Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 12 Planning and Development-Niti Aayog
- Firstly, planning was accepted by the Soviet Russia in 1928 for the development and growth of country’s economy.
- The planning commission was formed on 15th March 1950, by the Government of India. It is non-constitutional body.
- Economic Planning is necessary for the detention of the economic problems of the country viz., poverty, unemployment, economic inequality and for the development of industries and factories and to speed up information technology.
What is Planning?:
- Planning is the process of thinking and taking steps in the right direction for organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal.
- It is necessary for the planning that the purpose is clear, the means and efforts to achieve it should be ensured and the duration should be fixed.
- To fulfil social and economic purposes in our country, planning was adopted.
- The purpose of planning is to ensure proper utilization of resources, to remove unemployment, to promote skill development, increase in national growth per capita income, self-sufficiency and people welfare etc,
- The first attempt towards the development of employment in India was done in 1934 by M. Vishveshvaraya in his pioneering work ‘Planned Economy for India’.
- The efforts made in this direction by the Bombay Planning Commission in 1944, Shriman Narayana Gandhi Yojana, M.N.Roy Janata Yojana, Jai Prakash Narayan’s Sarvodaya Yojana in 1950 for the planned development in India were commendable.
Characteristics of Planning in India:
- India is a democratic country. Here, the policies of the coalition of ruling political party or parties influence the national planning and its nature.
- Good planning is a symbol of national prosperity. The nature of planning in India has been changing. The direct impact of globalization appears on our planning.
Relationship between Planning and Development:
- The goal of planning in the economic sector is national development. Mahatma Gandhi goal of planning was to
- develop the last person’.
- The slogan given by Prime Minister Mr Narendra Modi ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas’ strenghten the concept of development with planning.
- Development means the advancement of people’s living standards. From 1950 to 2015, the Planning Commission has played an important role in the planning efforts of development in India. ,
- In 2015, Policy Commission was formed in place of Planning Commission.
NITI Aayog: National Institute for Transforming India:
- On 1st January, 2015 Government of India constituted a commission which was known as NITI Aayog (Policy Commission). It replaced the previous commission.
- The complete name of NITI Aayog is -National Institution for Transforming India.
- NITI Aayog works as a ‘Think-Tank’ of the government and provides directional and strategic mobility to it.
Basis of NITI Aayog Formation:
- The main foundation of the formation of the Policy Commission is to provide adequate intellectual property available in the country by tapping it to prevent it from fleeing and ensuring its involvement in good governance.
- In addition, the activating the role of states in development and creating a common platform for achieving the goals of development is a key pillar of the formation of the Commission.
- The vision of the Policy Commission is to prepare the National Agenda for the Prime Minister and Chief Ministers of the states.
- The policy commission will ensure that the area which has been specifically entrusted to them, their economic strategy and the interests of national security should be included in the policy.
- Other key aims of the Policy Commission are to implement National Development Programme and other necessary activities for achieving these objectives.
Formation of NITI Aayog:
- Prime Minister of India is the Officiate Chairman of Policy Commission. The Deputy Chairman of the Policy Commission and two full time members are appointed by the Prime Minister.
- The members of the Governing Council of the Policy Commission represent all the Union Territories.
- For consideration and decision on regional affairs affecting more than one state under the Policy Commission, there is a provision for the formation of regional councils for a specific period.
- At present, Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, is the Chairman of the Policy Commission, Vice-Chairman is Dr Arvind Pangaria and two full time members are Dr Vivek Devrai and Dr V.K. Saraswat.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 12 Important Terms
- Planning : To plan a comprehensive survey of the economic resources of the country and determining the best use of it according to the needs of the country is called planning.
- Development : The process of positive change related to the progress, welfare and desire of good life in society is called development.
- Economy : Economy or economic system is the structure of institutions by which social control is done on the means of production and the use of the goods and services produced by it.
- Planning Commission : The Planning Commission was set up by a resoultion of the Government of India in March 1950 in pursuance of declared objectives of the Government to promote a rapid rise in the standard of living of the people by efficient exploitation of the resources of the country.
- Bombay Plan : In 1944 eight Industrialists of Bombay including Mr. JRD Tata, GD Birla, Purshottamdas Thakurdas , Lala Shriram, Kasturbhai lalbhai, AD Shroff, Ardeshir Dalai, and John Mathai working together prepared “A Brief Memorandum Outlining a Plan of Economic Development for Indid!, which was popularly known as Bombay Plan. This plan envisaged doubling the per capita income in 15 years and tripling the national income during this period. .
- Information Technology : Information technology (IT) is the application of computer to store, study, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. It deals with computing, including hardware, software, telecommunications and generally anything involved in the transmission of information or the systems that faciliate communication.Per Capita Income : Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area’s total income by its total population.
- National Income: National income is the total value a country’s final output of all new goods and services produced in one year.
- Public sector : The public sector is that portion of an economic system that is controlled by national, state or provincial, and local governments.
- Private Sector : The private sector is the part of a country’s economic system that is run by individuals and companies, rather than the government. Most private sector organizations are run with the intention of making profit.
- Bureaucracy: A special organization of skilled, trained and duty-free employees, in which the principle of unity of rank, place and order is strictiy followed.
- NITI Aayog: NITI Aayog stands for – National Institution for Transforming India. NITI Aayog works as a ‘Think Tank’ of the government and provides directional and strategic mobility to it.
- Legislative Assembly: This is the House of Representatives in the state. Its members are directly elected by the voters according to various constituencies.
- Narendra Modi: The present Prime Minister of India. NITI Aayog (Policy Commission) has been constituted under his
- Dr Arvind Pangadiya: Famous Economist, belongs to Rajasthan. He has been nominated as the Deputy Chairman of the Policy Commission (NITI Aayog).
- Mahatma Gandhi: Great freedom fighter. He had emphasized decentralisation of the resources.
- M.Vishveshvaraya: Writer of the book- ‘Planned Economy for India’. Firstly,he emphasized on planning and development in India through the medium of his book in 1934.
- Jaiprakash Narayan: Famous with name of J.P. He was influenced by Gandhian ideology with Socialism and Marxism. He presented the Sarvodaya Scheme related to employment.
- M.N. Roy: Renowned labour leader. He presented the Jan Yojana related to the planning of the country.