RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 11 Foreign Relations are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 11 Foreign Relations.
|Chapter Name||Foreign Relations|
|Number of Questions Solved||44|
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 11 Foreign Relations
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Belgrade Conference of non-alignment movement was held in
Panchsheel are the five principles of mainly based on which philosophy?
(a) Mahavir Swami
(b) Swami Vivekanand
(c) Swami Dayanand
(d) Gautam Buddha
In which year was Panchsheel introduced under Indo-China Agreement?
In which nation 18th SAARC Conference held?
In which year India conducted her nuclear test?
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What are the basic pillars of India’s foreign policy?
The basic pillars of India’s foreign policy are-
Which is the most important element in the objectives of India’s foreign policy?
Fulfillment of national interest.
In which Article of Constitution main elements of the India’s foreign policy are included?
Which leaders had played a significant role in giving the Non-Aligned a form of movement?
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru – the Prime Minister of India, Marshall Tito – the President of Yugoslavia, Nasser – the President of Egypt and Sukarno – the President of Indonesia, played an important role in giving Non-Aligned a form of movement.
Give the full form of SAARC.
South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation.
Who was the pioneer of India’s nuclear policy?
India’s former President Late Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.
Which international institution was supported by India for world peace?
United Nations Organization.
Short Answer Type Questions
Illustrate the main ideals of India’s foreign policy.
India’s Foreign Policy: Past to present: India has a long glorious tradition regarding foreign policy. In the past period Buddha, Mahavira, King Ashoka and
later Vivekananda preached the way of humanity by following the path of best values of life. Still India has always tried to make friendship bridge with other nations. It has always put the thinking on its International issues clearly. It has always favoured the concept of freedom and self-decision of other nations. Beside it has favoured the international organization for co-existence and welfare. India has clearly presented its view in oppose of terrorism and cleared its objectives and ideals of foreign policy before independence. ‘
Explain the NAM Policy.
NAM is based on a resolve to democratise international system to redress existing inequalities that poor and veiy small countries need not follow any of the big powers. Instead they can pursue an independent foreign policy also. It means not to join either of the military alliances which had emerged in the world after the Second World War. NAM served India’s interests also to participate in international decisions and maintained balance between two superpower – USA and USSR. Under this, India stayed away from alliances and its raised voice against newly decolonised countries becoming part of either the alliance.
How do geographical elements affects the foreign policy? Explain.
Geographical elements have their own importance in deciding the foreign policy of India. Regional security is the most prior target of any nation. On one hand, India is near to the powers of East Russia and Communist China, and on the other hand its South-East and South-West part is surrounded by the oceans. Hence, India’s security is dependent basically on self-defence, peace and friendship.
Throw light on importance or validity of Non-alignment after the end of cold war.
Importance of Non Alignment:
Even after the end of Cold War and disintegration of Soviet Union, Non-alignment policy has its relevance in the content of organization of UNO a new international peace and economic order.
In 1961, stress was given upon peace and disarmament in Belgrade NAM Conference. 16th NAM Conference was held in August 2012 in Tehran, the capital of Iran. In this, 120 representatives of different countries took part, and the subjects were discussed i.e. nuclear disarmament, human rights and regional issues.
New challenges and efforts to solve problems have highlighted the importance of Non-aligned group (organization). This movement has proved its importance by extending it in difficulties like New Imperialism, human rights, environment, economic and regional problems.
Describe the principles of Panchsheel.
Indian foreign policy is based on principles of Panchsheel, which is derived from two words ‘Panch’ means Five and ‘Sheel’ means a ‘Code of Conduct’ for peaceful co-existence. It was signed on 29 April, 1954 between India and China.
- Non-alignment (NAM)
- Mutual benefits and equality
- Mutual non-aggression
- Non-intervention in each other international affairs
- To maintain international peace and understanding
- Respect for national sovereignty
Principles of Panchsheel are the symbol of moral strength. Once Nehru said that if all nations give stress on these principles, theq solution to problems of modern world could be got.
What do you understand by peaceful co-existence? Explain.
