These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 6 Life Processes will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Notes Life Processes
→ Life process – The processes which together perform the maintenance functions of living organisms. This maintenance job are called life processes, it means life procesess is collectively all reactions which are essential to maintain life.
→ To maintain the life, nutrition, respiration, conduction of materials inside the body and removal of wastes, etc. processes are necessary.
→ Autotrophs – The method of nutrition, in which organisms, take the simple substances present in environment like CO2, water and make own food, called autotrophic method and such organisms called autotrophs. All green plants and some bacteria’ are the autotrophs.
→ Carbon and energy requirements of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled by photosynthesis. This material is taken in the form of carbon dioxide and water which is converted into carbohydrates in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. Carbohydrates are utilised for providing energy to the plant.
→ Heterotrophs – Animals (including human which are not able to make their food and directly or indirectly depend for food on others, called heterotrophs and the nutrition method is known as heterotrophic nutrition.
→ Digestive system in human digestive system consist alimentary canal and digestive glands. Conversion of complex nutrient material by hydrolysis into simple nutritive material is known as digestion.
→ Food taken by human is broken in many steps inside the alimentary canal and digested food absorbed in small intestine and send to all cells of the body.
→ Respiration – Breakdown of organic food material by oxidation is called respiration. Respiration is of two types
(i) Aerobic respiration – This process takes place in the presence of air (oxygen), – it is called aerobic respiration.
(ii) Anaerobic respiration – This process takes place in the absence of air (oxygen), it is called anaerobic respiration.
→ Respiratory system in human respiratory system all such organs are included, which help is gaseous exchange, which are as follows-
- nasal passage
- bronchus and
→ Mechanism of Respiration Process of respiration completes in two steps
→ During respiration process, breakdown of complex organic compounds takes place and it releases ATP, which is used to fuel all other activities in the cell.
→ Circulatory system – In human the system of transportation of O2 and CO2, nutrient materials, waste materials and excretory products from one part of the body to the other part is known as circulatory system.
→ The circulatory system of human consist three parts-
- blood and
- blood vessels.
→ Heart – The heart is a muscular organ which contract to pump blood to various body parts.
→ Blood – It is a circulatory fluid, in which fluid plasma and free cells in form of blood cells are present. These blood cells are of three types-
- Red blood corpuscles,
- White blood corpuscles,
→ Blood vessels – These are of three types
- Arteries – They perform the function to carry blood from heart to various organs.
- Veins – They carry the blood from various organs to heart.
- Capillaries – Exchange of various materials between blood and cells of body takes place through capillaries.
→ Lymphatic system – This system consists lymph, lymph vessels and lymph nodes.
→ Lymph – Through the pores present in the walls of capillaries some amount of plasma and WBC blood cells escape into intercellular spaces tissues to form the tissue fluid or lymph.
→ Double circulation – In one cycle of blood, it goes twicely through the heart-First time deoxygenated blood comes from the body collect in right atrium and pass through right ventricle to lungs. Second time oxygen-rich blood from the lungs comes to the left atrium and pass through the left ventricle and finally the blood is pumped out to the whole body. Such blood circulation is called double circulation.
→ In plants there are two types of conducting tissues
(i) Xylem – It is also called water conducting tissue. Its main function is the conduction of water and mixed minerals in water absorbed from soil to different parts of the plant.
(ii) Phloem – The main function of phloem transports products of photosynthesis from the leaves where they are synthesised to other parts of the plants.
→ Transpiration – The loss of water in the form of vapour from the aerical parts of the plant is known as transpiration.
→ Excretory system – The biological process involved in the removal of waste products produced by metabolic activities and additional salts from the body is called excretion. The organ related to excretion is called excretory organs. These excretory organs collectively called excretory system.
→ In human system the following organs are found-
- Urinary bladder and
→ Nephron – These are functional and structural units of kidney. Excretory products in form of soluble nitrogen compounds are removed by the nephrons in the kidneys.
→ Excretion in plants – Plants use a variety of techniques to get rid of waste material. For example, waste minerals may be stored in the cell-vacuoles or as may be removed in form of gum and resin, fallen leaves or they excreted into the surrounding soil.