Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 India’s Relations with Neighbouring Countries (Pakistan, China & Nepal)
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Text book Questions
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Multiple Choice Questions
In 1950, which Nepalese emperor came to India to seek refuge?
(a) Prithvi Narayan Shah
(b) King Tribhuvan
(c) Shamsher Bahadur
(d) Giija Prasad Koirala
(b) King Tribhuvan
The name of the international border between India and China is :
(a) MacMohan Line
(b) Manmohan Line
(d) Radcliffe Line
(a) MacMohan Line
Which principles were founded by Nehru to make India-China relations cordial?
(a) Peace Principles
(b) Border Principles
(c) Panchsheel Principles
(d) Non-alignment Principles
(c) Panchsheel Principles
The cause of tension in the Indo-Pak relations is :
(a) Tibet problem
(b) Dam problem
(c) Kashmir dispute
(d) Afghanistan dispute
(c) Kashmir dispute
Which article of Indian constitution provides special status to Kashmir?
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Very Short Answer Type Questions
When does Pakistan celebrate its independence day?
On 14th August.
Name the countries which have a common border with India.
Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar and Afghanistan.
When did the famous treaty between India and Nepal take place?
‘Peace and friendship treaty’ signed in 1950.
Who is considered the founder of Modem Nepal?
Prithvi Narayan Shah.
Who was given shelter by India in 1959? Who considered it an hostile activity?
On March 31, 1959, the Tibetan religious leader, the Dalia Lama took India’s shelter. China considered it an enemy activity.
What is river Brahmputra called in its Chinese part?
It is called Yarlung Tsangpo.
When did P.M. Mr Narendra Modi make his Chinese visit?
May 14-16, 2015.
How many agreements were made in his Ahmedabad visit in September 2014 by Chinese President, Xi Jinping?
What was China’s attitude in Kargil war?
It adopted a neutral attitude.
How much amount does Pakistan spend on terrorist activities?
More than 8% of its GDP.
How much amount does India spend on her border security?
Approximately, about 9 thousand crore each year.
When did Pakistan invade India for the first time?
October 22, 1947
How much land of Kashmir is under Pakistan’s occupation?
32000 square mile.
Why was the war of 1971 erupted?
The Bengalis of east Pakistan were being tortured and due to it near about 1 crore refugees had taken shelter in India. On December 3,1971, Pakistan’s aircraft bombed Indian air bases and the war started.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Short Answer Type Questions
What is the strategic importance of Nepal on India’s north east border?
In India’s north east, Nepal is an important country from strategic point of view. After the hold of Tibet by China, Nepal’s strategic importance increased in the relation between India and China. India’s security depends upon Nepal’s security. On March, 17, 1950, Pt.Jawahar Lai Nehru said, “India will not tolerate any attack on Nepal. Any Attack on Nepal, surely, would be a threat for India’ security.
In 1956, on his visit to Nepal, President Dr. Rajendra Prasad said that any danger to Nepal’s peace and security is a danger to India’s peace and security. Nepal’s friends are our friends and Nepal’s enemies are our enemies.
In 1959, what treaty was made by China with Nepal?
Nepal has strategic importance for India. India thinks that any attack on Nepal, definitely would be a threat to India. Due to China’s increasing activities in Tibet, India’s worries increased over Nepal’s security. China’s and Nepal’s increasing intimacy is not in India’s interest.
In 1959, Nepal’s PM travelled to China and invited Chao-en-Lia to visit Nepal again. An agreement was made between China and Nepal on Everest summit which was bitterly criticised by India.
Inspite of India’s warnings, Nepal’s King Manendra made an agreement with China to make Kathmandu-Lhasa road, which caused a danger to India. King Mahendra went on a visit to China, and signed a number of assurance agreements with China.
What assurance was given to Nepal by P.M. Narendra Modi on his visit to Nepal?
On August 3-4, 2014, P.M. Narendra Modi made an official visit to Nepal. He addressed Nepal’s constitutional assembly and legislative assembly. He went to Pashupati Nath temple, inagurated ‘Pashupatinath Express’ bus service from Kathmandu to Delhi by showing green flag. For the construction of National Police Academy, Indian government helped with ₹ 550 crores. P.M. handed over an advance light Helicopter Mark-III to Nepalese Army. On April 25, 2015, after an earthquake struck Nepal, under ‘Operation Maitri’ India gave quick relief to thousands of people. During his journey, he urged Nepal to bring back old relations on track. Nepal’s people also cordially received him.
Describe India’s contribution to Nepal’s economy.
India’s contribution: In Nepal’s development work, India’s investment is very huge. Nepal gets all sorts of training-technical or non-technical. Under Colombo plan, India gave training to several people. India gave help to Nepal in many projects. In these programs, 22 bridges are included on east-west high ways of Nepal in Kohlapur and Mahakali area.
On December, 1991, India proposed to create India-Nepal foundation in the memory of great patriot V.H. Koirala. Both countries agreed to set up joint industries in industrial areas. India gave economic cooperation to build medical college at Birat Nagar, telephone exchange at Rangoli, and renovation of railway lines.
What is the main cause of Madheshi movement in Nepal?
Madhesh is situated among the hills of Nepal lying in the border areas of Bihar and U.P. This area is a 500 km belt in which half of Nepal’s population lives. It is Nepal’s poor, backward and neglected area. In this area, Maithil, Bhojpuri and Avadhi people of backward classes and of Indian origin, live. Nepal’s ruling class always overlooked them. In new constitution, the Maoist leaders, considering the population reason, ensured their own majority in Parliament. Consequendy, Madheshi leaders started a movement.