Co-existence is the widened form of Panchsheel. India has given a message through its foreign policy to those countries which have opposite thinking for each other to live in a friendly manner. India itself has done more and more friendly and trade agreements. This policy is based on creative development. India believes in peace, and for this it does not favour wars and armament. So many times India has participated as a mediator to remove the possibilities of war. For the development of developing and backward countries peaceful environment is essential. At present, many nations have nuclear power which is a threat to the peace of the world. Actually, peaceful co-existence gives a platform to make international relations strong and friendly.
Write a short note on terrorism in India.
Violence against government and making innocent people frightened is called terrorism. South Asian nations including India are facing this problem and also America is not even an exception. It is a great challenge for India. At present in India about 31 main terrorist organizations are active. Out of them, a few have their centres in Pak-occupied Kashmir and Afghanistan beside in other places of Asia and world, they also have their centres.
These terrorists are responsible for violent events in Jammu and Kashmir. In December 2001, Jaish-e-Muhammad and Lashkar-e-Toyba attacked the Indian Parliament. This kind of terrorism as guerilla war planned by foreign terrorist organizations, is a big problem for India. Terrorism shows a poisonous character of mentally sick nations. Some nations of the world are giving shelter and support to terrorist organizations for their personal interest. These organizations have latest modern weapons, explosives, finance and other resource in ample quantity. Though this matter is discussed in conferences and seminars, but the problem is still as it was. It is hoped that the future would be free from terrorism and money spent on it would be utilized in human development.
Discuss the role of India in contest of UNO.
India is an initial member of UNO, which favours its policies and functions. UNO is an international organization with the objective to create peace in the world. It works in different parts of the world. India has always followed the orders and laws of UNO.
India has immediately followed the decision given by the UNO. It proves the faith and commitment towards it. India has increased its glory by working different posts of UNO.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the main objectives of India’s foreign policy.
Fulfilment of nation’s interest has given priority which is an important objective of India’s foreign policy. India has always assimilated her own national interests with international interests. Human values and ideals are the base of our foreign policy from a long period. These bases have given her foreign policy in all periods. In Article 51 of Indian Constitution under Directive Principles of State Policy, main elements of foreign policy are included.
The main objectives of Indian foreign policy are:
- International peace and security.
- Justified and respectful relations towards all states.
- Faith in international laws and treaties.
- Settlement of international disputes by mediation.
- TO keep aloof from militaiy alliances and alignment (grouping).
- Opposition to colonialism, racialism and casteism.
- Opposing colour prejudice on policy of apartheid. To help countries struggling for their freedom.
- To make business, industries, investment and technology, active and smooth relation with all other nations
- To co-operate and solve problems and challenges facing by the International community.
- To strengthen own condition on the basis of friendship and co-operation with SAARC (South Asian Nations).
Describe the deciding elements of India’s foreign policy.
At the time of Independence in 1947, India had special conditions and challenges.
Hence, in formulating the immediate foreign policy under given elements have great importance:
- At the time of independence the whole world was divided into two opposite groups. So India decided to keep itself away from group politics. The all round development and economic development was the first priority of India. For this, it needed the co-operation of all nations of the world. It created the platform for a new concept of Non-Aligned movement.
- By strengthening arrangement, it was very important to maintain the unity and integrity of the nation.
- Geographical elements have their own importance in deciding the foreign policy of India. Regional security is the most prior target of any nation. On one side India is near to the powers of East, Russia and communist China, and on the other hand its South East and South West part is surrounded by the oceans. Hence, India’s self security is dependent basically on self-defence, peace and friendship.
- There is a great impact of ancient culture of India on its foreign policy. Brotherhood, peace, humanism are our inspiring values right from past. Philosophy of leaders of Indian national movement (freedom movement) has also put a great impact on Indian foreign policy.
Throw light on chief characteristics of India’s foreign policy.
India decided not to align itself to any of the military alliances. It declared its foreign policy as a policy of Non-alignment.
The principles of NAM were formulated. Non-alignment does not mean that India will remain neutral and not take any position on major world problems. It simply means that India will not join any of the military alliances.
