Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 7 Rajasthan’s War of Independence and Unification
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 7 Textual Questions
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Questions
From where did the revolt of 1857 begin in Rajasthan ?
Who is connected with Aiwa?
(a) Ram Singh
(b) Kushal Singh
(c) Laxman Singh
(d) Zorawar Singh
(b) Kushal Singh
Who was the leader at the helm of affairs of Bijolia farmers’ movement ?
(a) Nayanu Ram Sharma
(b) Hari B. Upadhyaya
(c) Vijay Singh Pathik
(d) Jamuna Lal
(c) Vijay Singh Pathik
Who wrote the warning ?
(a) Pratap Singh Barhat
(b) Zorawar S, Barhat
(c) Bharat Singh Barhat
(d) Kesari Singh Barhat.
(d) Kesari Singh Barhat.
What was constructed in the first phase of unification of Rajasthan ?
(a) Matsya confederation
(c) Greater Rajasthan
(a) Matsya confederation
Mahabharta era region was related with
(a) Greater Rajasthan
(b) United Rajasthan
(d) Matsya confederation
(d) Matsya confederation
The capital of greater Rajasthan was
The leadership of Sirohi’s merger with Rajasthan was led as a movement by:
(a) Gosul Bhai Bhatt
(b) M. L. Verma
(c) J. N. Vyas
(d) H. B. Upadhyaya.
(a) Gosul Bhai Bhatt
The first governor of Rajasthan was:
(a) N. V. Gadgil
(b) H. L. Shastri
(c) Gurumukh N. Singh
(d) M. L. Verma
(c) Gurumukh N. Singh
RBSE Class 12 History Very Short Answer Type Questions
With which district is the Neemuchana controversy associated ?
Neemuchana controversy is associated with Alwar district. In the state, the public awareness was started with farmers movement.
Which movement was started by Govind Guru ?
Govind Guru was a great social reformer who started Bhagat Movement.
Write the name of Akki movement’s founder.
Motilal Tejawat was the founder of Akki movement. This was a tribal movement.
Name the leaders who gave an impetus to the leadership of Mewar Praja Mandal ?
The leaders who lent an impetus to the Mewar Praja Mandal were M. L. Verma and Balwant Singh Mehta.
Which region was chosen by Arjun Lal Sethi, J. L. Bajaj for their work sphere?
A. L. Sethi and J. L. Bajaj chose Jaipur Praja Mandal as their work sphere.
In how many phases did the completion of Rajasthan’s unification take place?
Rajasthan’s unification was completed in 7 stages :
- Matsya federation
- United Rajasthan
- Inclusion of Mewar
- Greater Rajasthan
- Matsya federation included for greater Rajasthan
- Merger of Sirohi
- The merger of Ajmer Merwada.
Who was the Prime Minister of greater Rajasthan ?
Greater Rajasthan’s Prime Minister was Hira Lal Shastri who took charge on 4 : April 1950.
What was the name of centrally – administered state in Rajasthan during British era ?
During British era, Ajmer – Marwada was a centrally-administered state.
On which date is Rajasthan day celebrated ?
Rajasthan Day is celebrated on 30th of March.
RBSE Class 12 History Short Answer Type Questions
What were the reasons of Awareness in Rajasthan ?
The foremost reason of public awareness in Rajasthan was Swami Dayanand Saraswati and his influence. He was the first social reformer to blow the trumpet for selfmade products and self rule. The second reason was newspapers and literature. Rajputana gazette, ‘Rajasthan Kesari’ and ‘Naveen Rajasthan’ were the main newspapers. The role of middle class was another reason. In this, educationist, advocate and journalist Jai Narayan Vyas, Master Bhola Nath were prominent.
The armies of almost all the states of Rajasthan participated in the 1st world war. The armymen shared their own experiences and introduced the people of Rajasthan to nationalistic ideas. The external environment’s influence was a major reason of public awareness. The national leaders and their programmes also influenced people.
With respect to Kota, write in your own words about the agony and resentment of the people against the British.
The revolution of 1857 was primarily an outpouring of public resentment against the British and the oppressive feudals armies. Mainly 6 army cantonments were famous. These were Naseerabad, Neemuch, Devli, Kota, Erinpura, Kherwada. The revolution of Neemuch via Devli reached Kota. The revolutionaries compelled Kota regiment’s 60 people to come alongwith them from Devli cantonment but on the way the armymen were successful in running away.
On 15th October Kota’s Maharao Bhim Singh’s two platoons revolted. Resident Burton was beheaded and Maharao was made captive and the revolutionaries gained control over whole of Kota. The role of Maharao’s advocate and intellectual Jai Dayal Bhatnagar in the organised public outcry was an important contribution.
How did Vijay Singh Pathik work for public awareness ?
The leader of Bijolia movement V. S. Pathik’s real name was Bhoop Singh. Before the Bijolia uprising, he was a revolutionary and a follower of Ras Bihari Bose. He led this movement in 1919. The Rajasthan Sewa Mandal was established.
The publication of ‘Naveen Rajasthan’ newspaper began in Ajmer in 1922. Through Pathik’s efforts, there was a settlement between farmers and administrators. When the movement spread in Begu, he took over the command of the movement and was sentenced to three years of imprisonment.
Write the names of the martyr sons of one family.
The three martyr revolutionaries from one family were Kesari Singh Barhat, Pratap. Singh Barhat and Zorawar Singh Barhat, Kesari Singh Barhat was in favour of Hindi language. He inspired children to get education in indigenous educational institutions. Pratap Singh Barhat followed the footprints of his father Kesari Singh and became a martyr.
During the movement despite many tempting offers, he laid down his life after suffering inhuman torture. In the same manner, Zorawar’s tale of sacrifice and incomparable. He was so courageous that he threw bomb on Viceray Harding in a procession in Delhi.
In which manner had Govind Guru worked for the awareness of tribals ?
Govind Guru was a great social reformer who encouraged the progress of Bhils’ social and moral growth. He founded the Sump Sabha, to remain in the fold of Hindu religion. He founded Bhagat Panth. By the Sump Sabha the social awakening among Bhils of Mewar, Dungarpur, Edar, Gujrat, Vijaynagar, Malwa led to rulers’ administrative oppression and Bhils were forced to leave Bhagat panth.
When the trend of alcohol began to fall then the excise department had to face losses. Bhils had no important political ambitions, but their societal unity was a challenge for British rulers. Alongwith this, political consciousness arose in them.
Clarify the amalgamation process of the princely states into greater Rajasthan ?
From the geographical, caste and economic perspective, Alwar, Dholpur, Karoli, Bharatpur were alike. The rulers of four states were summoned on 27 February 1948 to Delhi. A proposal was placed in front of them that was happily accepted. As per A. K. Munshi’s suggestions, their unification was named as Matsya confederation. On 28 February, 1948 the documents were signed.
On 18th March, 1948 this confederation was inaugurated by central minister N. V. Gadgil. The population of this confederation was 18 lakh and its yearly income was 2 crore. The king of Dholpur, Uday Bhan Singh was appointed royal head and council of ministers was constituted. Shobha Ram of Alwar was made Prime Minister of Matsya federation, and the 4 states involved in confederation had one representative each to form the council of Ministers.
How was Sirohi combined in Rajasthan ?
On 10th April 1948, Hiralal Shastri wrote a letter to Sardar Patel that the meaning of Sirohi was Gokul Bhai and without him they could not run Rajasthan. With respect to the question of Sirohi the workers of Rajasthan the met Pt. Nehru and told him about the emotions of people. Pt. Nehru wrote a cleverly drafted letter to Patel. On January 1950, Sirohi area of 304 sq. miles of 89 villages was merged in Gujrat. The rest of Sirohi was added the Rajasthan.
What terms were kept by the king of Mewar for the amalgamation with greater Rajasthan ?
After three days of the inauguration of Greater Rajasthan, talks began on the question of Mewar merger in Greater Rajasthan. Sir Murthi informed the government of India about the king’s three main conditions for merger
- Maharana be made inheritant royal head of Greater Rajasthan.
- He be given ₹20 lakh annual compensation.
- Udaipur to be the capital of greater Rajasthan.
The estates department talked to the rulers of Greater Rajasthan to decide for Mewar merger in united Rajasthan.
When why was to estates secratiariat established ?
On 15 August, 1947 India became independent from British rule. As per Indian constitutional amendments 1947, the 8th schedule re – established the British supremacy on the Indian national provinces again with the signatories. This meant that national provinces would themselves decide with which country (India or Pakistan) their identity would remain. If any province wished not to join any country, it could place its identity in the form of an independent state.
If this were allowed India remained divided into small sections. Till date the Indian government’s political department that kept control over the national provinces, was terminated and on 5th July under 1947 the chairmanship of Sardar Patel, the provincial secretariat was formed.
Explain briefly the Praja Mandal movement.
The movements in the British India influenced nationalist awakening in Rajasthan. The farmer class movement began, and due to many oppressive policies, the provincial people were unhappy. Many illogical restrictions made the life of people troublesome, and for the solution of these things, political consciousness arose in provinces and Praja Mandal was formed.
In this manner in Jodhpur, Jhalawad, Jaipur, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and other states the Praja Mandal movement continued to work. In Jodhpur Jai Narayan Vyas, in Bikaner Kanhaiya Lal Dund, in Mewar, Manikya Lal Verma, in Kota Nainu Ram Sharma, in Bundi Pathik ji, Ram Narayan Choudhary, Mange Lal Bhave, Tansukh lal Mittal, in Jaipur Arjun Lal Sethi, J. L. Bajaj, Hira lal Shastri and Pt. Hari Narayan Sharma in Alwar led the Praja Mandal movement. In a similar manner, Shri Ganesh Jagannath Das Adhikari in Bharatpur and Swami Shradhanand in Dholpur led the Praja Mandal Movement.
RBSE Class 12 History Essay Type Questions
Clarify the contribution of Vijay Singh Pathik in the success of Bijolia farmer movement?
The leader of Bijolia farmer movement, Vijay Singh Pathik’s real name was Bhoop Singh. His birth place was Ghutaval village in the Bulandshahr district. In 1907, Bhoop Singh came in contact with famous revolutionary Ras Bihari Bose, Sachindra Sanyal and from there onward he started to participate in revolutionary activities. In order to organise the revolt in Rajasthan, Bose sent him to Thakur of Khalwa, Gopal Singh.
The plan of revolt being unsuccessful, all revolutionaries were caught. Bhoop Singh was also caught and imprisoned in the fort of Tatagarh. Later, he managed to escape from that place. He grew his beard and changed his name from Bhoop Singh to Vijay Pathik. From there on for the life time, he was known by the same name.
By chance he met Sita Ram, and on the recommendation of Sita Ram, Vijay Pathik agreed to be the leader of Bijolia movement. His presence motivated the farmers. With the support of Manikya Lal Verma, Sadhu Sita Ram Dass, Bhanwar. Lal Sunar and Prem Chand Bhil, Pathik through the medium of panchayat gathered them and objected to tax them for funding of war reserves.
Farmers sent request letters to Maharana and landlords. In response, the Maharana got the farmer leader arrested and ordered his property to be seized. Pathik went underground and directed the movement from an unknown place.
