Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Marxism
- Marx is not the first thinker talking about the change in economic system. Before Marx, socialist ideas have been expressed by the thinkers of Britain and France,
- Marx first presented a practical plan based on analysis for the establishment of socialism by presenting scientific socialism.
Meaning of Marxism:
- In 19th century, there were two great thinkers in Germany named Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.The outlook founded by them is known as Marxism in the world, o In Marxism, the contemplation of scientific and philosophical aspects is primarily done by Engels and political aspect by Marx.
- Rendering of socialism is done by Marx on the basis of historical study. That is why Marx is called socialist scientist.
- Except Karl Marx, the other major Marxists are Lenin, Stalin, Cobry, Rosel, Luxamburg, Dohosky, Mao, Grammcy, George Lukaz etc.
- Karl Marx, the originator of revolutionary and scientific socialism, was bom in 1818, in ajewish family. His father was Henerique Marx who was an advocate by profession.
- In 1842 Karl Marx got doctorate tide fromjaina University. His friendship with Frederic Angels is famous in history. In March, 14, 1883 Marx died in London.
Sources of Marx’s Philosophy:
It can be understood through the following ways :
- For the development of the society, Marx adopted Hegel’s dealectical method.
- Marx adopted the major labour theory of British economist Ricardo, Adam Smith etc. On these bases principle of additional value was founded.
- Marx got social ideas form French philosophy. To influence Marx, Saint Simon, Charles Fourier etc. gave important contribution.
- The exploitary character of contemporary capitalist society inspired Marx to present revolutionary ideas.
Major Writing of Marx:
Following are his major writings :
- The Poverty of Philosophy (1844) .
- The Economic and Philosophical Manuscript (1844),
- The Ccommunist Manifesto (1848),
- Class struggle in France
- The Critic of Political Economy.
- Values, Price and Profit
- Das Capital (Volume I, II, III) (1894)
- The Civil War (1871)
- The Gotha Programme
- The Holy Family, (with Angles) (1875) German Ideology etc.
Some Facts Associated with Marx’s Writing:
Following are the facts :
- Das Capital (1867). Its full name- A contribution to the critique of political economy (1859) Das capital’s first volume was written by Marx and rest two were written by Angels after Marx’s death.
- In Das Capital (1867), Marx analysed basic economic rules.
- In The Civil War in France- (1871) He gave idea on state but he changed in ideas in communist manifesto (1848).
- J. Prudhon wrote a book named ‘The Philosophy of Poverty’ and in reply, Marx wrote ‘ The Poverty of Philosophy’ (1847) in which Marx gave a positive definition of class.
- Tailor termed, Marx’s writing ‘The Communist Manifesto’ pious like the Bible and the Quran.
- In ‘The German Ideology’ (1845), the principle of dialectical materialism was given.
Major Ideas of Marx or Basic Belief of Marxism:
- Dialectical materialism
- Materialistic or economic explanation of history
- Principle of class struggle
- Principle of additional value
- State principle of Marx
- Conception regarding democracy, religion and nation.
- Marxism method, program (revolution).
To know and understand Marxism , these are three major bases :
- Production system
- Source of production
- Production relation
- The theory of dialectical materialism is the basis of entire contemplation of Marx. It was adopted from Hegel, while materialism from Firebakh.
- In dialectical materialism the dialectic word is associated with the development of creation, whereas materialism denotes the fundamental of creation.
- According to this process, the progress of society took place in a zig zag way and not directly, which has three parts : Plaintiff, Contradiction and Dialogue, o Materialism : Hegel believes in the original element of creation , or consciousness, whereas Marx believes in the root cause of creation.
Characteristics of Dialectical Materialism:
Some major characteristics are given below :
- According to dialectical, the world is free and not just a pile or collection of unrelated things but the entire entity whose whole things are mutually dependent.
- Marx gives the answer on the qualitative changes in the things, on the basis of ideology of Hegel.
- Dialectic materialism explains natural world on the basis of economic elements, and the material in the form of control of whole world power.
Rules of Dialectical Progress:
Three rules are included in it:
- Rule of struggle and unity of opposite
- Change towards quality from result.
- Prohibition rule for prohibition.
- In Marxism, historical materialism is recognized as complementary theory of dialectical materialism.
- Marx is of the opinion that in human history, different incidents and changes are caused due to economic reasons.
To clarify the effect of economic causes on human history, six stages are described:
- Primitive communist state
- Slavery state
- Feudal stage
- Capitalist stage
- Hero (Dictatorship) of proletariat
- Communist state
According to Marx, there are two sections of the society :
- Super structure
According to Marx those who have control over economy and system are called vulnerable groups and the group which works under it is called exploited group.
Conclusion Economic Explanation of History:
Following are the major points :
- The development of human life and civilization is not the consequence of the work and ideas of the God and great men. There are certain rules for social changes and economic element is the conduction of this process.
- In each era, social and political system remain under those who have control over economic system.
- Except primitive communism, class struggle remains present till capitalism.
Criticism of Economic Interpretation of History:
Marx criticised the economic interpretation of history as given below :
- Unnecessary stress on economic element.
- Interpretation of all historical incidents is not possible on economic basis.