The Indian national movement was a part of the worldwide struggle against colonialism and imperialism. It influenced the liberation movements of many Asian and African countries. Prior to India’s Independence, there were contacts between the nationalist leaders of India and those of other colonies, united as they were in their common struggle against colonialism and imperialism.
The creation of the Indian National Army (INA) by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose during the Second World War was the clearest manifestation of the linkages established between India and overseas Indians during the freedom struggle.
The foreign policy of a nation reflects the interplay of domestic and external factors. Therefore, the noble ideals that inspired India’s struggle for freedom influenced the making of its foreign policy. But India’s attainment of Independence coincided with the beginning of the Cold War era.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Main objective of foreign policy of India is
(a) Make every possible effort for international peace and security-
(b) Promotion to settle international disputes by mediation.
(c) To maintain respectful relations among all states and nations.
(d) All the above.
Who was the main architect of the foreign policy of India?
(a) Pt. Motilal Nehru
(b) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Which one of the following was not a founding member of NAM?
(a) Marshal Tito
(c) Jimmy Carter
(d) Pt. Nehru
Panchsheel agreement was signed between India and
(d) None of these
In which year was the 16th NAM Conference held in Tehran (Iran)?
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What has been the most significant base of India’s foreign policy?
What are the five principles of peaceful Co-existence of India’s foreign policy known as?
Five principles of peaceful co-existence are known as Panchsheel.
Which places in America were the target of the terrorist attack on 11th September 2001 ?
World Trade Centre and Pentagon of America were the target of the
terrorist attack on 11th Sept. 2001.
What is UNO?
UNO is major international organisa¬tion. It was established on 24 October, 1945.
Name the member countries of SAARC.
India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives, Afghanistan and Bhutan.
Why did India conduct its first nuclear test and why?
India conducted its first nuclear test on 18 May 1974, and was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.
Short Answer Type Questions
Differentiate between Neutrality and Non-alignment
Neutrality is a negative concept. It means to adopt an attitude of indifference to the events in the world whereas Non-alignment is a positive concept. It means to judge international developments on the basis of merit and logic and to maintain balance between two superpowers.
What does Article 51 of the Constitution say about India’s role in the inter¬national relations?
Article 51 of the Constitution declares to:
- promote international peace and security.
- maintain good and friendly relations among different countries.
- respect international laws and treaties.
- settle international disputes using proper ways.
What are the other objectives of the foreign policy besides those given under article 51?
Objectives of the foreign policy other than those given under Article 51 are.
- to promote national interests.
- to organise other countries of the world for mutual economic and public welfare.
- to get technical and financial help from developed countries for economic development.
- to oppose colonialism, imperialism, racialism and casteism in every form.
- to develop India as a great effective power in the world.
- to cooperate with international organisations like United Nations and Non-aligned movement.
Why did India opt for the policy of Non-alignment? Justify its relevancy in the present context of international scenario.
India opted for the policy of non¬alignment as a part of its foreign policy soon after independence because India needed financial as well as technical help for its development from the developed countries of both the blocs. It was also India’s aim to maintain peace in the world by judging the international events on the basis of merit and rationality rather than siding with either of the blocs and aggravating the situation. Policy of Non-alignment has relevance till today even after the disintegration of USSR and end of cold war in the context of reorganisation of UNO, just establishment of new international economic order and welfare and security of small countries.
What do you mean by the Cold War?
The Cold War referred to competitions, tensions and series of confrontations between the US and USSR backed by their respective allies.
In 1945, the Allied forces, led by the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France defeated the Axis powers led by Germany, Italy and Japan, ending the Second World War (1939-1945). Also in 1945, the Second World War ended, and the Cold War began when the US dropped bombs on Hiroshima and Nagashaki causing Japan to surrender. Both the powers became reluctant to initiate war to protect world from large scale destruction as they were aware that it will lead to total nuclear destruction.
Do you think that India’s non-aligned policy helped its self-interests?
Yes, this policy served India’s interests also:
- Non-alignment allowed India to take international decisions that served India’s interests rather than interests of superpowers and its allies.
- India maintained a balance between two superpowers and if India felt ignored by one superpower it could tilt towards other superpowers.