Nepali government opposed the movement. Consequendy, Madheshi is blocked India-Nepal border. Indian government had to support them. Finally, the Maoists by making new agreements with Madheshi, gave them opportunity in Parliament, government and in other places for their advancement.
Which three agreements were made by China with the Gujarat government?
Agreements between Gujarat government and China were signed on the Chinese President Xi Jinping’s three-day visit on September 17, 2014. In the presence of P.M. Modi, three agreements were made between China and Gujarat government, which are given below :
- First agreement was associated with Gujarat development, like Gwangjhu.
- Second agreement was associated with Ahmedabad development like Gwangjhu.
- Third agreement was associated with the development of an industrial park near Vadodara.
Write a short note on Indo-Chinese trade.
Indo-Chinese Trade: From the trade point of view, China is number one partner, but in China our trade is on the 10th place. Though, it is true, that while the world is in economic depression, we cannot take any risk and it is in the interest of nation to continue its business with China unchanged. If it is thought seriously about trade between India and China, it is unfavourable and unbalanced. The business of near about 250 billion dollar is one sided.
It is remarkable that China is the biggest market of the world and a big reserve of cheap labour. In the field of technology, China is more advanced than India. Economic partnership with China is good, but there is a need of striking a trade balance.
What are the three major disputes of India with China?
Major disputes: Three major disputes are given below:
- Border Dispute :
During British rule between China and India ‘Mac Mohan’ line was certified which was given recognition by both countries, but China never really accepted it. This was the reason that in 1962 in the guise of border dispute, China attacked India.To solve the border dispute, several talks and summits were held, but no permanent solution could be found.
- Tibet Dispute :
India accepted Chinese sovereignty in Tibet which was a big mistake. In 1956, when young Dalai Lama came on a journey to India, he showed his unwillingness to return to Tibet, but Nehru ji sent him back. But being stricken with the atrocities of communist China, Dalai Lama took refuge in India with his supporters in 1959. China considered it a hostile action.
- Water Dispute :
China is working on the ambitious project of redirecting water from south to north. On the Brahmputra, which is called Yarlung Tsangpo in China, by making a giant dam in high mountain, China is ensuring its water safety, but this has caused the crises of water availability and environment for the entire Indian subcontinent.
How did Russia became our ally due to Chinese conflicts?
In China, Mad implemented his own connotation of communist agenda which, at its best, was only Utopian. India presented a better and more realistic option than it. This option, for its development, was not armed with guerrilla warfare, but a peaceful mixed economy and democratic option. This is why against China’s terrorist and expansionist attitude, Soviet Russia inclined towards India. Because there was border dispute between Russia and China, Russia chose to help India to maintain balance. India and Russia’s friendship became deeper gradually. Today, Russia is such a friend of India which stands with her at die time of every crisis. Whenever tension was caused with Pakistan or with China, Russia always supported India.
Why is China not supporting India’s membership of security council openly?
In becoming a member of security council, India always supported China, but China is not supporting India in this regard. In fact, in the world politics, no nation helps other nations neglecting its own interests. Chinese government knew that it would gain nothing by supporting India. By not supporting India, it can maintain its regional superiority. There are several issues besides border and water disputes. Due to this enmity, it is not supporting India. Closeness of India and Russia is another cause.
What was decided in Tashkent agreement?
On April, 1965, a war broke out between India and over the Rann of Kutch. On September 4, 1965 on the appeal of security council, the war stopped. On September 22, 1965, cease fire was declared. To remove the tension after the war, Soviet P.M. invited Pak’s President Ayub Khan and Indian P.M. Lai Bahadur Shastri to Tashkent for talks. With the efforts of Soviet Union, on January 10, 1966, famous Tashkent agreement was signed. Through it, India and Pakistan agreed to maintain peace. But due to this agreement, India had to return all those areas to Pakistan which India had occupied by sacrificing the lives of its soldiers and spending a huge amount of money in war.
Why is Pakistan called the headquarters of terrorism?
Pakistan played the main role in increasing terrorism and fanticism in the world. Troubled with the internal strife, which continued in Afghanistan for decades, a large number of troubled refugees went to Pakistan, which played a leading role in infiltrating them into Kashmir.
Pakistan’s support to terrorism against India is confirmed in Mumbai bomb blast of 1993. Due to political reasons, the global powers, overlooked Pakistan’s role in spreading and fostering terrorism. There is no doubt that Pakistan has become the headquarter of terrorists.
What measures were taken by P.M. Narendra Modi to improve bi-lateral relations with Pakistan?
On May 26, 2014 P.M. Narendra Modi had invited Pakistan’s P.M. Nawaz Sharif in his oath-taking ceremony. It was felt that talks could start between both countries . But after Pakistan’s high commissioner’s meeting with separatist Hurriyat leaders, the talks which were about to be held on August 25, 2014 between the foreign secretanes of both countries were cancelled. In November 2014, in SAARC conference, no talk could be held between Narendra Modi and Nawaz Sharif.
Naxendra Modi again tried to improve the relations when on December 25, 2015 on Christmas, he suddenly reached Lahore to wish Nawaz on his birthday and to give his blessings to his grand daughter on her marriage. It was felt that the relation would improve. But after a week, these hopes were dashed on january 1, 2016, when Pakistan made terrorist attatk at Pathankot, India. In such situation, P.M. Modi’s effort to improve relations between the two countries remained unsuccessful.
What was Pakistan’s intention behind its attack in Mumbai and Pathankot?
Pakistan made terrorists attacks on November 26, 2008 in Mumbai, and on Pathankot in Punjab on january 2, 2016. The attack on November 26, 2008 by Pakistani terrorists caused the death of 164 people and 304 people were injured, and the atmosphere of fear and tension was created. Behind the attack, Pakistan’s intentions were:
- Causing serious loss to India’s economic capital Mumbai.
