Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 25 Regionalism and Lingualism
- India is a country of diversities, wherein disparities are found in geographical, cultural and linguistic spheres.
- At the time of independence, our country was not economically prosperous.
- Excessive exploitation of our economy by the Britishers and disparate development of regional states were the main reasons for this.
- After independence, our federal government tried to rectify this imbalanced situation by way of reorganization of states and other measures.
- The formation of states became possible owing to accession of British-ruled states (provinces), integration of native princely states and social-political unification of India.
- Some attributes like caste, religion, community and prominent image of certain individuals also influenced the process of reorganization of states.
What is Regionalism?:
- Attempts for comparatively enhanced development of a certain region or province and more importance attached to it as compared to the union or another state, on the part of local residents, come under the category of regionalism.
- The objective of regionalism is the fulfillment of parochial and narrow regional interests.
- Regionalism is such a tendency in which the people of a certain region demand more economic, social and political power than others.
Causes of Regionalism:
Main causes of regionalism are : Nature-induced differences and inequalities
- Administrative bias
- Differences in centrally-funded investment and development
- Cultural diversities
- Historical and political factors
- Linguistic diversity, etc.
The nation has to suffer many bad-consequences due to narrow regional aspirations. These are –
- Threat to the unity of the country.
- Demand for formation of new states.
- Dominance/abundance of regional politics and political parties.
- Rise of self-styled leaders
- The concept of son of the land
- Challenge to national law and order
- Tarnishing of the nation’s image in international politics.
Resolution of Problem of Regionalism:
The following efforts are being made to resolve the problem of regionalism.
- Balanced National policy formation
- Priority to the development of basic infrastructure in states.
- Launching special developmental programmes in the form of projects.
- Making cultural diversity a tool for integration.
- Formation of small states from administrative point of view
- Respect for linguistic diversity, etc.
Condition of lingualism:
- The desire to regard regional language superior over Hindi has given birth to Lingualism. o It has clearly been mentioned in Article 343 of Indian constitution that the state language of the Indian Union will be Hindi.
- There is also a provision for the constitution of a ‘language commission’ by the President to suggest ways for maximum use of Hindi and improving the status of regional languages.
- The language commission would also deliver on the reasonable demands of the people of non-Hindi speaking regions as regards to the country’s industrial, cultural and scientific progress and public services. .
- The constitution also accords the right to legislatures of states to accept Hindi or state’s regional language for official use in that state.
- There is also a well-defined provision for complete protection of the rights of lingual minorities in the language commission.
- The first official language commission was constituted in 1955 under the chairmanship of Prof B.G. Khare.
- The proposal of implementing the three-language formula came from official language Amendment Act in 1967, whereby Hindi, English and other regional languages would be used in competitive exams for appointment in government services and in official correspondence.
- In India, three-language formula is adopted-state language Hindi, contact language English and one regional language, which is included in the schedule of constitution.
- The parochialism of lingualism is inherent in the demand of new states on lingual basis.
- The reorganization of states on the basis of language and anti-Hindi movements in some states in the south have been debatable issues.
- It should be the priority of the country to establish trust in non-Hindi-speaking regions by removing the sense of insecurity created by ‘Hindi Imperialism’, through which the ‘three-language formula’ could be practically implemented.
- Familial and regional language can never assume the status of national language and nor should these feel a threat from the official language of the country.
- By way of triggering movements on lingual basis, some self-styled leaders want to sustain their existence. A general/ordinary citizen should appreciate this fact and he should be acquainted with it.
- Popularization and propagation of Hindi should be properly done by including confidence of all.
- It is a primary responsibility of the government to ensure that the allotment and distribution of resources and opportunities should be done without lingual discrimination.
- Country should have administration of law, and policies should not be based on ‘whims and fancies’ of those having linguistic majority.
- In Rajasthan too, peaceful movements are being conducted to achieve constitutional recognition to Rajasthani language.
Measures to Resolve the Problem of lingualism:
The following are some measures to resolve the problem of lingualism in India.
- For the sake of lingual exchanges, cultural and educational activities should be widened.
- Political narrow-mindedness should end. There should be efforts to find out an acceptable solution to the problem of lingualism in, the national interest.
- Propagation and percolation of Hindi should be property done by taking all into confidence.
- By way of giving impetus to tourism, necessity of Hindi should be made practical.