- Neither the alliance could take India for granted.
What is the rationale of Non-aligned movement after the end of Cold War?
Non-aligned Movement was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together. It meant that very small and poor countries need not become followers of any big power, instead they could pursue an independent foreign policy also. It was based on a resolve to democratise the international system to redress existing inequities also.
Long Answer Type Questions
Write a descriptive essay on main principles of foreign policy of India.
Main Principles of India’s Foreign Policy:
- Peaceful Co-existence:
In 1954, the principles of Panchsheel were signed between India and China for mutual respect for each other’s sovereignty and integrity, non-violence, non-intervention, mutual respect and cooperation and peaceful co-existence. But China violated them in 1962.
- Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes:
In all situations, India has tried to solve all international matters through peaceful talks, agreements, as Indus-Water Treaty 1960, Tashkent Pact 1966, Shimla Pact 1972 and Farakka Pact 1977 besides helping UNO to solve peacefully Korea war, Vietnam war, Suez crisis, Congo crisis, etc.
It is the most important base of India’s foreign policy. Its significance was specially felt during the period when the world was divided into two superpowers and there was an atmosphere of Cold War. India chose this path of not joining either of the blocs so as to judge the international events on the basis of merit and logic. It has helped India to get technical, economic and political help from the countries of both the blocs. Even after the disintegration USSR, its relevance continues to exist in view of reorganization of UNO, process of Democratization, New global economic policy, etc.
- Opposition to Colonialism and Imperialism:
India has helped many Afro-Asian countries as Indonesia, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Namibia, etc. in their fight against colonialism and imperialism. India rendered a great help to Bangladesh in its liberation. Even today India is opposing neo¬colonialism.
- Opposition to Racial Discrimination:
India helped South Africa in its fight against racialism and colour- discrimination till the end, and finally Nelson Mandela won the elections and formed the government.
- Support to UNO:
India assisted UNO to solve Korea and Vietnam problems and sent her peace forces to establish peace in Congo, Somalia, Yugoslavia, etc. A few examples of India’s active participation in the UNO – Nagendra Singh was the Chief Justice and B.N. Rao and R.S Pathak were the judges
of the International Court of Justice. Smt. Vijay Laxmi Pandit was the Chairperson of the General Assembly of UNO.
- Policy of Collective Opposition to International Terrorism:
It was especially in the context of terrorist attack of 11th Sept, 2001 on World Trade Centre and Pentagon of America.
- Peaceful Nuclear Policy:
It was declared by the former Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee on 18th August 1999 with the declarations for arms control, non-invasion, responsibility with Prime Minister or his nominee for the use of nuclear power.
“Indian’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts. ” Explain.
A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests veiy directly as well as India intervened in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries by reducing differences between the alliances and from escalating into a full scale war. Though India’s policy of nonalignment was criticised on a number of counts:
- India’s non-alignment was said to be Unprincipled’ in the name of pursuing in national interest.
- India often refused to take firm stand on crucial international issues.
- Sometimes India took contradictory postures, having criticised others for joining alliances, India signed the Treaty of friendship in August 1971 with the USSR for 29 years.
- During Bangladesh crisis India developed good relations even with the US in the name of diplomatic and military support.
Write short notes on the following:
(a) India’s nuclear policy
(b) Consensus in foreign policy matters
(a) India’s Nuclear Policy
- India advocates no-first-use and reiterates India’s commitment
to globally verifiable and non- discriminatory nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear weapon-free world.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru always promoted science and technology to build a modern India, i.e., initiated nuclear programme in the late 1940s.
- India was against nuclear weapons, hence pleaded for nuclear disarmament with superpowers.
- India always considered NPT as discriminatory and refused to sign on it.
- Even India’s first Nuclear Test in May 1974 was termed as a peaceful explosion and India argued to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes only.
(b) Consensus in Foreign Policy Matters:
- Pt. Nehru played a crucial role in the architecture of setting National Agenda for foreign policy.
- Both as a Prime Minister and Foreign Minister, he played profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.
- When different parties came to power from time to time, foreign policy of India played a limited role in party politics.
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