- Causing disturbance in the country.
On january 2, 2016, Pakistan-supported terrorists attacked the airforce station at Pathankot. The aim of this attack was to destroy defence equipment and indirectly challenge the country’s defence forces. Besides that, helicopters and fighter planes were standing on the airbase. Pakistan wanted to destroy them.
What action was taken by India against Pakistan on violation of human rights?
There is a Baluchistan Province in west of Pakistan. In 1947, British government merged it in Pakistan but from the decade of 1970, this area has been demanding separation from Pakistan. The people of this area consider that they are basically from Syria. There are several issues of strife in Baluchistan such as economic inequality, regional inequality, development issues, educational backwardness, etc.
The demands raised by the people of Baluchistan were crushed by Pakistan army mercilessly. They were treated inhumanly. Thousands of people disappeared, thousands were shot-dead. Pakistan was convicted of violating human rights by Amnesty international and Human Rights Watch organizations.
Pakistan is making baseless accusations that India is inciting the people of Baluchistan. India has now changed her policy. When Nawaz talked about Kashmir in his speech on independence day, then as a reaction, Modi talked about Baluchistan and highlighted the issue. The Baluch people thanked Modi ji, while Pakistan was troubled. This will help the Baluch people to collect international support. India talked about the violation of human rights in Baluchistan, in the United Nations human rights council.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Long Answer Type Questions
What are the conflicts in the relations between India and Nepal ? What are the causes of this tension?
India-Nepal relation and major causes of tension in it :
India’s relation with Nepal has been from ancient times. Our relations with Nepal are so deep, soulful and cultural, that possibly such relations do not exist with any other country. But after China’s hold on Tibet, China’s interest is increasing in Nepal. On the other hand, China-is becoming a danger to India. In the north, India’s security depends on the security of Nepal. China is making efforts to turn Nepal against India. Besides, there are some other causes, which are making the relations bitter. Major causes are given below.
i. Trade and transit treaty :
In 1989, after completion of trade and transit treaty with Nepal, India refused to renew it. Hardness was adopted in border fees and other checking works. India counts on Nepal to respect the peace and friendship treaty of 1950. According to article of this treaty “The citizen of a country will get equal right of living, property, partnership in industries and moving to other country”. Consequently, the citizen of both countries got these rights, but after 1967 Nepal banned Indians to apply for work permit.
ii. Agreement with communist China :
Neglecting India’s interests, Nepal made many agreements with communist China. All these agreements remained hostile to India’s interest. In Nepal, Chinese activities have been hostile and destructive. Nepal’s agreement with China to build Lhasa-Kathmandu road clearly was a hostile step. The initial agreement regarding Mount Everest was a deception against India.
iii. Nepal’s demand of ‘Peace Zone’:
Nepal is requesting to declare Nepal as a ‘Peace Zone’. India’s outlook is that why only Nepal, the whole subcontinent should be declared a ‘Peace Zone’. India considers it a hostile step. According to it, it is a clear insinuation that India is a danger to Nepal. The chief aim of Nepal behind declaring itself as a ‘Peace Zone’, is to neglect India’s influence and special position which Nepal thinks an obstacle in search of its national identity.
iv. Madheshi Movement:
In their new constitution, Nepal’s leaders did not give any place to Madheshi’s justified demands: Madhesh is a lowland area lying among Nepal’s foothills bordering the plains of Bihar and and UP. It is Nepal’s most backward, poor, and neglected area, where half of the Nepal’s population lives. Discrimination has always been done with the Madheshi people by Nepal’s government. Being neglected, Madheshis started a movement and blocked India-Nepal border. Due to the disturbance in supply, crisis caused in the supply of gas, petrol and medicine from India. Unwillingly, India had to support the Madheshis, and opened the border, and this caused tension between the countries.
v. Other causes :
India’s relations with Nepal have been deep, soulful, and cultural. But now-a-days, the main causes of distrust are given below:
- India is troubled with the terrorists and smugglers who take shelter in Nepal.
- Nepal’s complaints against India’s profit-making businessmen.
- India doubts Nepal regarding China and Pakistan while Nepal says that its friends and enemies cannot be decided by India.
Why is China’s interest considered a hindrance in Indo-Nepalese relations? Why has China special interest in Nepal?
Situated among the Himalayas, Nepal is a small country. It is a buffer state between India and China. Due to this position of Nepal, the maker of modem Nepal, Prithvi Narayan Shah wrote that this country is like a bloomed flower between two rocks. We should have cordial relations with Chinese emperor and our relation with the king of south sea (India) should also be cordial.
Nepal’s closeness with China is a hindrance in Indo-Nepalese relations. Following are the reasons:
- China’s hold on Tibet :
From the political point of view, China is an important country to India. After China’s hold on Tibet, Nepal’s importance increased in the relation between India and China. In north, India’s security, to a great extent, depends upon the security of Nepal. India’s worries are natural after China’s hold on Tibet.
- Mount Everest Agreement :
In 1959, Nepal’s P.M. Koilara made a journey to China and invited Chinese premier Chou-en lai to visit Nepal. An agreement was made between Nepal and China about the peak of Mount Everest, which was criticised in India. Koirala’s cabinet was dissolved after some time and some Nepali leaders took shelter in India, and started public movement. This caused bitterness in the relation of both countries.
- Kathmandu-Lhasa Highway :
Inspite of India’s warnings, Nepal’s king Mahendra made an agreement with China regarding Kathmandu-Lhasa highway, and caused danger to India. King Mahendra went on many visits to China.