The support of newspapers :
Vijay Pathik through the medium of a paper published from Kanpur made the farmer movement of Bijolia a subject of discussion in the whole country. In this, the feudal lords’ oppressions were widely discussed and publicised. Leaders M. L. Verma, Sita Ram Dass etc. were made captives. The farmers were tortured cruelly but they tolerated everything and continued with the movement.
For the propagation of news about Bijolia movement. Pathik sent to the editor of Pratap, Ganesh Shankar Vidhyarthi a thread tied on arm to increase dependent relations. Gandhi Ji also heard about the Bijolia movement and invited Pathikji in this connection to Mumbai to participate in the congress convention of 1918.
He met G.S. Vidhyarthi and in 1918 to participate in Congress Conventions he left for Mumbai. Durign this period, the suppression of farmers continued. The Rana ordered the administration of the state to realise tax from the farmer on that land only which was ploughed by the farmer. This was the second success of farmers.
The foundation of Rajasthan Sewa Mandal:
In 1919, Pathik formed the Rajasthan Sewa Mandal. Its office was based in Ajmer. Pathik from this place began the operations of Bijolia farmer movement. In December 1919, he left to participate in Amritsar Congress convention and tried to raise the voice of Bijolia farmers. Lokmanya Tilak presented the proposal and Kelkar supported it.
However, in the view of Madan Mohan Malviya, there could be no discussions on this proposal, because in the matters of native states, he did not wish to interfere. Malviya on the personal basis assured Pathikji that he would himself meet the Maharana and try to settle the issue. This way Bijolia farmers’ movement came in the limelight of national leaders.
Rajputana Medieval India Assembly :
Pathikji wished this movement to take the form of movement of national importance. He wished to raise this issue through the medium of Rajputana medieval India assembly. In the presidentship of Bhavani Dayal ji, a commission was formed.
This information was passed on to Maharana but Maharana didn’t wish any outside agency to interfere in the issue of Bijolia movement. The Maharana did not accept the recommendation of the commision. The British government equalized this movement with the Russian revolution and gave the advice to crush the movement seriously.
In 1920, the farmers of Bijolia went to Congress convention in Nagpur. The farmers, apprised Gandhiji of the movement and received his blessings. This was the period when in the entire country, non – co – operation movement had spread. British government was worried about the movement and the farmer movement had spread to Begu , Parsoli and south – west mountain areas.
The efforts for settlement:
British government was afraid that the farmers’ movement of Mewar would combine with non-co-operation movement that was active in India. With the efforts of M. J. J. Holland, there became agreement between farmers and landlords.
According to this agreement 35 cultivation costs were terminated and the taxes were lowered. The allegation on farmers was taken back. In this manner, the main demands of Bijolia farmers were agreed upon, and their panchayats got recogniton. This was the third victory of Bijolia farmers.’
No fruitful result of 1922 agreement :
British Government had no interest in the agreement. They merely wished the farmers to stay away from the non-coperation movement going on across the country. At the end of the non – co – operation movement, A.G.C. did not enquire about the Bijolia movement. The feudal lords of Bijolia already did not wish to implement it. Except for ther farmers no other showed interest in this agreement.
Pathikji maintains recontrol:
In 1922 by the efforts of Pathikji, an agreement between farmers and administration. Pathikji handled the leadership of the movement for which he was imprisoned for 3 years, After Pathikji was released from prison, he went into exile. His entry in Mewar state was restricted. He started giving guidance to the farmer panchayat of the Fusria village in the Gwalior state bordering Bijolia.
The question arose in 1927 for the Bijolia movement to leave taxed lands and stop cultivation in it. Pathikji probably could not assess the changed political circumstances. This decision of Pathikji proved wrong and faulty. For the moral and legal responsibility of the decision, Pathikji refused to mediate in the farmers’ panchayat.
The confidence of the farmers was broken was transfered from Pathikji to all India level. Therefore the leadership of Bijolia farmer movement was handed over to Hari B. Upadhyaya. In the end, we can say this movement created new awareness not only in Mewar but in Rajasthan’s other provinces too.
Explain clearly the Bhagat and Akki movement in Tribal community ?
In the southern area of Rajasthan, there resided the Bhil community. These areas are mainly Dungarpur, Mewar, Banswara, Pratapgarh and Kushalgarh. The Bhils are a very traditional tribe that remain active about their societal and economic status. When their traditional rights were affected, they broke out in a revolt, both against Britishers as well as against the native administration.
Govind Guru movement and social and moral Bhagat movement: Govind Guru was a great social reformer who took upon himself the responsibility of the social and moral progress of Bhils. Apart from the social perspective, he collectively helped them to bring them into the mainstream of political existence.
The establishment of Samp Sabha :
Govind Guru served Bhils and in 1883, he established Samp Sabha. In the Rajasthani language, the meaning of Samp is ‘the people’. Through the medium of this assembly, the Bhils of Mewar, Dungarpur, Edar, Gujarat, Vijaynagar and Malwa had societal awareness and this worried the native rulers as also the Britishers, and Bhils were forced to leave the path of Bhagats.
When they were forced to do forced labour, and their basic rights to forest produce and access to it were snatched away were they felt helpless and were forced to revolt. By the efforts of Guru Narayan alongwith spread of education, progress also took place, example, when the habit of drinking liquor decreased in Kushalgarh and Banswara states, the revenue department had to bear losses, Britishers considered the possibility of establishment of Bhil state for their improvement and organisation.
The progress of movement and suppressive action :
In April 1913, Dungarpur, state first arrested and then released Govind Guru who left with his associates to the mountains of Maangarh in Edar state that is situated at the border of Banswada and Sath state. In October 1913, in his messages he urged Bhils to assemble at the mountain of Maangarh. Bhils gathered in large numbers along with weapons. They beat up two soldiers of the Banswada state.
The fort of Sath was attacked. This action angered Banswada, Dungarpur states and with the permission of Ag. G. between 6th to 10th Novemeber 1913, two companies of Mewar, one company of 104 Welleselly even their one company of Rajput regiment and one company of Jaat regiment reached the mountain of Maangarh and attaked Bhils by artillery.
According to government statistics, 1500 Bhils were killed in this action. This massacre was deemed by the historians as more cruel than the merciless killings in Jallianwala Bagh. This way Bhagat Movement as directed was suppressed, Govind Guru was sentenced to 10 years, imprisonment.
It is clear that the Bhils had no important political expectations but their societal unity became a challenge for Britishers and native rulers. Govind Guru was in favour of non – violence and their white flag was the symbol of peace. He proved to be farsighted by the results of movement. Alongwith Bhils the political awareness arose in other sections.
Motilal Tejawat and Akki movement:
After the Bhagat movement was suppressed, slackened, dampened or torn apart by Britishers, the movement of Bhils. Still the influence of Bhagat movement worked in political consciousness of the Bhils. The government policy against Bhils was revealed. In 1917, Bhils and Garasiyas jointly wrote a letter to Maharana about their revolt against oppressive policy and forced labour.
With no result in sight and influenced by Bijolia farmer movement against Maharana’s maximum taxes and oppressive behaviour, a complaint was lodged. When all these non-violent efforts had no results, the Bhils in the Khalsa areas so of majority refused to pay or clear the manufacturing cost, and to do forced labour. In 1921, the Bhils received the leadership of Motilal Tejavat.
Tejavat motivated the Bhils not to pay the manufacturing costs and not to do forced labour. This became famous by the name of Akki movement. This movement was accepted as symbol of tribal political awakening. The Maharawal of Dungarpur worried at the spread of movement, ended all types of Forced labour from his state. In the Jagiri areas, the Bhils not receiving the amenities was a reason.
The Akki movement in the collective form under the leadership of Tejawat spread to other than majority areas of Sirohi and Gujrat. British government adopted oppressive policy. On 3 June, 1922 Tejawat was imprisoned and handed over to Mewar government.
The highest court of Mewar sought an assurance in .writing from Tejawat not to work against the state.
With the interference of a close confidant of Gandhiji, Manilal Kothari, an agreement was finalised. On 16th April 1936 a Tejawat in written form gave desired assurance and on 23 April, he was released.
Where were the centres of revolt in Rajasthan ? What was the result ?
When in 1857 the war of independence spread out, Rajasthan did not remain unaffected. When in 1857 the fire of war of independence spread in Rajasthan, the British government became worried. There were mainly 6 army cantonments in Rajasthan. They were at Naseerabad. Neemuch, Devli, Kota, Erinpura and Kherwada.
The main centres of revolt in Rajasthan :
(1) Naseerabad :
In Rajasthan, the 1857 war of indepenence began from Naseerabad. On 28 May 1857 at 4 p.m. in the evening, the soldiers revolted in Naseerabad. There were rumours that the wheat given to soliders and the bullets to be torn by mouth were mixed with cow meat and fat. On 27th May, news broke that from Dausa, European battalion soldiers were reaching Naseerabad to take place of soldiers placed there.
The news of opposition raised the soldiers’ anger to the extreme, The situation of Naseerabad began to deteriorate. The soldiers revolted but first regment. Mumbai lancers did not side with the rebels and obeying the British command fired on them but light Grenadler company refused to fire bullet. Brigadier Machael was compelled to stay away alongwith European friends. Other than this, Col.
Penny who was core commander died at the incident location. The reason for this was probably panic. Two other British officers also died, two were injured and with this, Naseerabad went in the hands of revolutionaries. Next day, the revolutionaries destroyed Naseerabad cantonment and proceeded towards Delhi.
In the leadership of Lieutenant Matter and Lieutenant Hathcoat, almost 1000 soldiers of Mewar purchased the revolutionaries but they were unable to catch them. May be the reason for this was that the feudal lords of Mewar and Marwar easily allowed the agitators to pass through their state. This fact is an indication that Mewar and Marwad were lenient towards revolutionaries.
Dissastisfaction in soldiers again :
On 12 June 1857 from Orissa the first batch of European soldiers reached Naseerabad and on 10 July 1857 the agent of Governor General sent this batch to Neemuch. This incident gave birth to dissatisfaction among Naseerabad based soldiers. 12th native infantry soldiers were enthusiastic, but they were quickly deweaponised.
On 10th August 1857, the soldiers of Mumbai Cavalry refused the order to kill their commander and asked other associates to introspect on their part but British government took tough steps. One soldier was instantly killed with bullets. Some soldiers were hanged and rest of all other Indian soldiers were deweaponised. This way the revolt was quickly handled before it could spread any farther in Naseerabad.
The Neemuch Revolution :
The second centre of revolt was Neemuch. On 2nd June, Colonel Abbot made Hindu and Muslim soldiers pledge by Ganga and Quran that they would remain loyal to British rule. Colonel Abbot himself kept Bible in his hands and took pledge by which they could get full support from soldiers under them, the but on 3rd June 1857 the revolt of Naseerabad news of reached Neemuch and same day at 11 p.m. in the evening, revolt erupted.
The rebels captured the cantonment and put it on flames. Brigadier Major’s bungalow was set on fire. The soldiers stationed at the bungalow refused to fire at the revolutionaries and later, they also joined them. It is believed that two women instantly died and many children who were rounded perished into the flames of fire. British men, women and children who were about 40 in number, were rounded off by the revolutionaries.
On 5th June, the revolutionaries moved to Agra and from there, left for Delhi. They released all prisoners imprisoned in Agra and looted ₹1 lakh, 26 thousand from the government treasury. The market of Agra remained safe. The revolutionaries of Neemuch reached Delhi and set the cantonment on fire. It is believed that the Delhi Cantonment had already been emptied and from there, and British officers were sent to Jahaazpur town near Mewar.
