RBSE Class 12 History Board Paper 2018 English Medium are part of RBSE Class 12 History Board Model Papers. Here we have given Rajasthan RBSE Class 12 History Board Paper 2018 English Medium.
|Paper Set||Board Paper 2018|
|Category||RBSE Model Papers|
Rajasthan RBSE Class 12 History Board Paper 2018 English Medium
Time: 3.15 Hours
General Instructions to the Examinees
- Candidates must write first his/her Roll No. on the question paper compulsorily.
- All the questions are compulsory.
- Write the answer to each question in the given answer book only.
- For questions having more than one part, the answers to those parts are to be written together in continuity.
Section Question Numbers Marks per Question Word Limit of the Answer A 1-10 1 10 Words B 11-18 2 20 Words C 19-27 4 60 Words D 28-30 6 200 Words
- Mark the answer of Q 30 on the outline map of India. It carries 6 marks.
- There are internal choices in Question Nos. 28 and 29.
SECTION – A
On which river bank the “Das Ragya War” was fought? 
Which ruler is called Napoleon of India? 
During which ruler’s reign the fourth Buddhist Council was held? 
Which Shaka ruler renovated the Sudarshan Lake? 
Who was the originator of “Shunyavad”? 
In which book the conversation between Nagsena and Minander is found? 
Which ruler is known as “Raipithora”? 
Which ruler of Mewar faced Allauddin Khilji in 1303 A.D.? 
Why Maharana Kumbha is called “Abhinav Bharatacharya”? 
In the memory of which victory, Kumbha constructed Vijaya Stambha? 
SECTION – B
What is the main subject matter of Jataka texts? 
Match the following: 
Describe two characteristics of the town planning of Sindhu Saraswati Civilization, which are also relevant today. 
Write the names of two Indian kings who supported Alexander. 
If you would have been in place of Prithviraj Chauhan in the Second Battle of Tarain, which mistakes you might have avoided? 
What was the Doctrine of Lapse of Lord Dalhousie? 
Who founded the Brahmo Samaj and when? 
Where and when the Rajasthan Sewa Sangha was founded? 
SECTION – C
Explain the Ashram system prevailing in ancient India. 
Mention the characteristics of the local self administration of Cholas which are also relevant today. 
Describe the characteristics of Gandhara style of sculpture. 
Describe any four characteristics of the character of Maharana Pratap. 
Mention any four causes of the Battle of Plassey. 
Throw light on any four causes of the failure of the revolution of 1857. 
The religious and political ideas of Raja Ram Mohan Roy are also relevant today. Explain. 
Write a note on the Bijolia peasant movement. 
Throw light on the efforts of Govind Guru, made for the social and moral upliftment of the “Bhils”. 
SECTION – D
Evaluate Harshavardhana as the guardian of Religion and Knowledge. 
“The Gupta period was the golden period of ancient India.” Explain this statement in detail.
What were the causes of the rise of nationalism in India? Explain. 
Discuss the causes of the Quit India Movement and highlight its programme and activities.
Mark the following historical places in the outline map of India. 
On the bank of Ravi (Parusni) River.
Samudragupta is called the Napoleon of India.
During the reign of ruler Kanishka of the Kushan dynasty
Rudradaman had renovated the Sudarshan Lake.
In the book named Milinda Panha.
Prithviraj Chauhan III.
Rawal Ratan Singh.
As he had great knowledge about music, Maharana Kumbha is called “Abhinav Bharatacharya”.
Kumbha constructed Vijaya Stambha in the memory of his victory upon Mahmud Khilji the Sultan of Malwa.
In Jataka texts, we obtain information about the then social, religious and economic aspects concerning the tales of the previous births of Gautama Buddha.
- Broad roads which cut each other at right angles used to join in the towns.
- Dirty water from households used to flow out through drains.
Shashi Gupta and Ambhi were the Indian rulers who supported Alexander.
Prithviraj Chauhan lacked in foresightedness and diplomacy. He did not establish friendly relations with his neighbouring states. I would prefer to avoid such mistakes.
The measures adopted by Lord Dalhousie to subjugate the Indian kings in pretense of maladministration and corruption and by abolishing their succession rights, apart from war, are known as the Doctrine of Lapse.
Brahmo Samaj was founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828 CE.
Rajasthan Sewa Sangha was founded by Vijay Singh Pathik in the year 1919 CE in Wardha (Maharashtra).