- Indo-Chinese War of 1962 :
With the lame excuse of border dispute, China attacked India. In such situation, in place of helping India, Nepal adopted the policy of neutrality. This caused doubt about Nepal.
Although, in later years the leaders of both countries made mutual visits and made several agreements and treaties, but China’s interference in Nepal caused doubts. China’s special interest in Nepal is a hostile step against India. In Nepal, Chinese’s activities have been destructive and anti-Indian. The agreements between China and Nepal are a deception against India. China is increasing its relations with all neighboring countries of India, which is a threat to India’s security. Nepal’s increasing interest in China is the part of this strategy.
Critically evaluate the relations between India and Nepal.
Nepal’s situation between India and China is in the form of a buffer state. In the last 200 years’ history, it has been Nepal’s feature that it always tried to maintain good relations with India and China. If it is seen from Nepal’s angle, it quite right.
After the Chinese occupation of Tibet, Nepal’s political importance increased. In the north, India’s security to a great extent depends upon the security of Nepal. In such a situation, China’s increasing closeness to Nepal is worrisome for India. Nepal’s inclination towards China is with the aim to make itself secure. But China’s increasing friendship with India’s neighbouring countries comes in the circle of doubt. History is the witness that China’s intention towards India was never inspired with feelings of friendship, but these appear a part of strategy against India.
Since beginning India’s relations with Nepal were very cordial, but today Nepal’s attitude towards India is aggressive. These are several reasons for this tension. Such as 1950’s treaty, river water dispute, profit-maker Indian businessmen, India also has complaints against- Nepal such as, smugglers, terrorists taking shelter in Nepal and Nepal’s increasing closeness to China. Independent Nepal says that India cannot decide Nepal’s friends and enemies. Nepal’s stand can be right from its angle. But India’s doubts about china and Pakistan are natural. In such situation Nepal cannot expect help and support from India like earlier days. India wants Nepal’s stability and developing model like India’s models. India’s policy to support Nepal’s monarchy caused tension between India and Nepal.
What is the historical base of India-China relations ? At present, how are their relations?
Historical background :
In the decade of 1950, India and China’s relations were cordial and there was the echo of the slogan ‘Hindi Chinese Bhai-Bhai’. The old cultural relations were strong. India was the first democratic country who gave recognition to people’s Republic of China. Pt. Nehru sent his friend K.M. Pannekar to China as an Indian ambassador. India helped China to get it a seat in security council. With the efforts of Nehru and Panniker, China was invited to Bandung conference. On Tibet issue, India accepted China’s soveriegnty and signed on Panchsheel agreement on this basis.Then it was felt that inspite of border dispute, the relations between them would be cordial.
In such a harmonious atmosphere in 1962, China attacked India under the excuse of border dispute and surprised all. Speaking the slogan ‘Hindi Chinese Bhai-Bhai’, Indian people were surprised and following were the results of the war :
- India was isolated in non-aligned Asian community.
- All plans of India’s planned economic development were upset.
- India became unable to play an effective role on international stage.
Present Situation :
Several political talks were held between India and China to resolve the border dispute, but obstacles always remained, China has already occupied 50,000 square km area of Himalayas, and posted its army in a large number. Later on, China occupied Aksai Chin of Ladakh. China is still following its expansionist policy and pressurising India from all sides whether it be the Himalayas or sea route. Due to China’s expansive and belligerent attitude, India inclined towards Soviet Union.
Water dispute also is a major cause of conflict between India and China. Yet, after 1975, efforts have been made to improve relations through talks and agreements. Reform in relations are in the interest of both countries. With the unity of both countries, Asia’s influence will increase in world politics. At present P.M. Narendra Modi travelled to China and China’s President, Xi Jinping travelled to India, but Chinese support has not expressed over the partnership on international stage. This doubtful position in relations does not make India comfortable. Regarding permanent membership in UN security council, China’s attitude is not supportive towards India.
How do the economic relations between India and China affect the economy of both countries ? Write in detail.
Economic relations between India and China are against India. Business of nearly 250 billion dollars is one sided. This is increasing Chinese pressure. For us China is no. 1 partner but in China our business is on 10th position. Although it is true that in recession period, we cannot take any risk, and continuity of Chinese trade is in the interest of our country.
China is the biggest market of the world and a store house of cheap labour. In the field of technology, it is more advanced than India. From food security to energy security, many examples confirm China’s better position.
On September 17, 2014 China’s President Xi Jinping came to India. 12 deals were made between both countries an September, 18. China would co-operate India in running bullet trains, making railway stations modem. From May 14-16, 2015, P.M. Modi was on a visit to China. 24 Agreements of 10 billion dollers were signed between both countries. Modi ji invited Chinese investors to India for investment. He declared to give E-visa to Chinese citizens.
Today in changed international situation, India and China’s closeness is a must. In world platform, India’s increasing capability, economic development, modern technology- specially in information technology in commendable. There are some examples of India’s professional experts which is bringing both countries closer. In last -five years, the trade between both the countries multiplied and gradually trade balance is being established.
What is Chinese’s position as major factor of Indian foreign policy?
Chinese position :
The study of Chinese position can be done under following points:
- Initial Relation :
In earlier times, relations between India and China were very cordial. India supported Chinese communist revolution of 1949, and giving Chine a political recognition. It also helped China get membership in UNO.
- Tension on Tibet :
In 1950, When China occupied Tibet, India accepted China’s ,’ sovereignty on Tibet. It was India’s biggest mistake in her foreign policy with China.