The revolutionaries compelled 60 people of Delhi cantonment to come along with them. The situation of other nearby places became volatile. The attacks of revolutionaries were increasing at Malwa, Mhow, Salumbar etc. The situation of Kharwada and Salumbar near Udaipur became so sensitive that in Captain Shauney’s thoughts, the safety of these areas became difficult.
On 12 August 1857 second cavalry commander Colonel Jackson called on European soldiers in Neemuch on the basis of the information that there would be agitated Indian army and their strategy was to finish all European officiers. This incident enraged the Indian soldiers based in Neemuch.
In this enthusiasm, one European soldier was killed, 2 other soldiers were injured and Lieutinant Will was injured with the gun of a European. The soldiers refused to obey the orders of Colonel Jackson and the European officials also passed the order related to arguments and with the result, the decision was taken to curb the revolutionaries of Neemuch as more soldiers were called.
Auwa (Marwad) Fort and Thakur Kushal Singh’s leadership :
August 1857 revolution’s flames blaze in the entire state. On 21 August, Jodhpur soldiers based in Ellenpura revolted and they refused to obey their superiors with the result that lilutenant Karmoli was pressurised to go with revolutionaries. He was released after 3 days by revolutionaries. Bhil soldiers also sided with the revolutionaries and refused to support the British rule.
They captured many British citizens and families and took them in their custody. After some time, they were also released. Thereafter Auwa’s Thakur Kushal Singh also began to support the revolutionaries. The reason behind this was that for the last few years the personal relations of Thakur Kushal Singh and Jodhpur Maharaja had been tensed and in contemporary circumstances, the former wished to take benefit from the opportunity.
Is On 9th Semptember 1857, Maharaja’s soldiers and revolutionaries supported Auwa Thakur’s soldiers fought a battle at Vidoda and Chilawaas near Pali. The soldiers of Maharaja not only had to face see the defeat but most of their weapons also came in the hands of revolutionaries. The fort keeper of Jodhpur, Anar Singh and many trusted supporters of Maharaja helped in this war.
Even lieutenant Heathcoat who was sent to Rajasthan by British agent Governor General Lawrence could save himself with lot of difficulty. His entire wealth was looted by revolutionaries. While understanding these serious circumstances, General Lawrence, himself decided to march towards Auwa. Near Beawar, he prepared an armed batallion and left for Auwa on 18th September. In the leadership of General Lawrence, the British soldiers unsuccessfully targeted Auwa.
The revolting soldiers not only foiled the attack but many British officers among which Jodhpur based British political agent Mike Mason and one European official were included, were foiled. Alongwith this, many Jodhpur soldiers were killed at the hands of revolutionaries. Revolutionaries beheaded Mike Mason in the fort which was a symbol of their success.
General Lawrence had to move back and take shelter in a village three miles away From Auwa. Thereafter he came back to Ajmer. General Lawrence’s defeat was taken seriously by British government. The reason for this was that this incident could affect whole of Rajasthan. The British government gave orders that the Auwa Thakur must be supressed at any cost.
On the other hand, revolutionaries like Kisaldar Abdul Ali Abbas Ali Khan, Sheikh Mohd. Baksh and Hindu and Muslim soldiers appealed the people of Marwar and Mewar that they help them in whatever form. Thakur Kushal Singh sought from Mewar’s biggest landlord Thakur Sammad Singh an agreement to help against Britishers. Thakur Sammad Singh and many main landlords of Marwar assured the support of four thousand soldiers.
On 9th October 1857, Aasop’s Thakur Chand Singh, Pulniari’s Thakur Ajit Singh, Tulgiri’s Thakur Bhagat Singh, Bhogara’s Thakur Jodh Singh, Banto Thakur Prem Singh, Banswara’s Thakur Chand Singh in order to take suport from Delhi government left for Delhi. Thakur Sammad Singh also sided with the friendly landlords.
On January 1858, a group of soldiers from Bombay reached Naseerabad to support British soldiers and on the way, the fort handed over to Thakur of Sirohi for his services was attacked and destroyed, and on 19 January 1958, this group reached Auwa. In order to support this army, Jaipur’s working British political agent Major Morrison reached Auwa. From the other side under Colonel Holmes’ leadership, Bombay native infantry reached Auwa.
Thereafter on 19 January in the leadership of Colonel Holmes, the Auwa fort was laid seige but 23 on January 1958 under the cover of darkness, rain and thunder, Auwa revolutionaries escaped away. British soldiers chased revolutionaries and 18 of them were trapped and put to death and 7 were taken into custody. From Auwa village, 124 people were made captive and they were soon made target of bullets.
The native place of Auwa Thakur was laid to ground and in this manner on 24 January 1858, the British soldiers captured Auwa. It is believed that during army action, many unarmed citizens were killed and their bodies were found lying in the lanes. British army also incurred heavy losses and at least ten soldiers were wounded. British soldiers in Auwa committed terrible atrocities.
Bertha, Bhimaliye, and Lambiya villagers were destroyed and in this way the terror was spread among people and British army surged ahead towards Naseerabad. On 15 September 1857, Major Burton received orders to take the role of British political agent in Kota. Thereafter Kota Maharao’s advocate Major Burton was to be taken from Neemuch. On 5th October, Major Burton alongwith his two sons left for Kota.
Major Burton’s wife, daughter and 3 sons had halted at Neemuch and on 12th October, Major Burton reached Kota. The next day Kota Maharao came to meet British political agent at his residence and the same day in the night political agent alongwith his two sons went to meet Maharao. It is believed that during talks, the political agent requested Maharao to relieve his own main associates from the post.
But on 15 October, the two ministers of Kota Maharao revolted against Britain and Major Burton, his two sons, one assistant surgeon and one native Christian doctor were killed. Not only this, Major Burton was beheaded and revolutionaries took the head with them. The revolutionaries were supported by common people and this was given the form of public movement. In Kota’s independence, Jaidev Mathur and Mehrab Khan played main roles.
British Soldiers had to move back and for five months, the rule of revolutionaries remained in Kota. . Other states’ contribution: In Jaipur, Tonk, Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Dungarpur states the anti British emotions were high. The army of Bharatpur, Gujjars and other people openly participated in the revolt. The people of Jaipur insulted the British army that was walking on the roads by shouting anti British slogans. The Nawab of Tonk refused to pay taxes and left for Delhi.
Explain the stages of unification of Rajasthan.
This was decided by the Indian government’s provincial department that all provinces should be united under a single state of Rajasthan, and for this work, extensive intelligence, farsightedness, patience and diplomacy was essential and because of this, the work was completed gradually with lot of care. The different stages of Rajasthan Unification: These were five stages.
First Stage :
The formation of Matsya organisation. In this organisation, Alwar Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karoli were included since from the geographical, caste and economic perspectives these states were alike. The rulers of the 4 states were called on 27 February 1948 to Delhi and the proposal for their integration was placed in front of them. That was instantly accepted on the recommendation of A. K. Munshi.
This organisation was named as Matsya organisation as was the name of this place from the Mahabharat era. On 28 February 1948, the documents were signed and on 18 March 1948, the central minister A. V. Gadgil inaugurated the organisation. The population of Matsya was 18 Lakh and its annual income was ₹2 crore. The Maharaja of Dholpur, Uday Bhan Singh was made supreme head and Council of Ministers was formed.
Shobha Ram of Alwar was made Prime Minister of all 4 states included in organisation one member from each state was taken to form Council of Ministers. Gopi Lal Yadav (Bharatpur), Master Bholanath (Alwar), Dr. Mangal Singh (Dholpur) and Chiranjali Sharma (Karoli) took the oath as ministers.
United Rajasthan : in this organisation, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Banswara, Pratapgarh and Shahpura were included. Kota, Jhalawar and Dungarpur rulers made one Hadoti organisation as was thought over and on 3 March 1948 all the three rulers agreed in Delhi to the idea of integration. The same opinion was formed by the rulers of Banswara, Pratapgarh and Dungarpur.
The native Praja Mandal’s pressure was also there in favour of organisation. Shahpur and Kishangarh were 2 such provinces that had in their part opposed to their merger with Ajmer, Marwada. This is why they agreed to be included in United Rajasthan. This way United Rajasthan had 9 : states; Banswara, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh, Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Kishangarh, Shantipura and Tonk.
The area of the united Rajasthan was 16807 sq. miles, population 23.5 lakh and income 1.90 crore annually. According to the provincial department’s estimentes. Mewar province was situated. According to the provincial department’s estimentes. Mewar could place its independent identity.
Still then provincial department invited the state of Mewar for inclusion. The Mewar Maharana, Bhupal Singh and Mewar state Dewan Sir S. V. Ramamurthi opposed the proposal and said Mewar’s 1300 years old kingdom with glorious traditions could not be given up and their identity could not be erased on India map.
By seeing the rigid attitude of Mewar state, the provincial department took the decision to leave Udaipur for the time being and merge the province of South East to construct United Rajasthan. In the proposed United Rajasthan, Kota was the largest province.
The decision was taken the post of supreme head of United Rajasthan be given to Maharaj Bheem Singh of Kota and on 25 March, 1948. N. V. Gadgil inaugurated this new organisation. The Kota Maharaj being given the post of Supreme King on the basis of larger area was not acceptable to the Maharaj of Bundi because traditionally their position was higher than Kota.
Bundi Maharao prayed to the Maharaja of Mewar to merge in new state so that Udaipur Maharaj could become supreme head by which the difficulties of Bundi Maharaj would be solved. Maharana gave Bundi Maharaj that very answer that he had given few days to provincial department.
In the end, being helpless Bundi Maharao agreed for Kota Maharaj to be the supreme head of United Rajasthan, Bundi Maharao was made vice supreme head and Maharao of Dungarpur junior vice supreme head. The brief constitution of these states was prepared and it was to be inaugurated on 25 March, 1948.
The decision of Mewar not to get included in United Rajasthan in Mewar sparked a quick revolt in Mewar. The main leader of Mewar Praja Mandal and constitutiontal representative committee member M. L. Verma said Mewar cauld not decide about the 20 lakh people fate alone through Maharana Saheb and his chief Ram Murthi. Praja Mandal’s clear policy was that Mewar ended its identity and became a part of Rajasthan.
Maharana remained firm on his decision but soon the political circumstances of Mewar changed. An
obstacle arose in Mewar with respect to formation of council of ministers, between Praja Mandal and Mewar government. This obstacle could be resolved if Mewar joined the union. Maharana on 23 March 1948, in order to merge Mewar in United Rajasthan forwarded the information of this decision to Indian government and requested to set the date of inauguration on 25th March.
Third Stage :
Mewar merges with United Rajasthan : Three days after the United Rajasthan’s inauguration, a discussion started on the question of Mewar merger. Sir Rama Murthi informed about three main demands.
- Maharana would be made United Rajasthan’s hereditary supreme head.
- He had to be given ₹ 20 Lakh annual allowance.
- Udaipur be made the capital. Provincial department talked to the rulers of United Rajasthan and decided to merge Mewar with United Rajasthan.
As regards the Maharana to be life – long supreme head, this was decided that after Maharana’s death, would, the post would be accepted as closed. United Rajasthan’s capital was made Udaipur but one convention every year of Vidhan Sabha was decided upon. Mewar’s Maharana had demanded an allowance of 20 lakh.