In ancient India, the entire life of an individual was expressed in an ideal form and his journey of life was divided into four Ashrams. These are-
- Vanaprastha and
It was expected from man that after crossing his chariot of life through these four stages, he would attain salvation-the ultimate objective of his life. Man used to get knowledge about dharma in Brahmacharya ashram, he gained education and practiced it, he obtained artha and kama while getting involved in Grihastha ashram, he completely remained involved in social works under Vanprastha, and he did practice to attain salvation under Sanyasa. The major objective of the Ashram system was to establish a balanced coordination between physical, social, intellectual and moral objectives. Development of Ashram system took place in the Post Vedic period.
Following are the major characteristics of the local self administration of Cholas which are also relevant today
- There was a system of local autonomy at rural and urban level under Chola administration, and it was conducted by representative institutions namely-Ur, Sabha, Maha Sabha and Nagaram.
- Educational, economic and moral qualifications were fixed for their members.
- Through the committees, these members used to look after various administrative works such as irrigation system, distribution of land, collection of land revenue and other taxes, taking care of the rivers, justice, etc.
- Internal autonomy was granted to representative institutions such as Ur, Sabha and Maha Sabha.
- Interference of the central administration was negligible in the functioning of these institutions.
- The villages were in the form of small republics.
- Chola local self administration system was well-organized and skilled.
Following are the major characteristics of Gandhara style of sculpture
- The subject matter of Gandhara style was Indian, only the craftsmen were Greeks.
- There was dominance of Greek makeup and ornamentation in the statues made in this style. These were made from brown and grey coloured stones. Later, cascades and plaster started to be used.
- Statues of Buddha made in this style. resembled the sacred deity Apollo of the Greeks.
- Through the statues made in this style, effort was made to give the statues of Buddha a real form in his statues with heavy lips, protruding eyeballs, curly hair, long mustaches, clad in heavy and schematic folded garments.
Four major characteristics of the character of Maharana Pratap are the following
- Not to attack an unarmed person-Maharana Pratap had taken a pledge of never attacking an unarmed person. He always kept two swords-one of these was to be provided to the enemy.
- Stress on social harmony- Maharana Pratap emphasized on social harmony. He was loved by all. All the people were always ready to sacrifice everything for his sake.
- Protector of religion and state symbolMaharana Pratap was a religious ruler and he was determined to protect the honour of the state symbol.
- Lover of freedom- Maharana Pratap was a lover of freedom. Despite his discomforts, he didn’t accept the sovereignty of Mughal Emperor Akbar.
Following are the four major causes of the Battle of Plassey
- Formation of a conspiracy to dethrone the Nawab-Fasihi Begum, Raja Ballabh, Shaukat Jang were those enemies of Nawab Siraj udDaulah who were forming a conspiracy to dethrone him. The British also extended their support to these rebels and criticized the orders of the Nawab.
- Disrespect towards the Nawab-When coronation of Siraj ud-Daulah was being performed, the British neither presented him any gift nor did any British representative participate in the ceremony. When the Nawab expressed his wish to visit the Kasim Bazar factory of the British, the Britishers refused to show it to the Nawab. In one way, this action of the British was disrespectful towards the Nawab.
- Misuse of trading facilities-The British misused the trading facilities which were granted by Farrukh Siyar in 1772 CE. They used to sell the Dastak to the Indian merchants. The Nawab was facing economic loss due to this.
- Providing protection to the enemies of the Nawab-The British colonies were made the centres of protection for the enemies of the Nawab. Even after being demanded by the Nawab, the British did not handover his enemies to him.
Following are the four causes of the failure of the revolution of 1857
- Lack of efficient and capable leadership-Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was the leader of the revolt of 1857. There was lack of mutual coordination and unity in the leaders of various regions, due to which the revolt was not conducted efficiently and the British became successful in suppressing the revolt.
- Start of the revolt even before the fixed time-According to the pre-plan, the day of 31st May 1857 was decided for the revolt, but the revolt started in Meerut even before this date, on 10th May itself. In such condition, the British became successful in suppressing this revolt which started at different dates on different places.
- Non-cooperation of the Indian kings Most of Indian princely states supported the British to suppress this revolt for their selfish self-interests.
- Neutrality of the landlords, traders and educated class-Big landlords, labourers and traders supported the British. The revolutionaries were also unable to gain the support of the educated class.
Following religious and political ideas of Raja Ram Mohan Roy are relevant even today
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy gave the message of one God (Monotheism).
- He opposed meaningless religious rituals and ostentation
- He believed that if a philosophy, tradition, etc. does not prove correct on the basis of reasoning, and if it is not useful for the society, then a man should not hesitate to shun it.
- He believed in fundamental unity of all the religions of the world.
- He supported liberal ideas in the political sphere.
- He emphasized on the separation of the executive from the judiciary.
- He supported those movements which were being conducted for freedom and democracy and made efforts to bring reforms in Indian administration.