Nepal is considered a buffer state between India and China and Tibet had similar political utility. Troubled with China’s behaviour, Dalai Lama with his followers took shelter in India.
- Border-related dispute :
During British rule, border was certified between India and China. Although China gave recognition to it but never accepted it with heart. To solve border dispute many talks were held but obstacles remained. In 1962, with the excuse of border dispute, China suddenly attacked India and surprised all.
- China’s expansionist policy :
China had already occupied a large part of Indian territory of more them 50 thousand square km and posted its army there. China also occupied Aksai Chin. It is continuously following on its expansionist policy pushing India from all sides and Pakistan is supporting it. Now Russia is also trying to join the political nexus of Pakistan and China.
In 1954, Panchsheel agreement was signed but China always neglected it. Although in tense situations, the intention to improve the relations was,stated. Each year, summit talks were arranged. Besides, on international issues, both countries are adopting same attitude. But the political manipulations which are being done by China, cannot be overlooked.
Kashmir is the centre of conflict in the relations between India and Pakistan. On this basis, write how the conditions in Kashmir were distrubed due to Pakistan?
Among the problems of Indo-Pak relations, most of time the major one is the problem of Kashmir which is sustained continuously after partition. Kashmir problem is”inevitable in the – words of Alec Michael, “The problem of land or water is not the problem of people of both countries. It is a question of prestige.”
i. Start of problem :
After independence, two new nations came into being-India and Pakistan. As far as the princely states were concerned, the British government announced that the princely states of their own accord could with Pakistan or with India, and so it was done by most of the princely states, As it happened in Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir the rules delayed their decision. Later, the problem of Hyderabad and Junagarh got resolved but the problem of Kashmir is still festering.
ii. Specific status of Kashmir :
“Kashmir”, located on the north west border of India, connects both India and Pakistan. The majority of the population here were Muslims, but the ruler of Kashmir was Hari Singh, a Hindu. In 1947 August, Kashmir ruler didn’t make any immediate decision regarding merger.
iii. Pakistani infiltration :
Pakistan always claimed Kashmir as its integral part. On October 22, 1947, the Pakistan army invaded Kashmir in the guise of the tribals of North west fomtier province. Within 4 days, the attackers reached Baramulla, 25 miles away from Srinagar. On October 26, the ruler of Kashmir sought the help of the Indian government. He also requested Indian government to merge Kashmir in India. As a result, government of India sent its army to Kashmir With the condition of a referandum at the end of war that Kashmir became a part of India.
iv. Security council solution attempts :
Being enraged by this decision, Pakistan increased infiltration into the Kashmir region, which caused the region to become a war zone between the two nations. On january 1, 1948, the Indian government complained to the security council. As a result, the security council appointed a commission, which presented some recommendations which could stop the war and effect compromise on both sides. After a long negotiation, the cease fire was declared. On january 1, 1949 the final division on the merger of Kashmir was to be decided by a referandum on the basis of agreement by commission. It led Pakistan to get hold of area of 32000 square miles whose population was 7 Lakh. Pakistan named that area as “Azad Kashmir”.
v. Indo-Pak war of 1965 :
In April 1965, two Pakistani army battalions troops entered Rann of Kutch and took control over several areas. It was a planned invasion. On 4-5 August, thousands of guerrilla Pakistan soldiers entered Kashmir. Soon war started on September 4. On the appeal of security council, the war ended on 22 September 1965. On 4 January 1966, Tashkent agreement was signed.
vi. Pakistan Liability :
There is no doubt that the situation in Kashmir is deteriorating due to the unreasonable attitude of Pakistan. Many efforts have been made to resolve the problems by India through regotiation despite the Kashmir issue being raised on international platform by Pakistan. Pakistan has also ignored UN decisions, Pakistan is becoming the stronghold of terrorist activities in Kashmir. It is matter of regret that Pakistan has got the support of certain global powers, but today the situation has become very complicated.
Presently, peace is not possible without the improvement of Pakistani’s intentions, but history is a witness that the government of India will not let it further alienate Kashmir and fulfil its adulterated agenda.
To trouble India, Pakistan is increasing its relations with our neighbours. What is the effect on India of all this?
India had hoped that after partition, both nations will progress in peace. But Pakistan caused many problems, which made the relations bitter between both countries. In 1947, 1965 and 1971, due to Pakistan’s aggressive stance, three wars were fought in which Pakistan had to face defeat time and again, yet due to its feelings of enmity, its illegal entry and terrorist activities have been going on. Besides making the border security weak, it is increasing its relations with India’s neighbours.
In the decade of 1980-90, Pakistan got economic aid and military equipment from USA and China. These two countries with the aim to control Soviet expansionism in South Asia, are supplying modem anti-tank missile, F-15, F-16, F-16c advanced fight jets. All these are causing worry to India because China also cannot be trusted.
Similarly, China-Pakistan economic corridor has main importance in the relation of China and Pak but it has been opposed by India because it is passing through Pakistan occupied Kashmir. According to fresh news, Pakistan can take nuclear submarines from China. Besides, on Gwadar Port, Pakistan has allowed the setting up of Chinese naval base.
In establishing democracy in Nepal, Pakistan supported it. Besides, it is developing its relations with it. Pakistan also supported in maintaining monarchy in Nepal. In 1982, trade agreement was made between both countries.
Pakistan has trade and diplomatic relations with Sri Lanka and Myanmar because Pakistan exports military equipment on a large scale and gives military training to them in the north east of India, there are China in north, Myanmar in east, in South Sri Lanka and in west, Pakistan is there.
Thus Pakistan is moving on the policy to seize India from all sides. Consequently, on India, there is a pressure of immense defence expenditure.