In answer, the allowance was kept ₹20 lakh but in form of annual grant of ₹15 lakh and for religious activities 5 lakh were agreed upon. On 1 April 1948, Mewar signed on the merger letter. This organisation was inaugurated by Pt. Nehru on 18 April 1948 in Udaipur. Mewar’s Maharana the supreme head, Kota’s maharaj senior vice supreme head and Bundi and Dungarpur rulers were junior vice supreme head.
Prime Minister M. L. Verma on advice Pt. Nehru and Sardar Patel decided to form the Council of Ministers. In the Council of Ministers were Gokul Pd. Asawa (Shahpura), Prem Narayan Mathur, Bhurelal Bhaya and Mohan Lal Sukhadiya (Udaipur), Bhogilal Pandya (Dungarpur), Abhin Giri (Kota) and Brij Sunder Sharma (Bundi). This way the 3rd stage of Rajasthan unification was completed.
Fourth Stage :
Greater Rajasthan Formation : With the merger of Mewar, rest of the state’s merger became easier and certain. In Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, the public opinion of merger and unification became stronger. Jodhpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer states had boundaries connected with Pakistan from where the fear of aggression was always.
From the angle of transportation and communication avenues, this area was very backward. Their development was beyond the states economic capacity economic capacity. The leader of Samajvadi Pary Dr. J. P. Narayan on 9th November 1948 in a public gathering demanded the construction of greater Rajasthan without delay and on the all – India level Rajasthan, movement committee was constituted.
Its President Dr. R. M. Lohiya demanded unification of Rajasthan. The Secretary of Provincial Department V. P. Menon started the talks with concerned rulers. On 11 January 1949, he left for Jaipur and talked with Jaipur Maharaja. Jaipur Maharaja Sawai Man Singh after much hesitation and counselling finally was prepared for Greater Rajasthan but condition was laid that the Jaipur Maharaj would be made hereditary supreme head of Greater Rajasthan and Jaipur would be made the Capital.
After the consent of conditon of merger, this message was sent to Bikaner and Jodhpur by telegram. The rulers of Bikaner and Jodhpur finally gave the consent for the process of merger. On 14 January 1949, Sardar Patel in a simple gathering in Udaipur declared about the construction of Greater Rajasthan.
The Maharaja of Mewar was declared life – long supreme king. The ruler of Jaipur was made Royal King, the rulers of Jodhpur and Kota Senior Vice Royal King and Bundi and were Dungarpur rulers Junior Vice Royal Kings. Royal King and his council of ministers were in central government. Royal Kings, letter of acceptance was signed for constitution to accept the federal and stratagic aspects.
Sardar Patel inaugurated the newly formed group on 30th March 1949, and in present form the day is celebrated as Rajasthan Day. Shri Hiralal Shastri on 4th April 1949 took charge of ministry, the council of ministers would Shri Sidhraj Dadtha (Jaipur), Prem Narayan Mathur (Udaipur), Bhure Lal Bhaya (Udaipur), Phool Chand Bapna (Jodhpur), Narsingh Kachwaha (Jodhpur), Rao Raja Hanumant Singh (Jodhpur), Raghuvar Raj Goyal (Bikaner) and Vedpal Tyagi (Kota), Jaipur ruler received 18 lacs, Jodhpur rulers ₹17.5 lacs, Bikaner ruler 17 lacs, Jaisalmer ruler 2 – 8 lacs in the form of Privy Purse. Jaipur was declared capital and Rajasthan’s large importance increased as some state level government enterprises, higher offices/working places i.e., High Court in Jodhpur, Education Deparment in Bikaner, Mineral Department in Udaipur, Agriculture Department in Bharatpur were established
The Fifth Stage: The merger of Matsya organisation in greater Rajasthan. During the formation of Matsya organisation, the four state rulers were clearly conveyed that in future, this organisation would merge either in Rajasthan or Uttar Pradesh. Matsya organisation was working in independent form but its government was beset with problems.
Th agitation of Mewar was a subject of worry for them, and the Bharatpur farmer assembly and citizen assembly’s anti government movement was at its peak. Bharatpur farmer assembly demanded seperate identity for Bharatpur and Dholpur. Now the doubt began to form that Matsya organisation would be broken or divided.
The foresight of this doubt was the reason why the four state rulers and Prime Minister were called on 10th May 1949 to Delhi for talks. The option was given to them to either merge with close by state Uttar Pradesh or in Rajasthan, Where Alwar and Karoli were in favour of merger with Rajasthan, Bharatpur and Dholpur were in favour of merger with Uttar Pradesh.
For the solution of problem, a committee was formed under Shri Shankar Rao Dev’s presidentship. As per the recommendation of this committee, Bharatpur and Dholpur had public support for merger with Rajasthan. On 15th May 1948 Matsya union was included in Rajasthan.
Write about the situation of provinces and their problems before the unification of Rajasthan..
On 15th August 1947 India became independent. The Indian Independence Act as per 1947, gth schedule, the British government’s Indian native Provinces were given the freedom of choosing whether to join India or Pakistan. If any province didn’t combine with , any of the two nations it could remain an independent state.
If this was not allowed, India would have separated in many small divisions and India’s unity would be compromised. Contemporary Indian government’s political department that controlled the nation till then was ended and on 5th July 1947, the Province Secretariat was formed in Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel’s presidentship.
Province Secretariat wished merger or integration of all small and large provinces. These provinces were merged in a manner that from language, culture and geographical boundary’s perspective a united state was developed.
The Primary effort in the formation of Rajasthan :
During the attainment of independence, Rajasthan had 22 small and large provinces. Other than this, Ajmer-Marwara’s small territory was under direct central rule. All these provinces and British areas were to be combined into one united state and this was extremely difficult problem. In September 1946, All India National State People’s Council took decision that combined Rajasthan in one unit form should get included in Indian Confederation.
Here Indian government province secretrait took decision that in independent India whose only those provinces can place their separate identity whose income would be 1 crore annually and population more than 10 lacs. According to this measure, in Rajasthan only Jodhpur, Jaipur, Udaipur and Bikaner could fulfil the condition.
Rajasthan’s small provinces were able to expereience that in independent India, it was good to be as together independent units was but due to historical and other reasons, the rulers had non-belief and jealously for one another. The main problems of provinces in Rajasthan : Rajasthan’s main provinces had following problems.
- After independence and division, the religious rights were main problem. In Alwar and Bharatpur Mev castes problems again came up.
- Jodhpur’s geographical and societal situation was extremely important and Jodhpur’s probable inclusion in Pakistan. It was also a hot topic.
- The Maharana of Mewar and the feudal lords due to their glorious historical traditions were not interested to merge in the confederation.
- Bikaner being a border state, was an extremely important state for India. In the changing political seenario, the Mewar Maharana on 25th June 1946 in Jaipur, organised a summit of Rajasthan kings. The agenda was to make a confederation. All rulers had different opinions.
The Maharana’s plan did not fructify. In a similar manner, the ruler of Dungarpur tried unsuccessfully to build Bhagat State (Dungarpur, Hanswada, Pratapgarh), Jaipur and Kota rulers’ efforts were also unsuccessful in forming unions.
As a consequence, Indian government’s province department combined all provinces together for the formation of United Rajasthan. For this great intelligence, farsightedness, patience and diplomacy was required and this is why this work was gradually done with lot of precaution.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 7 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 7 Objective Type Questions
Before the revolt of 1875, the ruler who presented anti-British emotions was :
(a) Dungarpur’s Maharaja Jaswant Singh
(b) Jodhpur’s ruler Man Singh
(c) Udaipur ruler Swaroop Singh
(d) Bharatpur’s ruler Jaswant Singh
(b) Jodhpur’s ruler Man Singh
Rajasthan’s Dungji and Jawaharji were extremely popular because :
(a) they were revolutionary leaders
(b) they were engaged in public welfare activities
(c) they looted British cantonments and wealth
(d) they did public welfare with looted treasury cash.
(b) they were engaged in public welfare activities
In Rajasthan, the feudal lords, armed revolt was led by
(a) Sulumbar Samant
(b) Kothariya Samant
(c) Aasind Samant
(d) Auwa Samant
(d) Auwa Samant
In Rajasthan, the revolt of 1857 began from:
The 1857 revolt began from Naseerabad because :
(a) in Naseerabad the rage against the Britishers was more
(b) the soldiers of Naseerabad were asked to use bullets coated with cow fat
(c) 15th Bengaļ Infanty was sent from Ajmer to Naseerabad
(d) Naseerabad soldiers had received the message of Delhi revolutionaries
(b) the soldiers of Naseerabad were asked to use bullets coated with cow fat
Who wrote Veer Satsai ?
(a) Sagarmal Gopa
(b) Suryamal Mishra
(c) Sadhu Sitaram
(d) Jay Narayan Vyas
(b) Suryamal Mishra
In Neemuch, the revolution began on
(a) 28th May 1857
(b) 30th June 1857
(c) 3 June 1857
(d) 3rd April 1857
(c) 3 June 1857
The Rajasthan feudal lord who patronized Tatya Tope ?
(a) Auwa’s Thakur Kushal Singh
(b) Kathariya’s Rawat Jodh Singh
(c) Aasop’s Thakur Shivnath Singh
(d) Guler’s Thakur Bishen Singh
(b) Kathariya’s Rawat Jodh Singh
Rajasthan’s ruler who helped Tatya Tope, was :
(a) Jodhpur’s Rao Kesari Singh
(b) Kota’s Bhim Singh
(c) Mewar’s Bhupal Singh
(d) Jaipur’s Sawai Man Singh
(a) Jodhpur’s Rao Kesari Singh
The political agent in Auwa who was eliminated, was
(b) Major Burton
(c) Monk Masan
(d) Capt. Brook
(c) Monk Masan
The writer of Vansh Bashher is:
(a) Suryamal Mishra
(b) Shamral Dass
(c) Banshi Dass
(d) Dayal Dass
(c) Banshi Dass
During the revolt, the ruler of Mewar who helped Britishers was
(a) Swaroop Singh
(b) Man Singh
(c) Jaswant Singh
(d) None of the above
(a) Swaroop Singh
The farmers’ movement which was taken note of in England’s House of Commons, was:
(a) Bijolia Farmer Movement
(b) Shekhwati Farmer Movement
(c) Sikar Farmer Movement
(d) Begu Farmer Movement
(c) Sikar Farmer Movement
The main founder of Bijolia Farmer Movement was :
(a) Vijay Singh Pathik
(b) Kesari Singh Barhat
(c) Damodar Dass Rathi
(d) Kanihya Lal Verma
(a) Vijay Singh Pathik
In Mewar’s Bhomat area the “Samp’ Sabha was established by:
(a) Govind Guru
(b) Surji Bhagat
(c) Damodar Dass Rathi
(d) Kanihya Lal Verma
(a) Govind Guru
In Rajasthan the farmer movement first began from :
Through the medium of Akki movement the organisation of tribals was handled by :
(a) Vijay Singh Pathik
(b) Govind Guru
(c) Moti Lal Tejawat
(d) Balwant Singh
(c) Moti Lal Tejawat
If I work as a state employee then who will turn out Britishers from India ? Who said these lines ?
