industrialisation,
Page – 85
Imagine that you are a merchant writing back to a salesman who has been trying to persuade you to buy a new machine. Explain in your letter what you have heard and why you do not wish to invest in the new technology.
I have heard that machines are oriented for producing uniforms standardised goods for mass market but the demand in the market is often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. The machines are very expensive and these often become out of order. A lot of money is required to repair the machines. These are not so good as claimed by their inventors and manufacturers. A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. The machines could produce uniforms and standardised goods. Hence, I am not in favour of investing in the new technology.
Page – 87
Look at Fig. 3, 7 and 11, then reread source B. Explain why many workers were opposed to the use of the Spinning Jenny.
Spinning Jenny speeded of the spinning process and reduced labour demand. By turning one single wheel a worker could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time. But productivity increased due to spinning jenny and many workers became jobless. So they opposed to the use of Spinning Jenny.
Page – 89
On a map of Asia, find and draw the sea and land links of the textile trade from India to Central Asia, West Asia and Southeast Asia.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science The Age of Industrialisation Textbook Questions and Answers
Write in brief
Explain the following :
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(b) In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century.
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
(a) Attack on the Spinning Jenny by the women of Britain:
James Hargreaves invented Spinning Jenny in 1764. This machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand. By turning one single wheel, a worker could set in motion a number of spindles and spin several threads at the same time when Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woollen manufacture.Women, who survived on hand spinning, opposed it. They began attacking the Spinning Jenny. This conflict over the introduction of Spinning Jenny continued for a long time.
(b) Employment of peasants and artisan in the villages by merchant from towns:
In the seventeenth century, with the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not export production within towns. This was because here urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. They restricted the entry of new people into the trade. Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore, difficult for new merchants to setup business in towns. So they turned to the countryside and began employing pea’sants and artisans within the villages. In the countryside poor peasants and artisans began working for merchants.
(c) Decline of the Port of Surat by the end of the eighteenth century:
The port of Surat was situated on the Gujarat coast. It had connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports. During the eighteenth century, the European companies gradually gained power by securing many concessions from local courts and monopoly rights to trade. This resulted in a decline of the port of Surat through which local merchant had operated. Export from the port of Surat fell dramatically. The credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and the local bankers became bankrupt. In the last years of the seventeenth century, the gross value of trade that passed through Surat had been ? 16 million and by the 1740s it had slumped to 3 million.
(d) Appointment of ‘gomasthas’ by the East India Company to supervise weavers in India:
The Indian weavers produced cloth for the East India Company and the French, Dutch and Portuguese. After establishing political power the East India Company wanted to assert a monopoly right of trade. It started to develop a system of management and control that would eliminate competition, control cost and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. In this connection, the company took many steps. The company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade and establish a more direct control over the weavers. It appointed a paid servant called ‘gomastha’ to supervise Indian weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
Write Ture or False against each statement.
(a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
(c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India.
(d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Explain what is meant by proto – industrialisation.
Industrialisation Before the establishment of the factories in England and Europe, there was a large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Historians refer to this phase of industralisation Proto- mdustrialisation. ’
Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines ?
Preference of hand labour over machines:
In nineteenth century, some European industrialists preferred hand labour over machines due to the following reasons:
1. No shortage of human labour:
In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and jobless workers moved to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs and waiting for work. So industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs. They did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment.
2. The demand for labour was seasonal:
In many industries, the demand for labour was seasonal. In gas works, breweries, book binding and printing and harbours. There was a great demand of workers in cold months. In all such industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season.
3. Many products could be produced only with hand labour:
Many products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to produce uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market. But the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. Many articles like hammers, axes etc. required human skill not mechanical technology to produce.
4. Prefer things produced by hand:
In Victorian Britain, the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie preferred things produced by hand. Hand made products came to symbolise refinemeant and class. They were better finished, individually produced and carefully designed. Machine mode goods were for export to the colonies.
How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers ?
Procurement of Regular Supplies of Cotton and Silk Textiles from Indian Weavers The East India Company took the following steps to procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers:
1. Appointment of ‘Gomastha’:
The East India Company appointed a gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
2. Restrictions on weavers:
The company prevented company weavers from dealing with other buyers. One way of doing this was through the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers, were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the ‘gomastha’. They could not take it to any other trader.
Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Britain and the History of Cotton The earliest factories in England came up by the 1730s, but it was only in the late eighteenth century that the number of factories multiplied. Cotton was the first symbol of the new era. Its production boomed in the late nineteenth century. In 1760, Britain was importing 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton to feed its cotton industry. By 1787, this import soared to 22 million pounds. This increase was linked to a number of changes within the process of production.
1. Increase in the production of cotton:
A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning and rolling pulper). These increased the out pulper worker, enabling every workers to produce more and these made possible the production of stronger threads and yarn. Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. Now the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill.
2. Development of Cotton industry:
The most dynamic industries in Britain were clearly of cotton. Growing of a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first pace of industrialisation up to the 1840s. James Hargreaves invented Spinning Jenny in 1764. This machine speeded up the spinning process and reduced labour demand. A cotton mill was set up in Lancashire in Britain. A spinning factory was set up in 1830 in which giant wheels moved by steam power could set in motion hundreds of spindles to manufacture thread.
Why did industrial production in India increase during the First World War?
Increase in the Industrial Production in India during the First World War During the first world war, following circumstances were responsible for increase in the industrial production in India:
1. Decline of Manchester imports into India:
During the first world war. British mills were busy with war production to meet the needs of the army. Therefore. Manchester import into India declined. So suddenly Indian mills had a vast home market to supply.
2. Indian factories were called up on to supply War needs:
As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called up on to supply war needs, jute bags, cloth for army uniform, tents and leather boots, horse and mule saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours. Over the war years industrial production boomed.