Write an essay on the P.M. Mr Narendra Modi’s Pakistan foreign policy.
On May, 24, 2014, Modi took oath of P.M. keeping a positive attitude towards Pakistan. He invited P.M. Nawaz Sharif in his oath taking ceremony. It was felt that talks will soon resume between both countries but after meeting of Pakistan’s high commissioner with separatist Hurriyat leaders, the foreign secretary level talks were stopped that were to be held on August 25,2014. In 18th SAARC conference held in Kathmandu on November, 26-27,2014, no talk was held between Modi and Sharif.
Indian P.M. Narendra Modi made an effort in this direction again when on Christmas (December, 25, 2015) he reached Lahore to wish Sharif on his birthday and to bless his granddaughter on her marriage. It was felt that peaceful solution will be found through talks. But after a week On new year’s day (January 1, 2016) this hope was crushed when terrorist attack was made on Pathankot airbase in Punjab, India, which was a proof of interference in our internal matters. Central government is making continuous efforts to restore peace. But the terrorist leaders of Kashmir’s militants in Pakistan not only are inciting them to attack Indian interests, Pakistan-supported militants attacked Uri armed camp in Kashmir in which more than 20 Indians got martyrdom. As a counter attack, Indian army carried out a surgical strike in Pak Occupied Kashmir and destroyed many terrorist training camps.
Thus, Pakistan’s activities compelled Indian P.M. to adopt a hard attitude. First time on August, 15,2016, it was declared from Red Fort that now the talk would be with Pakistan over Kashmir that it had occupied illegally. The Prime Minister also raised the issue of human rights in Baluchistan. Thus India adopted the attacking attitude. Afterwards Pakistan gave improper statements against India and started intrusion and terrorist activities.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Multiple Choice Questions
Which new country was born after India-Pak war of 1971?
Which agreement was signed with Pakistan by the then Indian Prime Minister, Lai Bahadur Shastri?
(a) Shimla agreement
(b) Indus water agreement
(c) Indo-Pak agreement
(d) Tashkent agreement
(d) Tashkent agreement
In which year was Panchsheel agreement signed between India and China?
With which neighbouring country was the war of 1962 fought?
When was Shimla agreement signed between India and Pakistan?
(a) June 28, 1971
(b) June 28, 1972
(c) July 3, 1971
(d) July 3, 1972
(d) July 3, 1972
With which Indian state is the article 370 associated?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
With which country is Madheshi Movement associated?
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the main element of Indian foreign policy?
Good faith with neighbouring countries and friendly relations with all nations.
Just after partition, which problems caused bitterness in the Indo-Pak relation?
- Hyderabad dispute,
- Junagarh dispute,
- Question of loan payment,
- River water dispute,
- Question of refugees,
- Occupation of Kashmir.
What is the most complicated problem between India and Pakistan?
Who was the ruler of Kashmir at the time of partition?
Which country is called the headquarters of terrorism?
In 1948, United Nations commission, appointed on Kashmir’s problem, included the representations which countries?
Czechoslovakia; Argentina, USA, Columbia, Belgium.
When did Pakistan give up its CENTO membership?
When was Pakistan given the membership of Non-alignment movement?
In 1979, at Havana summit.
Which Indian P.M. inagurated the Delhi-Lahore-Delhi bus service?
By Atal Bihari Vajpayee in February, 1999.
Which Indian state has its separate constitution?
Jammu and Kashmir.
Which article of Indian constitution gives special rights to Kashmir?
When did conflict arise between India and Pakistan over the Rann of Kutch?
With whom and when was the Indus water treaty signed?
In September 1960, between India and Pakistan. Pt Nehru and General Ayub Khan signed on it.
Between which countries was the Tashkent agreement made?
In 1966, it was made between India and Pakistan.
Where was the Tashkent agreement made?
It was made in contemporary Soviet Union’s city of Tashkent. Lai Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan signed on it.
Write any two political results of wars of 1971 fought between India and Pak.
- Birth of a free country in the form of Bangladesh.
- On July 3, 1972, Shimla agreement was made between Indira Gandhi and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
What was the main cause of Kargil war?
The main cause was occupation of some territory of India near the Line of Control by Pakistan.
When did Narendra Modi take oath as the Prime Minister of India?
On May 26, 2014.
When and by whom were the principles of Panchsheel declared?
On April 29, 1954, Pt. Nehru and China’s Premier Chou-en-Lai jointly declared.
Which religious leader of Tibet took shelter in India and when?
Dalai Lama took shelter in India in 1959.
When did China attack India?
On October 20, 1962.
Which foreign minister of contemporary India called his Chinese Visit ‘Tohi Mission’ in February 12, 1979.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Which Indian P.M. announced the grant of E-Visa to Chinese citizens?
When was Nathu-La pass opened for Kailash Man Sarovar Yatra?
Which two agreements between China and Nepal were deemed hostile to India?
- Agreement about Mount Everest.
- Agreement to construct Kathmandu-Lhasa Highway.
Name any two Nepalese Projects funded by Indian aid.
- Devighat hydroelectricity project.
- Construction of 22 bridges in Kohlapur-Mahakali area.
What was ‘Operation Maitri’ campaign?
It was a campaign started by India after the earthquake in Nepal on April 25,2015. In it, quick relief was given to the Nepalese people.
Which Indian P.M. inaugurated the Pashupatinath express Kathmandu-Delhi passenger bus service, by showing green flag?
What is Nepal’s psychology?
Nepal wants to develop its relations with both India and China on the basis of equal distance, so that China may be satisfied.
What kind of example is Nepal?
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Short Answer Type Questions
After independence describe the facts showing military tension between India and Pakistan.