(a) Vijay Singh Pathik
(b) Arjun Lal Sethi
(c) Zorawar Singh
(d) Gopal Singh Kharwa
(b) Arjun Lal Sethi
“Navjeevan” newspaper was published from:
‘Marwad Hitkarni Sabha’ or ‘Marwad Welfare Committee’ was founded by:
(a) Jay Narayan Vyas
(b) Anand Raj Surana
(d) Chandmal Surana
(d) Chandmal Surana
On 31 December 1945, All India National States People’s Council’s Seventh Convention was held in :
For the United Rajasthan’ the construction of ‘Matsya Sangh’was made, that included :
(a) Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kota and Alwar
(b) Udaipur, Banswara, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh and Tonk
(c) Shahpura, Kishanpur, Jhalawar, Jaisalmer, Karoli
(d) Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karoli.
(d) Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karoli.
Matsya Confederation’s capital was :
(i) Join the sub – sets :
Praja Mandal Foundation Year
1. Jodhpur (a) 1943 AD
2. Jaisalmer (b) 1938 AD
3. Kota (c) 1936 AD
4. Bundi (d) 1936 AD
5. Alwar (e) 1931 AD
6. Dholpur (f) 1944 AD
7. Banswara (g) 1931 AD
8. Dungarpur (h) 1945 AD
9. Jaipur state Praja Mandal (i) 1939 AD
1. (c), 2. (h), 3. (e), 4. (e), 5. (b), 6. (d), 7. (a), 8. (f), 9. (g).
(ii) Join the words:
1. Sikar and Shekhawati Movement (a) Pt. Naynu Ram
2. Akki Movement (b) Vijay Singh Pathik
3. Bhagat Movement (c) Motilal Tejawat
4. Bijolia Movement (d) Govind Guru
5. Bundi Farmers Movement (e) Ram Narayan Choudhary
1. (e), 2. (c), 3. (d), 4. (b), 5. (a).
RBSE Class 12 History Very Short Answer Type Questions
Write any two reasons behind Rajasthan’s public awareness.
In Rajasthan, the reasons of public awareness were :
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati and his influence
- The contribution of newspapers and literature.
Who was the publisher of ‘Rajasthan Kesari’ newspaper ?
‘Rajasthan Kesari’ newspaper’s publisher was Viiav Singh Pathik.
Which were the main newspapers in Rajasthan to raise voice in connection with independence revolt ?
In connection with independence revolt in Rajasthan, the newspapers that raised voice were Navjyot, Navjeevan and Jaipur Samachar.
Who wrote Veer Satsai?
Veer Satsai was written by Suryamal Mishra.
Where did British authorities run away after the revolt of Naseerabad ?
After the revolt in Naseerabad, British authorities went to Neemuch.
Which were the main centres of revolt in Rajasthan ? .
In Rajasthan the main centres of revolt were Naseerabad, Neemuch, Devli, Auwa, Kota, Erinpura, Salumbar and Kotharia.
Who was the ruler that helped or patronized Tatya Tope in Rajasthan ?
Salumbar’s Rawal Kesri Singh helped Tatya Tope.
Who caught hold of Tatya Tope by deceit ?
Tatya Tope was caught by deceit by Narwar’s Rajput landlord Man Singh.
Which Mewar ruler helped Britishers during the revolt ?
Mewar’s Maharana Swaroop Singh was helpful to Britishers during the revolt.
What were the reasons of the revolt’s failure in Rajasthan ?
The reasons for the failutre of the revolt in Rajasthan were the absence of leadership in Rajasthan rulers and absence of equilibrium.
What were the main reasons for the failure of Tatya Tope in Rajasthan ?
Tantya Tope’s failure in Rajasthan was because of Rajasthan’s rulers’ absolute non-co-operation and betrayal by own loyalists or friends.
Where was the main centre of revolt against the Britishers and name the ruler who supported the revolutionaries ?
Auwa was the main centre of revolt against the Britishers. The ruler of this place Kushal Singh gave significant help to revolutionaries.
Who was the ruler before the 1857 revolt to first demonstrate antiBritish sentiments ?
Before the 1857 revolt, Jodhpur’s Man Singh demonstrated emotions against the British.
What was the reason of popularity of landloards of Bathade in Rajasthan namely Doong Singh and Jawahar Singh ?
Doongi and Jawaharji both looted British cantonments and government treasury and helped the poor. That is why they were popular among people.
Who was the British authority killed in Kota ?
In Kota, the British political agent Major Burton was killed.
Who was the ruler of Jaipur by whom the Britishers were helped in this revolt ?
Jaipur’s ruler Ram Singh helped Britishers in this revolt.
In which states of Rajasthan did the revolt of 1857 burst out in the form of army revolt ?
In ‘Naseerabad and Neemuch, this revolt burst out as army revolt.
Which reasons led to the emotions for historian Charno Bhato to write songs in praise of Thakur of Auwa ?
Charno Bhato wrote in praise of Thakur of Auwa for his anti-Britishers emotions.
Why did Mewar’s Maharana send Mal Hakim Hamid Hussain to Bijolia ?
Bijolia’s landlord levied illegal taxes and to investigate it, Mewar’s Maharana
Why did Vijay Singh Pathik lead the Bijolia farmers’ movement ?
The farmers were oppressed by excess taxes and seeing this Vijay Singh Pathik accepted leadership of their movement..
What do you understand by ‘Peewal’ and ‘Barani’ land ?
The meaning of Peewal is irrigated land and the meaning of Barani is non-irrigated
Who organised the Bhils in societal community ?
Surji Bhagat and Govind Guru organised the Bhils in societal community.
Write the names of two main tribes of Rajasthan.
The main tribes of Rajasthan are Bhils and Meena.
Write the names of main leaders of Bhil movement.
Bhil movement’s main leaders were – Govind Guru and Motilal Tejawat.
Which caste did the farmers of Bijolia belong to ?
Bijolia farmers were of ‘Dhahad’ caste.
What was the purpose of Bijolia movement ?
Bijolia farmers movement’s purpose was to show dissatisfaction against the landlords for their heavy taxes.
Who were the leaders of Dahad farmers through whom the plight of farmers was expressed in front of Udaipur Maharana ?
Two leaders of Dahad farmers, Nanaji Patel and Thakri Patel went to Maharana of Udaipur to express the plight of farmers.
What was the real name of Vijay Singh Pathik ?
How did Vijay Singh Pathik make the Bijolia farmers’ movement a topic of discussion in the whole country.
This was done through the medium of a newspaper published from Kanpur named as Pratap.
Which organisation was founded by Govind Guru to organise the Bhils?
Govind Guru founded ‘Samp Sabha’ to organise the Bhils.
Write the names of leaders who spread national awareness by their matchless contribution to Bhils people.
Vijay Singh Pathik, Manikya Lal Verma and Hari Bhau Upadhyaya were these leaders. Bhils the national awareness.
What was the main purpose of establishing ‘Rajasthan Central India Assembly’ in 1927 AD ?
The Rajasthan Central India Assembly established in 1927 had main purpose to introducing people to the Congress activities.
Write the names of Rajasthan’s branches of ‘All India Nationalist State Public Council’.
In Rajasthan, ‘All India Nationalist State Public Council branches were namedPraja Mandal or Praja Parishad or Lok Parishad or Public Council or People’s Council or Citizen Forum.
What was the objective of the first convention after the foundation of Praja Mandal or Citizen Forum in Mewar ?
In Mewar after the foundation of Praja mandal or Citizen Forum the first convention was held to establish popular government in state.
Why was the Nationalist State Public Council founded ?
The Nationalist State People Council was founded in December 1927 to bind unitedly the people of nation’s states.
What was the purpose of Jaipur Prajamandal’s foundation ?
The purpose of the foundation of Jaipur Prajamandal was establishment of responsible government, achieving basic or fundamental rights for people and Jaipur state’s development.
Where and in whose presidentship was ‘Rajputana’s Central India Assembly convention held ?
‘Rajputana Central India Assembly convention took place in Ajmer in Jamuna Lal Bajaj’s presidentship. .
When and in whose presidentship did Kota state citizen council hold its first convention ?
‘Kota State Citizen Council’ held its first convention under the leadership of Naynu Ram Sharma in Mangrol.
Where and by whom was the Bikaner Praja Mandal founded ?
Bikaner Praja Mandal was founded in Bikaner by Magaram Vaid.
Who was the Maharana of Mewar in 1911 AD during the Delhi Court ?
Maharana Fateh Singh was the Maharana of Mewar during Delhi Court in 1911.
Who were the group of representatives by whom ‘Rajasthan Central Indian Assembly’ was organised ?
The assembly was organised by Seth Jamanlal Bajaj; Vijay Singh Pathik and other representatives jointly.
Which two books were published under the guidance of ‘Marwad Welfare Assembly’ ?
These books were
- The State of Marwar
- Popabai’s Pole.
What work did Pt. Hari Narayan Sharma of Alwar district do for the upliftment of tribes ?
Hari Narayan Sharma founded untouchable organisation, Valmiki organisation, publicised Khadi and worked for religious solidarity and people’s awareness.
Under whose presidentship on 30th December 1940, was the first political gathering of Citizen’s Council held ?
The gathering was held in the presidentship of Jaynarayan Vyas.
Who presided over the seventh convention of All India Nationalist State Public Council ?
This convention was presided over by Jawahar Lal Nehru.
Whose leadership in Pratapgarh was meant for responsible council of ministers organisation ?
On 14 August 1947 in professor Gokul Dass Auwa’s leadership, the responsible council of ministers was organised.
What decision did All India Nationalist State Public Council take in connection with Rajasthan in September 1946 AD
In September 1946 AD the All India Nationalist State Public Council took the decision that United Rajasthan as one unit form must get included in Indian Federation.
What was the demand of movement committee president Shri Ram Manohar Lohia ?
Shri Ram Manohar Lohia included Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Matsya confederation in United Rajasthan and demanded to convert it into Indian confederation’s one strong unit.
Who was the Royal King of United Rajasthan ?
On 25 March 1948 before the merger of Mewar the Maharao of Kota, Bheem Singh became the Royal King of United Rajasthan, but after the merger of Mewar on 18 April 1948 the post of Royal King of United Rajasthan was given to the King of Mewar, Bhupal Singh.
What was the capital of greater Rajasthan ?
On 30th March 1949, Jaipur was made the capital of Greater Rajasthan.
Who is given the credit for unification of provinces ?
Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel is given the credit for unification of provinces.
When and why is Rajasthan Day celebrated ?
30th March 1949 being the day of greater Rajasthan construction is celebrated as Rajasthan Day.
When and by which states’ merger was the Matsya Confederation formed ?
On 18 March 1948, the merger of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karoli provinces formed Matsya Confederation.
What was the capital of Matsya Confederation’? Who was the Prime Minister ?
Matsya Confederation’s capital was ‘Alwar’ and its Prime Minister was Shri Shobha Ram.
When did Mewar Maharana sign the merger letter ?
Mewar Maharana signed the merger letter on 11th April 1948.
What terms were placed by King Man Singh in connection with Jaipur province’s merger in greater Rajasthan ?
Jaipur King Man Singh placed the term that Jaipur king be made hereditary Royal King of greater Rajasthan and Jaipur be made its capital.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 7 Short Answer Type Questions
Explain the main incidents of 1857 revolt in Rajasthan. ?