- Neglect of coincidence element in determining history.
- It is not possible to determine the program of human history.
- The exclusive base of political power is not economic power.
- Economic relations are changed by political power.
- It is not possible to stay at the society without state of the notion of history.
Theory of Class Struggle:
- Marx’s dialectical materialism is based on historical materialism and principles of additional value and class struggle. ‘
- Class : In Marx’s opinion, the group which has economic interests is called class. Such as labour, capitalists etc.
- Struggle : Its wide meaning is dissatisfaction, anger and non-cooperation.
Criticism of Class Struggle:
Its major points are given below :
- Alone and faulty.
- The main element of social life is cooperation and not the struggle.
- There is a difference between social and economic life.
- Revolution is possible by intellectual class rather than by labour class.
- The entire class of history is not the history of class struggle.
Theory of Additional/Surplus Value:
- The difference between utility value and exchange value is additional value.
According to Marx, the following impacts are seen on the society of additional value:
- Miserable condition of labour
- Cause of proletariat revolution.
- Cause of additional population.
Theory of Isolation:
According to Marx, man has become the prey to isolation due to capitalism. This isolation can be understood in the following ways :
- Isolation from Production system
- Isolation from environment
- Isolation from friends
- Isolation from self.
Analysis of Capitalism and Future Regarding Conception:
- Marx analysed capitalist system and clarifies its future conception that capitalist produces for profit and by this, interests of two opposite groups are found.
Conception Regarding State and Rule:
- Karl Marx considered state a class organisation. According to Marx, the origin of state is different from the same class.
- According to Marx, the state has been the instrument of exploitation.
Marx’s conception regarding state and rule is criticized. According to critics :
- State is not an organised class, instead, it is a moral organisation.
- At present the state is not an enemy of proletariat class, but a friend which works for thewelfare of proletariates. ‘
- The state is not a temporary one, but it is permanent.
- The concept of state extinction by Marx is concocted.
Conception of Marxism Regarding Democracy, Religion and Nationalism:
- According to Marx, there is no country of labour, thus he gives the message of oneness to whole world’s labours.
- Marx also tells the conception of nationalism as useless.
Criticism of Marxism:
We can understand it in following ways :
- There is no struggle among capitalists.
- Facilities for labour class.
- Economic crises is not repeated.
Marxisms Contribution to Political Contemplation:
We can understand it through following ways:
- Marxism exchanges different conception.
- Challenge to liberalism.
- Marxism puts forth a practical and scientific plan for socialism.
- Marxism has created sensation in labour class.
- Marx puts forward real portrait of society.
Marx has presented a solid and harmonized program to bring socialism which creates a sensation in the following :
- Maozedong (MaoTsetung) established a communist rule in China through a revolution in 1949 on the basis of Marx’s ideas.
- Due to Marxism, conception of state welfare originated.
Important Dates and the Events given in the Chapter:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Important Terms
- Marx : His full name is Karl Marx. He was bom in a Jewish family in 1818. His friendship with Angels was famous in history. He died on March 14, 1883.
- Marxism : Theory founded by Marx is called Marxism. Marx presented a practical plan based on analysis for the foundation of socialism by finding scientific socialism.
- Hegel : Western thinker. He was known as the founder of ‘dialectical philosophy’.
- Fredric Angels : Friend of Karl Marx.
- Dialectical Materialism : According to Marx, society’s development does not happen directly but by zig zag ways, which has three elements : plaintiff, contradiction and dialogue. The mixture of these is dialectical materialism.
- Materialism : From the philosophical point of view, where Hegel believes the basic elements of creation, consciousness or the world soul, the same Karl Marx believes the root cause of creation. In Marxism philosophy, this is the materialism.
- Historical Materialism : Karl Marx is of opinion that the different changes and incidents are caused by economic reasons. From Marxism point of view, this is historical materialism.
- Base : According to Marx, the first section of the two sections of the society. In this Marx includes economy and production line (method).
- Infrastructure : According to Marx, this is the other part of the two parts of society. In this Marx includes social, political and cultural system.
- Vulnerable class : According to Marx, those who have control over economic system come under vulnerable class.
- Exploited class : The class which works under vulnerable class is called exploited class.
- Class : According to Marx, the group which has economic interests, is called class such as : labour, capitalist etc.
- Struggle : In wide meaning it is associated with aggression , dissatisfaction and non-cooperation.
- Communist Manifesto : In it, Karl Marx wrote about class struggle, Dialectical materialism Historical materialism etc.
- Additional/Surplus Value : The difference between utility value and exchange value is additional value. It is kept by capitalist.
- New Marxism : It was first founded by George Lukaz in 1923-24. It tells feudalism better than capitalism.
- State : Karl Marx considers state as a classified institution. According to him state has been an instrument of exploitation.
- Governance : According to Karl Marx it helps vulnerable class to exploit the exploited class.
- Proletariat : Class rendered by Karl Marx. In it he included exploited class.
- Elder class : Class rendered by Karl Marx. In it he included vulnerable class.
- Lenin : In 1917, he founded communist rule in Soviet Union.
- Maozedong (MaoTsetung) : In 1949, he founded communist rule in China through revolution.