Following are the facts :
- Pakistan’s unauthorised occupation on a part of Kashmir.
- India and Pakistan spend 2.9% and 4.7% of their GDP respectively on defence preparedness.
- Pakistan spends more than 8% of its GDP overjehadi and terrorist activities, while India’s expenditure is zero in this field.
- India has to spend 9000 crore additionally over the border security including Siachin.
- Tension over cross-border smuggling of drugs, counterfiet currency and weapons by Pakistan.
Write a short note on Kashmir’s problem?
It is a major problem between India and Pakistan. In 1947, after partition, dispute remained over Kashmir’s issue between India and Pakistan. Pakistan’s government claimed the ownership of Kashmir. In 1948, war broke out between both the – countries over Kashmir.
After the war of 1948, Kashmir was divided into two parts. One part is known as Pak-occupid Kashmir (POK) and the other part became India’s jammu and Kashmir state. There is a Line Of Control (LOC) between the countries. The major problem is that Pakistan says that due to Muslims majority, Kashmir, in India is against the very basis of partition. Thus, in the opinion of Pakistan, Pakistan occupied Kashmir belongs to Pakistan. Both parties are rigid over this matter. Even after the war of 1965 and 1971, this problem could not be solved. To solve Kashmir’s problem, talks have been underway between both countries, but the problem is still persisting.
How did Bangladesh come into being?
How and when was Bangladesh formed?
From 1947 to 1971, Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan, as East Pakistan. During British rule this region was formed out of the divided parts of Bengal and Assam, and thus, East Pakistan was formed. The people of this area were against west Pakistan’s hold and the imposition of Urdu language. The people of this area raised the demands for justified representative in administration and proper partnership in political power. In 1965, After India-Pakistan war, the situation turned worse. Pakistan’s dictators became the emperor of the public in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and dissatisfaction was increasing.
Under the leadership of Sheikh Mujb-ur-Rehman, autonomy movement was started in East Pakistan. East Pakistan was with Mujeeb. Pakistan’s general Yahya Khan tortured the Bengalies. Fearing people entered into India’s border leaving their houses. 10 thousand refugees began to come into India everyday. The number of the refugees reached upto 1 crore. At the same time, on December 3, 1971, Pakistan’s aeroplanes stated bombing India’s air bases. On December 14, 1971, in a military ceremony, general Niazi surrendered before India’s general Jagjeet Singh Arora. With him 93 thousand soldiers surrendered with their weapons. They were arrested and Bangladesh became free.
What do you know about the Panchsheel agreement?
In 1954, Chineese P.M. Chou-en-Lai came to India. During that visit Chinese P.M. and India P.M. Jawahar Lal Nehru signed on the agreement of Panchsheel on 29 April, 1954. Everywhere the slogan of Hindi Chini Bhai Bhai’ echoed. The aim of Pachsheel was to conduct friendly relations between both countries. Following five principles were there in the agreement:
- To respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of one another.
- Do not attack each other.
- Working with mutual good faith.
- No interference in each other’s interned affairs.
- Following the policy of peaceful co-existence. It meant inspite of two opposite political ideologies, to live peacefully.
Why did the Dalai Lama take shelter in India? What is China’s attitude towards Tibet
The Dalai Lama is the religious head of Tibetan people. When China occupied Tibet in 1950, then most of Tibetan people opposed it. In 1956, when the Dalai Lama came to India on a visit, he expressed his unwillingness to return to Tibet. Pt Nehru sent him back so that China may not be affronted. Being troubeld by China’s oppression in 1958, Tibet revolted against Chinese’s authority which was suppressed ruthlessly by Chinese army. When situation became worse in 1959, Dalai Lama took shelter in India. China opposed this because it considers Tibet its integral part.
How did Tibet become the issue of tension between India and China?
Historically Tibet has remained the issue of dispute between India and China. In past from time to time China showed its administrative control over Tibet and several times Tibet became free also. In 1950, China occupied Tibet. But most of the Tibetan people opposed this. In 1958, against Chinese hold, Tibet started armed revolt. This revolt was suppressed by Chinese army. Seeing this position, Tibetian religious leader Dalai Lama crossing the border entered into India and begged shelter in 1959. India gave him shelter. China opposed India’s move as hostile.
In the decade of 1950-1960, several political leaders of India showed their support for Tibet’s freedom. In these parties, socialist party and Jan Sangh were also included China made an Autonomus Tibet Area and considered it as its integral part. Tibetan people do not consider this claim that Tibet is the part of China. A large number of Chinese people were settled in Tibet and Tibetans opposed this policy. Tibet denies the Chinese claim that Tibet has been granted autonomy. They think that, by way of destroying traditional culture and religion, China wants to spread communism in Tibet.
How did Nepal’s people become successful in restoring democracy in their country?
In Nepal, there has been constitutional monarchy for many years. During that period, Nepal’s political parties and common people raised their voice for open and responsible rule but the king, with the help of army controlled the rebellions and the way of democracy was blocked in Nepal. But being constrained from powerful pro-democracy movement in 1990, the king accepted the demand of new democratic constitution, but in Nepal the period of democratic government has been brief and troublesome.
In the decade of 1990, the maoists in Nepal became successful in retaining their influence in several parts of the country. Maoists, King and ruling class of people were involved in a triangular strife, and in 2000, the King abolished whatever democracy was there. In April 2006, in Nepal an agitation for restoring democracy was started. Finally, the people of Nepal got success in establishing democracy.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Chapter 30 Long Answer Type Questions
What do you know about India-China relations? Describe in detail.