As the 1857 revolt spread, that time in Rajasthan the agent to Governor was Patrick Lawrence. Alongwith this in various states, British residents were appointed. The residents were Captain C. L. Shovers in Udaipur, Captain William Edan in Jaipur, Captain Mark Mason in Jodhpur, Major Burton in Kota and Major Nixon in Bharatpur. There were mainly six cantonments in Rajasthan.
These were situated at Naseerabad, Neemuch, Devli, Kota, Erinpura and Kherwada. In Neemuch, Bengal native artillery, first Bengal cavalry, 72 Bengal infantry and seventh infantry Gwalior were appointed. In Devli and Kota, some British platoons were posted. Other than this in Erinpura, Beawar and Kherwada, alongwith Bhils platoons first Bengal cavalry was also appointed.
This is clear that at the time of revolt for independence not even one European soldier was posted or stationed in the entire Rejasthan. This is the reason when in 1857, the fire of independence revolt spread in Rajasthan, the then British government was worried.
What is the contribution of Damodar Dass Rathi in the 1857 revolt for independence ?
Rajasthan’s leading revolutionary, lover of independence, Damodar Dass Rathi’s (1882 – 1918) name is taken with respect. He was an industrialist and after coming in contact with Rao Gopal Singh and Arvind Ghosh, he opened Arya Samaj branch in Beawar of and Home Rule Movement and founded the one Sanatan religion education society.
He was leading supporter of Tilak’s aggresive policy. The speciality of all his revolutionary activities was that alongwith social improvement, propagation of education was conducted in a balanced manner.
Explain the contribution of Auwa’s Kushal Singh in the revolt of 1857.
In the 1857 revolt, the people of Rajasthan demonstrated patriotism and antiBritish emotions and helped the revolutionaries. The contribution of Thakur Kushal Singh from. Auwa in Rajasthan is invaluable. On 8 September 1857 the armed soldiers of the revolted. Thakur Kushal severed the throat of British resident and hoisted it a top of the fort.
On 19th January 1858 under the leadership of Colonel Holmes, the Auwa fort came captured and 124 people of this village wree made prisoners and on 28th January, 1858, Auwa was under the control of British soldiers. Kushal Singh in this revolt showed great courage but due to non – co – operation, revolt could not be pre – organised and successful.
Give the details about the incidents of 1857 revolt related with the entry of Tatya Tope in Rajasthan.
In the 1857 revolt for independence, Tatya Tope’s Rajasthan journey is an important incident. After Tatya was unsuccessful in Gwalior, he left for Lalsoth and reached Tonk to get help. In Tonk, he was supported by the ruler’s army. From there, he went to Salumbar.
Rawat of Salumbar helped him. After this, Tatya Tope reached Hadoti and he controlled Jhalrapatan but in the month of September, he was defeated twice by the Britishers that made him disappointed and he left Rajasthan.
In December Tatya Tope again came to Rajasthan and via Vaswada to Salumbar through Bindar reached Tonk in January 1858 and he visited Dausa and Sikar. British soldiers defeated and turned him out. Due to cheating of Narwar landlord Man Singh, Tatya Tope was arrested by Britishers and in April 1859 he was hanged
Which policies were changed in native states by British government to stop the flow of revolt in Rajasthan ?
British rulers had understood that from the perspective of rule over India, the native rulers were useful for them. Now the British policy changed. In order to satisfy the rulers, the principle of doctrine of lapse’ was brought to an end. The learning of English education was organised for rulers. Their service was rewarded and they were given territories to establish more faith towards British crown and western civilisation.
What were the reasons for farmer movement in Rajasthan ?
By the middle of twentieth century, the interference and control of Britishers in native states increased. The traditional relations of farmers with the British government changed due to excess taxes, increased expenses and policies of economic exploitation. New manufacturing costs were levied and forced labour was taken from farmers.
Rulers and feudal lords had no danger from external invasion. British control led to western influence. As a result the lifestyle of rulers and feudel lords changed. Their expenses increased. For their luxury and comfort, farmers suffered from more economic exploitation. The farmers were disatisfied and this resulted in farmers’ movement.
Throw light on the Alwar farmer movement.
In Alwar state, public awareness began by farmer movement. The state farmers ran a movement as their crops were being ruined by wild pigs. Maharaja ordered to kill the pigs. Later on the state farmers organised a gathering in Nemuchana village against the increased taxes.
Soldiers fired on poeple fleeing the village in which hundreds of men, women and children were martyred. Mahatma Gandhi condemned the Nemuchana controversy strongly. British rulers were pressurized by this incident and they alongwith Alwar Maharaja went for an agreement or reconcilation with farmers.
Briefly explain the importance of Rajasthan’s farmer movement.
On the state and national level, maximum importance remained for farmer movement. The farmer movements placed the British government’s oppressive policies before the nation. This contributed in the growth of political public awareness. The feudal system ended and democratic emotions received strength. In favour of farmers and public, national leaders and Congress also supported these groups.
Explain briefly the Mewar Prajamandal Movement.
In Rajasthan, the most respected state was Mewar state. After the Haripura convention, Manikya Lal Verma and Balant Singh Mehta founded the Mewar Praja Mandal on 24 April 1938. This was declared illegal on 11th May, 1938. In Ajmer, Manikya Lal Verma continued his activities and published a book named ‘Mewar’s present rule’ wherein the government was badly criticised.
In Februay, 1939 AD when he came to Udaipur, he was made captive and beaten up. This incident was strongly opposed by Gandhiji on 18th February, 1939 AD in the issue of ‘Harijan’. Manikya Lal Verma was sentenced to two years of imprisonment. Later on in 1941 AD, the prohibition on Mewar Praja Mandal was lifted off. As a result, its branches were established throughout the state.
What was the contribution of Naynu Ram for the awareness of Kota Praja Mandal ?
In Kota, the credit of awareness goes to Pt. Nanyu Ram Sharma. He was an active member of Rajasthan Service Organisation. Pt. Sharma ran the Begar revolt movement and in 1934 AD founded the Hadoti Praja Mandal. In 1939 AD, Pt. Sharma associated with Pt. Abhiu Hari and founded the Kota State Praja Mandal whose main purpose was to establish responsible administration. In 1941 AD after Pt. Nanyu Ram Sharma’s killing, the leadership went to Abhiu Hari.
How was the introductory effort made for the formation of Rajasthan ?
At the time of India’s independence from British rule, independence, Rajasthan had 22 small large provinces. Other than this, the small area of Ajmer Marwada was under direct rule of British. All these provinces and British ruled areas to be combined in the form of a unit and be organised was a very tough problem.
In September 1946 AD, All India Nationalist State Public Council took a decision that entire Rajasthan as a unit must get included in Indian Confederation. The Province Secretariat of Indian Government took a decision that in Independent India only those provinces could place their seperate identity, who had an annual income of one crore and population of more than 10 lacks.
Under this stipulation, only four provinces were there. The small provinces were experiencing that in independent India living jointly was a better alternative than staying as self dependent units.
How did Jaipur state merge with the Greater Rajasthan ?
The Secretary of Province Department Shri V. P. Menon on 11th January 1943 went to Jaipur and talked to Jaipur King. Jaipur Maharaj Sawai Man Singh after much hesitation and persuasion was prepared for merger with greater Rajasthan but this condition was laid that Jaipur king be made the ancestral Royal King of greater Rajasthan Jaipur be made the capital of Rajasthan. Shri Menon after much discussion and thought, gave acceptance. On 14th January 1949 Sardar Patel in an ordinary gathering in Udaipur declared the construction of Greater Rajasthan’.
How did the merger of Ajmer – Merwada happen ?
During the British era, Ajmer – Merwada was a centrally ruled state. All India Nationalist State Public Council’s Rajputana Regional Assembly always demanded that the locality of Ajmer Merwada be includedin Greater Rajasthan along with other regions.
After the 1952 AD General elections in Ajmer Merwada, the Congress Ministry was formed in the leadership of Shri Hari Bhau Upadhyaya. The Congress leadership was not in favour of , merger of Ajmer in Rajasthan and now after the formation of ministry in Ajmer Merwada, the Congress leadership gave the logic that from the perspective of administration, it remained a small state.
This report was handed over to State Reorganisation Committee. Thereafter on 1 November, 1956, Sirohi’s Mount Abu area and alongwith this, Ajmer Merwada was also included in Rajasthan.
How did the aristocracy’s last remains end in the unification of Rajasthan ?
After the unification of Rajasthan, the aristocracy was left in the form of last remains. Royal king’s newly created post was kept. First group states, main head was called Governor whereas second group states, main head was called Royal King or ‘Raj Pramukhi’. Governor and Royal king. Both were appointed by the President, but Royal King’s appointment
was done from the concerned states with merged provinces of former rulers. In India the new elected parliament as per constitution’s seventh schedule terminated the post of Royal King and in the form of the state’s first Governor, Sardar Guru Mukh Nihal Singh took oath. This way by Sardar Patel’s cleverness, intellect and good policy the lost remains of aristocracy ended in Rajasthan:
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 7 Essay Type Questions .
What are the reasons of public awareness in Rajasthan ?
Under on the pretext of trade, East India Company came to India. Along with them people from other European nations also came but Britishers were more successful. Britishers received one profit that after Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb’s death, India was divided into many small states and provinces. These small states used to fight among themselves.
In Lord Dalhousie’s period, English Residents influence increased in native provinces and Residents started making excuses about security, debt and adopted son to grab power. Many kings and landlords were thus offended by British rule and were eager to bring an end to it. On the All India level, the trumpet of 1857 revolt was blown and in this revolutionaries like Mangal Pandey, Jhansi’s queen Laxmi Bai and Tatya Tope raised their voice.
The flame of this blaze blew up in Rajasthan, also and people of state supported the revolt with enthusiasm. In any country the political awareness is not the result of an instant incident. For this, long time meditation and efforts have to be made. This new political consciousness had the following catalyst elements:
(1) Swami Dayanand Sarastati and his effect :
The founder of Arya Şamaj, Swami Dayanand Saraswati was the first social reformer to blow the conch of Swadeshi and Swaraj. In 1865, Swami came to Karoli, Jaipur and Ajmer. He gave the formula of Swadharm, Swadeshi, Swabasha and Swaraj which the rulers and public willingly accepted.
Between 1888 – 1890 AD many branches of Arya Samaj were established in Rajasthan and a printing press named ‘Paropkarini Sabha’ was set up that was later transferred to Ajmer. In this manner initial work to motivate the idea of Swaraj the was done by Arya Samaj.
(2) Contribution of newspapers and literature :
In the propagation of political consciousness, the contribution of newspapers was exemplary. In 1885 AD, Rajputana Gazette, in 1889 AD, Rajasthan Samachar were initial newspapers. In 1920 AD, Pathik began the publication of ‘Rajasthan Kesari’. This raised voice against the British policies.
In 1922 AD, ‘Rajasthan Service Organisation’ started a newspaper named ‘Naveen Rajasthan’ that loudly spoke about farmers movement. In 1943 AD Navjyoti, in 1939 AD Navjeevàn, in 1935 AD Jaipur Samachar, in 1943 AD Lokvani etc. newspapers talked about Rajasthan problems and movements on the national stage and created national consent.
