These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 2 Forest and Wildlife Resources
Forests – An extensive area covered with trees.
Categories of existing plants and animal species :
1. Normal Species – Whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival (cattle, sal etc.).
2. Endangered species – Which are in danger of extinction (Indian rhino):
3. Vulnerable – Some species whose population has declined.
4. Rare species – Species with small population, may move into endangered or vulnerable category.
5. Endemic species -Which are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers (Nicober pigeons).
6. Extinct – Which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur (pink headed duck).
Causes of depletion of flora and fauna :
The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forest was during the colonial period due to the expansion of railway, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities.
What is the effect of large scale development projects on forests ? – Large scale development projects have contributed significantly to the loss of forests. Since 1951, over 5000 sq km of forests were cleared for river valley projects.
What is the effect of mining on forests ? – Mining is another important factor behind deforestation. The Buxa tiger reserve in West Bengal is seriously threatened by the ongoing dolomite mining.
The Himalayan Yew in trouble – The Himalayan Yew is a medicinal plant which is used for making anti-cancer drug, is found in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh. The species is under great threat due to over exploitation and have dried up in various parts of this region.
What are the causes of depletion of bio-diversity in India ? – Habitat destruction, hunting and poaching, over exploitation, environmental pollution, poisoning and forest fires are factors, which have led to the decline in India’s bio-diversity.
Conservation of forest and wildlife in India – Conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems—water, air and soil.
The Indian Wildlife Act – This act was implemented in 1972 with various provisions for protecting natural habitat.
Project Tiger – Project tiger is one of the well-publicised wild-life campaigns in the world which was launched in 1973.
Conservation of insects – In the notification under wildlife act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moth, beetles, one dragon fly have been added to the list of protected species.
Types and distribution of forests and wildlife resources – In India, much of its forests and wildlife resources are either owned or managed by the government through the forest departments or other government departments.
Protected forests – The forests which are protected from any further depletion.
Unclassified forests – These are forests and waste land belonging to both government and private individuals and communities.
Reserved forests – These are the most valuable forests as far as the conservation of forests and wildlife resources are concerned.
Community and Conservation – Forests are also home to some of the traditional communities. In some areas of India, local communities are struggling to conserve these habitats along with goverment officials to secure their own long-term livelihood.
Joint Forest Management – It was a programme launched for management and restoration of degraded forests.