Since ancient times, relations between India and China had been friendly. After independence, many ups and downs were seen in Sino-Indian relations. India always saw China as its best friend and its relation with China were strong in the field of culture and trade. The study of India-China relations is not only based on friendship feelings bat also based on the ups and downs of friendship.
In suitable reference, the study of India-China relations can be done through following points :
i. India’s outlook :
Since beginning, India is expressing the wish of friendship with China. During freedom struggle, Nehru wrote clearly. “China would have friendship with India. when in China under Mao Tse Tung, communist rule was established, India made her friendly relations more strong”. For 1947 to 1959, following were the reasons which strengthened relations between India and China :
- To give recognition to communist China.
- India’s role in getting China membership in UNO.
- Agreement of both countries on Panchsheel.
- Co-operation on the question of Korea.
ii. Indian Policy on Tibet :
For centuries, China was talking about its hold on Tibet. When communist government was formed in China, it declared its claim on Tibet. In 1950, Chinese government established its control over Tibet. Indian government talked with Chinese government, and afterwards, India accepted Chinese sovereignty over Tibet. Thus upto 1956, India and China’s relations remained cordial.
iii. China hard attitude towards India :
In 1956, in Khampa area, a revolt started against Chinese rule. This revolt continued upto 1959. Chinese government crushed it on March 31, 1959, The Dalia Lama took political asylum in India with his followers. Later on, China blamed India and thus, relations turned bitter.
iv. China’s deceptive step :
Showing her peaceful policy, India put a proposal to solve border question before China on May 10,1962, but China attacked India on October 20, while India was not ready for war.
v. Negligent attitude towards India:
In 1965, war started between India and Pakistan. That time China supported Pakistan, and it declared India the aggressor. China warned India to stop construction on Sikkim border. But India did not heed it because India’s stance was just. China became silent and in 1971 with USA in UNO, declared India an aggressor by passing a proposal in UNO.
vi. India-China relations in changing situation :
India and China are two big powers of Asia continent. But the relations between the two countries have remained far from cordial in the last 25 years. Both countries, specially India tried to improve relations with Beijing, but Chinese leaders put a suggestion before Indian journalists that if India accepted Chinese hold in Ladakh area, then in eastern sector, it would consider international border to be the line of control. But India did not accept it. On November 20, 2006, Chinese President made a visit to India.
It became helpful in making good relations, Through tourism, 2007 is celebrated as India China friendship year. Zintao suggested a new Panchsheel for the conduct of economic relations between India and China, and advised to follow its five principles so that relations between India and China may be improved.
After the formation of Modi government on September 17, 2014, Chinese President Xi Jinping came to India and signed on 12 agreements. Then from 14-16 May 2015, P.M. Modi went to China and signed on 24 agreements of 10 billion dollars. Slowly, the relations are getting better. If the border dispute is solved, far-reaching effect will be there in international and regional politics.
Write a note on India’s relations with its neighbouring countries (specially Pak, China and Nepal).
India has always tried to maintain cordial and mutually constructive relations with its neighbouring countries. Although the main element of Indian foreign policy is to keep good relations with neighbouring countries, but it is said for doing so, mutual trust and cooperation is necessary. For this, India has always shown good faith, but cannot sit silent over intrusion, thus if countries invade our border, India has to reply.
India and Pakistan :
In 1947, at the time of partition, India and Pakistan came into being. Soon after independence, Kashmir topic was raised and on this basis, war started and Pakistan had to face defeat. In 1965 after the end of war and Tashkent agreement of 1966, war of 1971 and Shimla agreement of 1972, followed. The aims of both agreements were to establish peace, but all efforts remained a failure in that direction. Pakistan is causing problem on the basis of Jehadi crusade across the border. Intrusion and terrorist activities have become common.
In short it can be said that between India and Pakistan, Kashmir problem is permanent. Besides, on religious bases, Pakistan always behaved like an enemy. In Pakistan a democratic regime rarely lasts. Mostly army holds the power. Illiteracy unemployment, and poverty are rife in Pakistan and it has always caused head ache for India. Pakistan’s internal and global conditions are a threat to India.
India and Nepal :
Nepal is a buffer state situated among the Himalayas. World’s only Hindu nation has democratic secular ruling system. Nepal wants to keep good relations with both India and China and seeing its situation,it is justified. After occupation of China on Tibet, Nepal’s political importance increased for India. Today India’s security in the north depends upon Nepal’s security. The invisible international border hence remained between India and Nepal. Nepal is the only nation whose citizens are recruited in Indian army.
But unfortunality, at present Nepal’s attitude towards India is getting unfriendly. Its main causes are:
1950 India Nepal treaty, river water dispute, profit-making Indian businessmen, India’s support to Nepal’s monarchy and India’s outlook towards Maoists. India also has some problems with Nepal such as smugglers and terrorists who seek shelter in Nepal, increasing closeness of Nepal and China, etc.
In this reference, change should come in India’s outlook. Although regarding China and Pakistan, doubts of India are justified, but it is also true that on the base of past memory, future relations cannot be decided. In changing situation, change in outlook is as must.
India and China :
In the decade of 1950, India-China relations were cordial, but in 1962 a sudden attack by China, cleared China’s intentions towards India. Between India and China Mac Mohan line was never accepted by China. There remained other disputes between both countries – river water dispute, Tibet issue, China’s expansionist policy and agreements where the Chinese made a treaty with Nepal about Everest summit, and Kathmandu-Lhasa highway. Not only this, both Pakistan and China, are establishing military and diplomatic relations with neighboring countries, and pushing India from all sides.
At present situation, there is need for India to change her foreign policy and undoubtedly, it is doing so, India’s hard attitude against Pakistan is a clear proof of this.