Bijolia Peasant Movement- Bijolia peasant movement started in 1897 CE. In the beginning, this movement was led by Sadhu Sitaram Das and later it was led by Vijay Singh Pathik. The main objective of this movement was to raise voice against the taxes and various lagbaghs imposed by the landlords on the residents of Bijolia.
In 1916 CE, the peasants of Bijolia formed a Kisan Manch Board under the leadership of Mannalal. Getting inspired from Vijay Singh Pathik, the Bijolia peasants refused to pay war loan and decided not to cooperate with the jagirdars in any form. When the jagirdars did not take any step to resolve the problems of the peasants, the peasants adopted the policy of satyagraha. The jagirdars pressurized the peasants.
Finally, an agreement was signed between the peasants and the jagirdars, under which it was provided to abolish the begar system and to withdraw the cases running against the peasants. It was decided, that land revenue will not be collected in those years in which the peasants did not perform cultivation. The Bijolia peasant movement ended in this way.
Govind Guru was a great social reformer. He played a significant role in the social and moral upliftment of the Bhils. He established the Samp Sabha and established a separate clan in order to keep them within the purview of Hindu religion. With his efforts, education was spread among the Bhils and reforms also started to be made. When the tendency of consuming alcohol started declining among the Bhils, the excise department suffered huge loss due to this. The Bhils did not have any significant political ambition, but their social unity became an issue of serious concern for the Britishers and the rulers. With the efforts of Govind Guru, political awareness was created in other sections also, along with the Bhils.
Evaluation of Harshavardhana as the guardian of Religion and KnowledgeHarshavardhana (Harsha) was a great commander and the protector of art-literature and religion. He spent half of the revenue earned on the protection of religion, education and literature. Harsha was a Shaiva in the beginning. Later, he got inclined towards the Mahayana branch of Buddhism.
In order to spread and propagate its principles, Harsha organized a large conference in Kannauj in 643 CE. Buddhist, Brahmin and Jain scholars and scholars from Nalanda participated in this conference. Harshavardhana used to spend one-fourth part of the revenue earned on religion. With his efforts, Mahayana sect of Buddhism spread in the world. Through the meetings conducted in Prayag and Kannauj etc. he brought followers from various religions on one platform and thus encouraged religious tolerance and social unity. He took the following measures for the spread and propagation of religion and knowledge
1. Organizing the Kannauj Assembly- In 643 CE, Harsha organized a huge religious assembly at Kannauj. Rulers from 18 countries, 3000 Buddhist monks, 3000 Brahmins and almost 1000 Buddhist scholars from Nalanda University came to participate in this. This meeting was presided over by Hiuen Tsang. For five days, he gave a speech on the supremacy of Mahayana religion. This meeting lasted for 23 days and Mahayana sect of Buddhism was propagated in this. The statue of Buddha was lifted daily in a procession which included 20 rulers and 300 elephants. The canopies were held by Harsha himself. With the protection and efforts of Harsha, Mahayana sect of Buddhism extended in the country and the world.
2. Organizing the Prayag Assembly-Harsha used to organize Maha Moksha Parishad every fifth year in Prayag. Under this, gods and goddesses from various religions were worshipped and charity was provided to the followers of different religions. In 643 CE, Harsha organized the sixth assembly of Maha Moksha Parishad in Prayag. More than 500000 people participated in the event. Charity was provided to the people from various religions under this. Here, barring war material, Harsha gave his entire wealth and property to the destitute, orphans, helpless, Buddhist monks and followers of other religions, etc. in charity. Later, he requested his sister Rajshri to grant him old garments and after wearing them he worshipped the Buddhas of ten directions.
3. Charity- Harshavardhana liberally provided grants to the followers of various religions. While organizing the Maha Moksha Parishad in Prayag, he provided grants without performing any type of discrimination.
4. Construction of Buddhist Monasteries and Viharas- Harshawardhana constructed thousands of Buddhist monasteries and viharas on the banks of river Ganga and at the sacred places of the Buddhists.
5. Encouragement to religious tolerance- Harsha encouraged religious tolerance and goodwill and spread the message of humanity.
6. Protector of scholars and litterateurs- Apart from being a scholar himself, Harsha was also the protector of scholars, poets and revolutionaries. Badshah, Matang Brithari, Digambar and Jaisena were among the great scholars and litterateurs present in his court.
7. Encouragement to education- Harsha presented ten villages as gift to Nalanda University in order to further spread and propagate education. The university used to meet its expenses by the revenue earned through them. Thousands of Indian and foreign students came here to gain education. He opened many Gurukul schools.