In’same way, through Thakur Kesri Singh Barhat, Jai Narain Vyas and Pt. Hira Lal Shastri’s poetry, patriotism’ reached its peak. The thought – provoking writing of Arjun Lal Sethi produced an ideological revolution. In this concern, the creative work of great poet Suryamal Mishra’s ‘Veer Satsai’ cannot be forgotten in which feelings of courage and patriotism is uniquely described.
(3) The role of middle class :
This leadership came from educationist, advocate and journalist fields. Jay Narayan Vyas, Master Bhola Nath, Meghram Vaid, Arjun Lal Sethi and Vijay Singh Pathik etc. represented the middle class.
(4) The effect of 1st world war :
Almost all the states represented Rajasthan in the army activities of 1st world war. The soldiers who came back shared their experiences back home. They introduced people of Rajasthan with new thinking of revolt. From the other end, the full load of war was borne by Indian Public as the taxes were increased and result. the emotion of disastisfaction began to rise more.
(5) The effect of outer environment: Rajasthan was not unfamiliar with the political activities happening elsewhere in rest of the country. The influence of leaders and their programmes at national level had effect here also. From one side, people like Hari Bau Upadhyaya and Jamana Lal Bajaj advocated Gandhiji policies, and on the other hand, people were also motivated by the thoughts of Ras Bihari Bose, Arjunlal Sethi, Gopal Singh Kharwa and Barhat family who kept the flame of independence burning.
Explain the reasons and results of failure of 1857 revolt in Rajasthan.
On 21st September 1857 Mughal King Bahadur Shah, his wife Begam Zeenat Mahal and their children were made prisoners and sent to Rangoon. In the middle of 1858 AD the anti-British activities slowed more. With the arrest of Tatya Tope, the first independence revolt of Indians came to an end in Rajasthan.
Now, public openly showed hatred against the Britishers. While meeting the king, the public of Udaipur openly abused Captain Sharves. The soldiers of Jodhpur threw stones on the statue of Captain Sarderland. People of Kota, Bharatpur, Alwar and Tonk sided with the revolutionaries against the policies of rulers. Still the revolt was unsuccessful in Rajasthan. The failure of revolt was due to the following reasons :
(1) Absence of leadership :
Rajasthan was divided into nineteen provinces. Despite the revolt at many places, the agitators had no respectable leadership. The Rajput leaders contacted the king of Mewar. However, the king handed over all documents and letters to Britishers. The feudel lords and soldiers of Marwad tried to struggle under the leadership of Mughal king. Mughal king could not provide leadership outside Delhi in Rajasthan. The revolutionaries could not struggle unitedly and thus they were unsuccessful.
(2) Absence of equilibrium :
The eruption of revolt in Rajasthan took place at many places. But there was absence of equilibrium among revolutionaries. There was no contact and understanding between Auwa and Kota revolutionaries. This is the reason the Indians were not successful.
(3) Absence of strategy :
The efforts of revolutionaries were not planned in advance. After the revolt, they began to fall apart. On the other hand, Britishers destroyed the influence of revolutionists in planned phase and manner. The leadership of British army was handled by skilled army officers. Their food and weapons fulfillment was being done from entire India whereas revolutionary soldiers had scarcity of resources.
(4) Non – Co – operations of rulers :
The non – co – operation of the rulers of Rajasthan was the main reason of the failure of the revolt. Not only this, most of the rulers of Rajasthan and not only in Rajasthan, even outside, gave full support to Britishers. Their lack of foresightedness and of definite policy led the British government to suppress the revolt.
The results of independence :
The 1857 revolt for independence by all reasons was a failure. The after effects of this war were far reaching. This revolution proved the belief of Britishers baseless that as compared to Mughals and Marathas, the people of Rajasthan were supporters of British rule.
The 1857 revolt had the following results :
(1) Nationalist states favoured by policy change : The rulers of Rajasthan in order to stop the influence of revolt acted as a dam or binding force. The British rulers understood that to rule in India, the native kings were useful for them. Now the changes were made in British policy.
In order to satisfy the rulers, the principle of doctrine of lapse’ was ended: Preparations we made to give kings the English education. For their services, they were awarded and given territories so that their loyalty could increase in British crown and western civilisation.
(2) Decrease in the power of feudal lords : In the revolt period, the feudal lords acted against the Britishers. Resultantly after the end of the revolt. Britishers adopted a policy to finish the power of feudal lords. The court fees was taken from feudal lords. Their
lawful rights were snatched, their tax collection rights were also ended. Such laws were made by which trader sect could draw their dues from the court. With this policy in place, the influence of feudal lords on traders and public came to an end.
(3) Change in employment service of bureaucracy : In all states, the important positions or posts of administration were headed by feudal lords. After the revolt, all rulers in order to make feudal lords powerless and to increase their own control on administration, English educated people on the posts of all public services.
(4) Avenues of transportation : In the period of struggle, the British soldiers to be sent from one place to another place faced difficulty. After the revolt, keeping in mind the army and trader benefits, transportation facilities were developed Naseerabad, Neemuch and Devli were connected with roads to Ajmer and Agra.
The rail companies were motivated to construct rail line. British government forced native states to construct roads and rails, and as a result, the transportation facilities quickly developed.
Social Change :
British government extended the English education system. The English educated middle class on the basis of English education gave important contribution in other fields too. Britishers due to trade benefits gave reservation to the business class.
Now the influence of Brahmin and Rajput sects began to decline. Through the medium of many colleges, the royal families had to adopt or accommodate western thoughts and luxury. Britishers used to take fixed tax and army expenses.
Explain în brief the activities of Praja Mandal in Mewar, Marwad and Bikaner?
In 1938 AD in Congress’ Haripura.convention, Congress amended a proposal in which native provinces handled by people about independence struggle got support. This proposal of Congress that was passed gave moral support to the war of independence that ran in native provinces. Praja Mandals were established that demanded for responsible administration under control of native rulers.
Mewar Praja Mandal:
In Rajasthan, the most respected or popular state was Mewar. After the Haripura Conference of Congress, Manohar Lal Verma and Balwant Singh Mehta on 24th April 1938 formed the Mewar Praja Mandal. On 11th May 1938 AD, this organisation was declared illegal and Vermaji was expelled.
Vermaji went to Ajmer and continued with the activities and published a book named Mewar’s present ruler’ that strongly criticised the ruler. In February 1939 when he came to Udaipur, he was made captive and beaten up. On 18th February 1939.
Gandhiji spoke about this incident taking a tough stand. Manikya Lal Verma was given imprisonment of two years. Later on in 1941 AD, the restriction on Praja Mandal was removed. As a result, its branches were established in all parts of state. On 25 – 26 November 1941 for the first time the convention was held under the leadership of Vermaji and to participate in it, Acharya Kriplani and Vijay Laxmi Pandit came to Udaipur.
In the convention, the demand for responsible ruler in Mewar was placed. Before the ‘Quit India Movement, Vermaji participated in the meet of province representatives from Bombay. On 21st August 1942 AD, Vermaji was arrested again. The entire Udaipur went on strike and arrests were made.
In the movement, students joined and the movement spread to Nathdwara, Bhilswara and Chittor. 1942 AD Movement in Rajasthan was different from the movements in other parts of the country. The leaders of this movement believed the movement to be of ‘All India Level’.
The change in perspective of Indian policies led Praja mandal leaders to leave and in 1945, the restrictions were lifted from it. To expand political awareness, Prabhat Pheri or early morning chanting while walking and rememberance on birthdays and the death days of leaders of national importance, began to be celebrated.
In 1946 AD, Maharana formed the ‘Constitutional Assembly, in which elected members of Praja Mandal also participated. In 1946, Verma called for the seventh convention of All India Nationalist State Public Council in Udaipur. The report was not accepted by Praja Mandal.
The new constitution was declared on 2nd March 1947 AD as unacceptable by Praja Mandal. Shri. K. M. Munshi drafted a new constitution in May 1947 that was also rejected. In this manner, the progressive religious revolt moved on.”Udaipur agreed to join in Indian confederation and joined democratic system.
Marwad Praja Mandal :
The political activities had begun in 1918 AD in Jodhpur when Chandmal Surana founded the ‘Marwad Welfare Assembly’. In 1920 AD, Jai Narayan Vyas founded ‘Marwad Service Organisation’. In 1923 AD, Marwad Welfare Assembly tried to get rebirth.
On October 1929 AD, that Vyasji founded ‘Marwad Public Council’. From available activities, it is clear that the political consciousness adjustable propagation was more in Jodhpur, than in other areas. In 1934 AD, Jodhpur state founded Praja Mandal whose president was Bawar Lal Saraf. Its motive was to establish responsible government and secure the safety of citizens.
In 1936 AD, the organisation was declared unconstitutional. The Jodhpur unit of All India Nationalist State Public Council named as ‘Marwad State Public Council’ regulated the political activities in active form. Especially after Jodhpur Praja Mandal was declared unsuccessful, the public council kept the struggle intact for constitutional rights and responsible administration.
The council demanded the election to be held on regional basis rather than on of communal basis. In March 1940 AD after the council was declared illegal, the members concentrated on peaceful demonstrations. Their leaders like-Ranchor Dass Ghaini, Mathura Dass Mathur, Kanhaiya Lal, Indermal Jain, Anandraj Surana, Bawarlal Saraf focussed on making the council ideology popular.
There the government gave acceptance to the demands of political rights on a struggle between council and feudal lords. In 1942 AD, public council raised voice against the atrocities and worked for the responsible government. Vyasji disbanded attention on council and declared himself first convener and regulated ‘Quit India Movement in Jodhpur.
Main leaders were arrested and hunger strike was observed in which Bal Mukund Bina died. On 4 November 1947 AD the council celebrated legislative Assembly Revolt Day. In 1948 AD after signature on merger letter, the responsible government was formed.
Bikaner Praja Mandal :
The initial leaders of Bikaner region were Kanhaiya Lal Phoondh and Swami Gopal Dass. They founded ‘All Welfare Assembly or “Sarva Hitkarini Sabha” at Churu. They opened ‘Daughter School’ or ‘Putri Pathsala’ to make people aware of their rights. Majaraja was doubtful towards this constructive work. He sensed a conspiracy and banned all activities.
When the Maharaja went to London in 1932 to participate in Round Table Conference, the pamphlets named ‘Bikaner a Mega Vision’ or ‘Bikaner Digdarshan’ were distributed in which the realistic suppressive policies were revealed. After he came back, he enforced the public safety law. Swami Gopal Dass, Chandal Mal Bahad, Satya Narayan Saraf were arrested under the pretext of ‘Bikaner Conspiracy Case’.
The opposition of this black law remained there. On 4th October 1936 main leaders we quickly exiled. These included Vakil Mukta Prasad, Magh Ram Vaid, Laxmi Dass etc. Raghuvar Dayal on 22nd July 1942 founded the Bikaner Praja Parishad whose purpose was to install a responsible government in the leadership of Maharaja. On 26th October 1944 AD ‘Bikaner anti – Suppressive Daywas celebrated.
This was the first public demonstration in state. The farmers of Dudhwahbhara started a movement against the oppression of the land lords with the support of Praja Parishad. In 1940, Press Act was passed and the press was banned. In the meantime, political activities rose and Maharaja announced the formation of a responsible rule.
