These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World
(1) Print Technology – The earliest kind of print technology was developed in Japan and Korea. In China, from 594 A.D. onwards, wood blocks were used for hand . The imperial state in China was the major producer of printed material western printing tecniquies and machanical presses were imported in China. Shenghai became the hub of the new print culture.
(2) Print in Japan – Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology into Japan around A.D. 768-770. The oldest Japanese book printed in A.D. 868, is the Buddhist Sutra’ kitagawa utam aro, bom in Edo in 1753. was widely known for his contributions to an art form called ukiyo (pictures of the floating world).
(3) Coming of Print in Europe – In 1295. Marcopolo a great explorer, returned to after many years of exploration in China. Marcoplo brought the technology of wood block printing to Italy.’Now Italians began producing books with wood blocks and soon the technology: spread to other parts of Europe.
(4) Invention of the Printing press by Johann Gutenberg – Johann Gutenberg invented, the olive printing press which provided the model for the printing press. The first book he printed was the Bible. Between 1450 and 1550, printing presses were set up in most countries of Europe.
(5) The Print Revolution – With the printing press a new reading public emerged. Access, to books created a new culture of reading. Now books could reach out to wider sections of people. Printers began publishing popular ballads and folktales and such books were illustions with pictures. Oral culture entered print and printed material was orally transmitted. The line that oral and reading cultures became blurred.
(6) The Religious Debates – Print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. In 1517 the religious reformer Martin wrote Ninety Five Thesis criticising many of the practices and rituals of Roman Coath Church. Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual interpretations of faith even among little educated working people.
(7) The Reading Mania – Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, literacy rates went up in many parts of Europe. As literacy and schools spread in European country there was a virtual reading mania. New- forms of popular literature appeared in print, targetting new audiences. There were almanacs or ritual calendar, along with ballads and folktale. England, chap books were carried by petty pedlars known as chapman and sold for a penny.
(8) Print Culture and French Revolution – Many historians believe that print created the conditions within which French revolution occured.
(9) Children, Women and Workers as New Readers – The nineteenth century saw leaps in mass literacy in Europe, bringing in large numbers of new readers among women and workers.
(10) New Innovations – Through the nineteenth century there were a series of- innovation in printing technology. By the mid-nineteenth century. Richard M. Hove of NewYork had perfected the power driven cylindrical press. In the late nineteenth century’, the offset press was developed which could print up to 6 colours at a time. Nineteenth century periodicals serialised important novels which gave birth to a particular way or writing novels.
(11) Manuscripts before the Age of Print in India – India had a very rich and old traditions of hand written manuscripts in Sanskrit. Arabic, Persian and in many vernacular languages. Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on hand made paper. These manuscripts were highly expensive and fragile.
(12) Coming of Print in India – The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid-sixteenth century. By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and in Kanara languages. Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in year 1579 at Cochin.
(13) Religious Reform and Public Debates – From the early nineteenth century, there were intense debates around religious issues. This was a time of intense controversies between social and religious reforms and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism. Brahminical priest hood and idolatry. Raja Rammohan Roy published the Sambad Kaumudi in 1821 and the Hindu orthodoxy published the Samachar Chandrika’ to oppose his opinions. From 1822, two persian newspapers were published—‘Jam-i-Jahan Nama’ and ‘Shamsul Akbbar’. The Deoband seminary published many Fatwas telling Muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their every day lives.
(14) New Forms of Print – By’ the end of the nineteenth century’ a new visual culture was taking place, Raja Ravi Verma produced images for mass circulation. By’ the 1870, caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers commenting on social and political issues. Lives and feelings of women began to be written in particularly clear and intense ways. Women’s reading therefore increased in middle class homes.
(15) Print and Censorship – By the 1820s. the Calcutta Supreme court passed certain regulations to control press freedom and the company began encouraging publication of newspapers praising British rule. In 1835, Governor General Bentinck agreed to revise press laws.
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