Gupta Period: The golden period of ancient India- Gupta period is the medieval period of the history of India. Entire history prior to this period ends here and entire history of the future emerges out of it. This is that period in which allround development took place in the country. Therefore, it is known as the golden period of the history of India. During this period, significant development took place in social, religious, economic and cultural sectors. Peace, law and order and prosperity increased during this period and significant development took place in literature, art, science, etc. sectors. On the basis of the versatility of this civilization, the historians have called the Gupta period as the golden period of the history of India. Gupta period is considered as the golden period of the history of India on the following bases
1. Period of great rulers-Gupta rulers were great winners, excellent administrators and lovers of their subjects. They gained many victories and extended the frontiers of the Gupta Empire.
2. Establishment of political unity- The Gupta rulers occupied most parts of the country and established a huge Empire and provided political unity to it.
3. Excellent administration system-Gupta rulers established a powerful and an excellent administration system in their Empire. Due to this, peace, law and order and prosperity increased in the country and all round development took place in the country.
4. Development in the field of literature- Extreme development took place in the field of literature during the Gupta period. Gupta period was the period of emergence of Sanskrit literature. Many litterateurs were born during this period and they wrote high quality books. Kalidas, Visakhadatta, Shudrak, Vishnu Sharma, Bhairavi, etc. wrote high quality books. Religious and philosophical literature was also composed during this period.
5. Development of arts- Significant development of architecture, sculpture, painiting, music, etc. took place during the Gupta period. A clear reflection of intellectuality, morality and Indianization is visible in the art of this period. Wall paintings of Ajanta and Bagh caves, temples of Deogarh, Tigwa, Bheetari Gaon and the beautiful statues of Buddha, Mahavir Swami and Vishnu are the symbols of excellence of art in this period.
6. Period of economic prosperity- Significant development took place in economic sector during the Gupta period. This period was the period of prosperity of the people. Agriculture, industries, trade and commerce were in a developed position during this period. Due to their development, India emerged in the form of an extremely prosperous nation.
7. Development in the field of science- Significant development took place in the fields of astronomy, mathematics, therapeutics and chemistry during the Gupta period. Aryabhatta, Varamihira, Brahmagupta, Nagarjuna, etc. developed various branches of science. Banabhatta, Dhanvantari, etc. were famous physicians of this period, and they extended significant contribution in the science of therapeutics.
8. Religious tolerance- Even after being the strong followers of Brahmin religion, the Gupta rulers were religiously tolerant. They had respect for all the religions. Everybody enjoyed religious freedom. The doors of Hinduism were open for the foreigners.
9. Propagation of Indian culture in the world- During the Gupta period, Indian culture was propagated in various countries such as Java, Sumatra, Malaya, Champa, Cambodia, etc.
10. Development of Vedic religion and puranic religions- Gupta period was the period of renaissance of Hinduism. During the Gupta period, Vedic religion and puranic religions were revived. Vaishnava religion and Shaiva religion had broad impact during this period. Various Vaishnava and Shaiva temples were built during this period.
Causes of the rise of nationalism in India in the nineteenth century: Following were the causes of the rise of nationalism in the nineteenth century
1. Exploitative economic policies- Indian agriculture, traditional industries and handicrafts started declining due to the exploitative economic policies of the British. Self-dependence of the villages ended. Commercialization of agriculture was done. Forest Law rights were passed and the right of using pastures and forest land by the farmers were snatched away. Due to this, extreme dissatisfaction emerged in the farmers.
2. Administrative unification- The British government formed common laws and a common judicial system for the protection of its interests. Mutual communication among the Indians increased due to this unified administration system. Due to this, nationalistic feelings developed among the Indians.
3. Development of modes of transport and communication- Due to the development of modern modes of transport such as railways, motor cars and others, the Indians got opportunity to come in contact with one another. At that time, telegraph, post and other modes of communication helped in the exchange of thoughts and to fix the programmes associated with political movements.
4. Role of press and literature- Press played an important role in the emergence of national awareness. It provided political education to the people. It criticized the exploitative policies and actions of the British government. The newspapers published the news of personal misbehavior, economic exploitation, racial discrimination committed by the Britishers with the Indians. Nationalistic literature also played an important role in the emergence of national awareness. Compositions of Bharatendu Harishchandra, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Altaf Hussain and others created national awareness among the Indians.
5. Social and religious reform movements- Brahmo Samaj of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Arya Samaj of Swami Dayanand Saraswati and Ramakrishna Mission of Swami Vivekananda ended the evils present in the Indian society and made effort to unite the Indians socially.