On 30th June 1946, police opened fire on a conference of ‘Public Council’ being held in Rai Singh Nagar. Seeing the changed circumstances and the indications of power transfer, the office of public council was again re-established. In 1946, two committees were formed
- Constitutional Committee
- Adult Franchise Committee
The report to be implemented was assured but no tangible action was taken and the demands of responsible government remained half done. On 16th March, 1948, a ministerial council was formed under the leadership of Jaswant Singh Dausar, which was rejected by the Praja Mandal and its ministers resigned. On 30th March 1939 with the formation of Greater Rajasthan state, Raghubar Dayal was included in the Ministerial Council of Hiralal Shastri:
How was Greater Rajasthan formed ?
Explain the fourth and fifth stage of Rajasthan’s Unification.
Rajasthan unification’s 4th stage, Greater Rajasthan Construction. With the merger of Mewar, the rest native states merger became easy and certain. In Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer states the process about merger and unification grew faster. Jodhpur, Bikaner and Jaisalmer states, the process about had boundaries with the Pakistan border from where the fear of aggression remained.
From the perspective of transportation and communication facilities, this region was very backward and their development was beyond the economic capacity of these states. The leader of Samajwadi Party, Dr. Jai Prakash Narayan on 9th November 1948 AD in a public meeting demanded the construction of Greater Rajasthan without delay.
On the All India Level, ‘Rajasthan Movement Committee’ was formed and the president Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia demanded unification of Rajasthan. The Secretary of Province department, Shri V. P. Menon started talks with related rulers. On 11th January 1949, he went to Jaipur and talked to Jaipur Maharaj.
Jaipur Maharaja after much hesitation and pursuation was prepared for Greater Rajasthan but the condition was laid that Jaipur king be made the hereditary Royal King of Greater Rajasthan and Jaipur be made the capital of Rajasthan. Shri Menon after much negotiation on the conditions of merger gave his acceptanace.
On 14th January 1949, Sardar Patel in an ordinary gathering in Udaipur declared the formation of Greater Rajasthan’. The Maharaja of Mewar was declared lifetime ‘Maharaj Pramukh’ or ‘Royal King’. The ruler of Jaipur ‘Raj Pramukh’or Head King’, rulers of Jodhpur and Kota Senior Vice Head King and the rulers of Bundi and Dungarpur Junior Vice Head King, Head King and his council of ministers was placed in symbolic control of central government.
Head King had to sign on new amalgamation letter and accept treaty and concurrent list as per the stipulations of the Constituent Assembly. Sardar Patel inaugurated the new organised unit on 30th March 1949 that is celebrated as Rajasthan Day in present form.
Shri Hiralal Shastri took charge of leadership on 4th April 1949 AD in which Shri Sidhraj (Jaipur), Prem Narain Mathur (Udaipur), Bhure Lal Bhaya (Udaipur), Phool Chand Bapana (Jodhpur), Narsingh Kachwaha (Jodhpur), Rao Raja Hanumant Singh (Jodhpur), Raghuwar Dayal Goyal (Bikaner) and Vedpal Tyagi (Kota) were included.
Jaipur ruler received Rs. 18 lacks, Jodhpur ruler Rs. 17.5 lacks, Bikaner ruler Rs. 15 lacks, Jaisalmer ruler Rs. 2.8 lacs in the form of privy purse. Jaipur was declared as capital and to maintain the importance of large cities, some government offices of state level i.e., High Court in Jodhpur, education department in Bikaner, mining department or mineral department in Udaipur and agriculture department in Bharatpur were established.
The Fifth Stage in the unification of Rajasthan: The merger of Matsya organisation in Greater Rajasthan – During the formation of Matsya organisation the four state rulers of Matsya organisation had made it clear that in future this organisation would be merged either with Rajasthan or Uttar Pradesh.
Though Matsya organisation was working in, independent form but government was gripped in financial problems. The agitation of Mevs was a question before the governient. Bharatpur Farmer Assembly and Citizen Assembly had undertaken anti – government movement that was at its peak. Bharatpur Farmer Assembly demanded a seperate identity for Bharatpur and Dholpur by the name Brij state.
The hope became known that Matsya Organisation’s division need not happen. For this, a meeting was called on 10th May 1949 AD in Delhi. The point to be viewed was whether the state would merge with close by Uttar Pradesh or with Rajasthan. Where Alwar and Karoli were in favour of merger with Rajasthan, Bharatpur and Dholpur desired to merge with Uttar Pradesh.
For the solution of the problem a committee was formed under Shri Shankar Rao Dev’s presidentship a committee was formed. According to the recommendation of the committee, the public opinion of Bharatpur and – Dholpur was in favour of merger in Rajasthan.
On 15th May 1948 AD, Matsya Organisation joined Rajasthan. Pt. Hira Lal Shastri became the Prime Minister of Rajasthan and Shri Shoba Ram Shastri as the Prime Minister of Matsya organisation were included in the ministry. In this manner, Matsya organisation became a part of Rajasthan.
Which states joined in the last stage in Rajasthan ?
When did the merger of Sirohi, Ajmer, Marwada happen in Rajasthan ? Explain.
The question of Sirohi :
The leaders of Gujarat wished to make the centre of tourism, Sirohi based Mount Abu, a part of Gujarat, In November 1947, Sirohi was within the ambit of Gujarat state agency. On 10th April 1948, Hiralal Shastri wrote a letter to Sardar Patel that the meaning of Sirohi was Gokul Bhai.
Without Gokul Bhai, they could not run Rajasthan. In the meantime with respect to Sirohi’s main attractions Delwara and Mount Abu merged in Gujarat and the birth place of Gokul Bhai Bhatt, Hathal along with rest of Sirohi were given to Rajasthan. This step was vehemently opposed in Rajasthan, as the leadership was mainly of Gokul Bhai Bhatt.
The leadership of Rajasthan sought from Pt. Nehru a solution the problem. In order to overcome it, the whole issue was handed over to the State Reorganisation Committee. The Merger of Ajmer Marwada In the British Era, Ajmer Marwadą was a centre-ruled state.
All India Nationalist State Public Council by Rajputana Provincial Assembly had been demanding not only all the provinces of state be included in Greater Rajasthan but the area of Ajmer, Marwada also to be included but from the other side the Congress leadership of Ajmer opposed the demand.
In 1952 AD general elections for the Ajmer Marwada were held, and in the leadership of Hari Bhai Upadhayay of Congress, the cabinet for the area was formed. The Congress leadership of Ajmer was not in favour for its merger with Rajasthan.
Now alter the formation of cabinet, the Congress gave the logic that from the perspective of administration, this should remain a small State. The matter was handed over to state Reorganisation Council. The council disagreed with the contention of Congress and recommended that AjmerMarwada’s area be merged with Rajasthan.
In this manner on 1st November 1956 ÁD, by Sirohi Reorganisation Committee, Sirohi Mount Abu area and alongwith this Ajmer Marwada was also merged with Rajasthan. In this way the process of unification of Rajasthan that began in March 1948 AD was completed on 1st November 1956.
After the formation of United Rajasthan, as the symbolic remains of monarchy, Head King’s newly created post remained. By India’s newly elected parliament’s seventh amendment, on 1st November 1956 the post of Head King was abolished and in the form of first Governor of state, Sardar Guru Mukh Nihal Singh was appointed.
In this way by Sardar Patel’s cleverness, intellect and good strategy, and on the desire of Rajasthan rulers, the impactful pressure of public opinion led to the fulfillment of the dream of Rajasthan’s unification.
Give brief introduction of the contribution of the main persons or personalities in Rajasthan’s unification.
The personalities who contributed in the unification of Rajasthan were :
1. Vijay Singh Pathik: His original name was Bhoop Singh. He led the Bijolia farmer movement. He started public awareness through Rajasthan Kesari newspaper. He is known in whole of India as the founder of farmer movement. .
2. Arjun Lal Sethi : He was born in a Jain family in Jaipur in the year 1880. Sethiji is known as the founder of public consciousness in Jaipur state. Revolutionary Ras Bihari Bose in Rajasthan had put the entire responsibility of revolt on Sethiji. Sethiji founded the Jain education society in Jaipur in 1907. He worked hard for Hindu Muslim unity.
3. Kesari Singh Barhat: Kesari Singh was born in Shahpura (Bhilswara) in 1872. He founded the Brave India Assembly in 1910 AD. He created a ‘Sortho’ named ‘Chetawani Ree Chungtiya’. He is known as Rajasthan Kesari also.
4. Pratap Singh Barhat : Pratap Singh was Kesari Singh Barhat’s son. He threw bomb on Lord Hadinge’s procession in 1912 succumbed to the hardships given to him in Bareilly jail in 1918 AD. He received training in Arjunlal Sethi’s Jain Vardhman School.
5. Zorawar Singh Barhat: Zorawar Singh was Kesri Singh Barhat’s younger brother. He threw bomb on Lord Harding in Chandni Chowk in 1912 AD. From the government and king’s side, many attempts were made to catch him but he could no be caught. In the first world war, he jointly with Ras Bihari Bose and Shachinder Nath Sanyal prepared a plan for armed revolt in Northern India but this plan failed.
6. Sagar Mal Gopa : He was born in Jaisalmer and he strongly opposed the atrocites of Maharawal Jawahar Singh. He alongwith awakening political consciousness in Jaisalmer impelled or stressed on propagation of education. In the accusation of revolt against king, he was sent to jail and inhuman torture was inflicted on him.
7. Swami Gopal Dass : Gopal Dass was born in Churu and by his public service, consciousness arose among people. The Maharaja of Bikaner, Maharaja Ganga Singh sent Gopal Dass to jail for his conspiracy against Bikaner state, and for this allegation he remained in jail for long duration where in 1939 AD he died..
8. Damodar Dass Rathi : Damodar Dass was born at a place named Pokhran in Jaisalmer. He founded sanatan dharma or religion schools, colleges and new India institution for public service. He gave economic support to the activites of revolutionaries.
9. Motilal Tejawat : Motilal was born in 1887 AD at’a village named Koliari near Udaipur. He revolted against the atrocities on Bhils and started the Akki movement. He was famous by the name Bhavji among tribals..
10. Manikya Lal Verma : Manikya Lal was born in Bijolia. He founded the Mewar Praja Mandal. He dedicated his life to the service of the deprived and oppressed.
11. Govind Guru : Govind Guru was a famous social farmer who took upon himself the responsibility for societial and moralistic progress and from societial perspective organised the people and tried to bring them into the mainstream. For this objective, he founded “Samp Sabha’ and to keep them in the fold of Hindu religion he founded the Bhagat Path.
12. Hira Lal Shastri : Hiralal was born on 24th November 1899 in Jobner (Jaipur). On 24th March 1949, he became the first Chief Minister of Greater Rajasthan. He took over the presidentship of Jaipur Praja Mandal.
13. Gokul Bhai Bhatt : Gokul Bhai was born in 1898 AD in Hathal village of Sirohi district. He tried sincerely for prohibition of liquor in Rajasthan. He founded the Sirohi Praja Mandal.
14. Jai Narayan Vyas : Jai Narayan was born in Jodhpur. He was the Chief Minister of Rajasthan also.
15. Balwant Singh Mehta : In the year 1915 AD, he arose as a catalyst of poltical consciousness and for a long duration remained the convener of ‘Pratap. Assembly and did important work in the field of public consciousness. In the year 1938, he became the Praja Mandal. After independence, he was selected as a member of Constitution Concurrent Assembly.