6. Decline of Indian industries and occupations- Indian industries and occupations were destroyed in the interests of British traders. As a result of British policies, firstly, cotton textile industry declined. The British used India As a large market to absorb the goods made in the factories of Britain. As a result of this, Indian craftsmen and sculptors were destroyed. The British capitalists invested their money in tea plantations, coal mines, railway and banks, etc. Due to the decline of domestic industries, poverty and unemployment increased in India.
7. Racial discrimination- Due to the policy of racial discrimination of the British, resentment towards the British increased in the Indians. The British considered the Indians as inferior and deficient. They did not allow the Indians to travel in the same railway compartment along with them. The Indians were not allowed to visit the clubs of Europeans. Dissatisfaction increased in the Indias due to all this.
8. Dissatisfaction in the educated Indians- Examination of Indian Civil Services was organized only in England. The British had decreased the age of entry into the Indian Civil Services from 21 years to 18 years. These policies of the British increased resentment against them in the mind of the Indians.
9. Policy of Lord Lytton- In the year 1877, at the time of a severe famine, Lord Lytton organized the grand ‘Delhi Court’. In 1878, ban was imposed on Indian newspapers by the implementation of Vernacular Press Act. In the same year, Indians were prohibited from keeping weapons through the Arms Act of 1878.
10. Modern western education- The Indians were quite impressed by the works of Mazzini, Garibaldi and other such leaders. They got introduced to the thoughts of Berque, Mill, etc. and were inspired to form a progressive and strengthened India.
11. Ilbert Bill- In the year 1883 CE, during the time of Lord Rippon, a law member of his council, named Ilbert, presented an ordinance, which was called as Ilbert Bill. In this proposal, there was a proposal of granting right to the Indian judges to hear and decide upon the cases of the Europeans, but due to the protest of the Europeans, this bill could not be passed. This created dissatisfaction in the nationalists.
Circumstances of the Quit India Movement-Quit India movement was such a mass movement of the freedom struggle of India, which stirred the roots of the British government. Mahatma Gandhi started the Quit India Movement in August, 1942. Following were the major causes of this movement
1. Faulty policy of the British- Second World War started in September, 1939. Lord Linlithgow, the Viceroy of India, included India also along with England in the war, without even consulting the Indian leaders. The Congress opposed this rigidly and the Congress cabinet of ministers provided their resignation in 8 provinces.
2. Frustration due to the August Proposal- On 84 August, 1940, Lord Linlithgow, the Viceroy of India, forwarded certain proposals, which are known as August Proposal. But the Congress was not satisfied with the August Proposal because it did not contain the declaration of establishment of an interim national government and granting complete independence to India. Therefore, Mahatma Gandhi started individual satyagraha. Almost 25000 people were detained in jail.
3. Failure of Cripps Mission- In order to resolve the political deadlock of India, the British government sent a representative council under the chairmanship of Sir Strafford Cripps to India. the Cripps Mission forwarded certain proposals, which are known as Cripps Proposal. The Cripps proposals were insufficient and dissatisfactory. All the political parties of India rejected the Cripps proposals. The Indians became very desperate due to the failure of the Cripps proposals.
4. Miserable economic condition- Due to increase in prices and lack of goods of daily necessity during the Second World War, great dissatisfaction emerged in the Indians. The middle class people were dissatisfied due to inflation.
5. Fear of Japanese invasion- The Japanese army had defeated the British and occupied Singapore, Malaya and Burma. In his letter ‘Harijan’, Mahatma Gandhi had urged the British to quit India and wrote that the presence of the British in India is like an invitation to the Japanese to invade India. Mahatma Gandhi asked the British to leave India for the sake of God or even in the midst of chaos. In this condition, Mahatma Gandhi decided to run a non-violent movement against the British government.
Major Programme and Activities of the Movement- On 8th August, 1942, in the meeting of the All India Congress Committee, Quit India proposal of Mahatma Gandhi was accepted. Gandhiji gave the slogan “Do or Die”. No fixed plan was made regarding the Quit India Movement. Performing peaceful strikes, organizing public meetings, refusal from paying land revenue and non-cooperation with the government were some of the programmes of the Quit India Movement. Gandhiji had termed the movement as the final struggle.
Before the Congress could initiate the movement, Gandhiji and his supporters were arrested in the morning on 9 August, 1942. Anger spread among the people due to the arrest of national leaders. The public expressed its resentment in various ways. A self motivated movement started in the entire country.
Under this, strikes and lockouts were performed in factories, schools and colleges. The people attacked upon police stations, post offices and railway stations. Under this movement, the revolutionaries had erected parallel governments in various cities, towns and villages but the British government adopted a suppressive policy and crushed the revolt. More than 10000 people were killed in this movement.
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