- The use of English language should be restricted to administrative use and translation.
- Hindi and regional languages should develop a complementary relation ship, and in this way, lingualism may be eliminated.
- Languages are the means of communication, they connect people with one another. This very factual sentiment should be infused and awakened in the mind of all countrymen
Important Dates and Related Events:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 25 Important Terms
- Language : To convey our sentiments and thoughts, their expression or information and also systematic use of hearing is called language. Through language only, we communicate our views, values, faiths and knowledge, and we collectively preserve them.
- Rules / Laws : In political context, those principles of a society are called laws which allow the use of force /power to maintain political and social organisations in certain extent of land. Explanation of laws and their implementation depend on political government rather than on the traditions.
- Religion : A basic and fundamental nature, behavior, intrinsic quality in a person or a thing; a designated work or behavior for a group, sect, etc-as Kshatriya’s religion, good attitude, piousness, good deeds, etc. These fall in the category of a religion.
- Community : A cartel of followers of a doctrine; a group of people having similar viewpoints or conventions with regard to a subject or principle or any specific religious line of thought, is called a community.
- Natural Resources : Nature-gifted different elements or substances for human uses are called natural resources. For example- Sunlight, minerals, terrain, soil, water, air and vegetation. These resources are free gifts of nature.
- Regionalism : Effect for comparatively and relatively better development of a certain region or a province and more importance attached to it in comparison to the union or another state, on the part of local residents, come under the category of regionalism. In the light of the very conviction, it is opposite to the sentiments of nationalism. Its objective is to fulfil narrow regional interests.
- Lingualism : A tendency to grant more importance to own language by a society or people of a state, over other languages, is called lingualism.
- Son of soil (land) : Literary meaning of son of land is – Land is my mother and I am its son. This tendency developed on account of regional imbalance. This tendency attaches more importance to the interests of dwellers of the particular area over national unity, integrity and federalism. Under this mindset, the people of that state or region demand special reservation to those who live or get employed there. This tendency is more prominent in the states of Maharashtra and Assam in India.
- Regional Aspirations : Regional wishers/choices are the expression of regional aspirations in democracy. In democracy, regionalism is not regarded as opposition to nationalism. Different parties or organisations represent the sentiments of the people on the basis of some aspiration or any specific regional problem.
- Regional Imbalance : Regional imbalance refers to such a situation when all the regions have not been developed equally.
- Native Estates : During British administration, the territories which were ruled by the kings/princes were called native estates. These were not direcdy under the control of British government.
- Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) : This national programme, meant for certain selected areas having probability of drought, was implemented in 1973. The object of the programme was to balance the environment by way of balanced development of land, water and other natural resources in those areas.
- Desert Development Programme (DDP) : Programme relates to 1977-78. Its object is to check the expansion of desert land and keep a balanced environment.
- Hill Area Development Programme (HADP) : This programme was implemented as a part of 5th five-year plan. This programme envisaged development of hill areas.
- TVibal Area Development Programme (TADP) : This programme was meant to raise the economic and primary level of residents of selected areas of tribal belts.
- Status of special state : This status is granted to a state for giving special incentives in order to remove backwardness. Kashmir is having special status under Article-370 in the constitution. Under this, Jammu and Kashmir has been granted more autonomy as compared to other states.
- Political Party : Political Party is such a group of people which works to fight elections and acquire political dominance in government.
- Legislature : Legislatives in states are called Legislature. Its duty is to form rules and laws.
- Movement (Agitation) : When a person or an organisation makes positive efforts for fulfilling his/its legitimate demands in a peaceful and non-violent manner, it is called a movement.
- Human Rights : Rights which are quite compulsory for a person as a human being are called Human Rights. For example- Dignity of a person, safety to life, etc.
- Three-language formula : The official language amendment Act provides implementation of three-language formula which enables the use of English, Hindi and regional language for competitive examinations and official correspondence.
- Politics : In present context, the word-politics is used as a system dedicated for resolving the problems of the people. In past days, the technique to acquire power and sustain it was dubbed as ‘politics’.
- Anglo : The word used for English language and people of British origin.
- Communication : Mutual exchange of facts, views, ideas or emotions between two or more than two persons is called communication. Language is a medium of communication.
- Tourism : Tourism is a journey which is undertaken for fun and frolic. In other words, a journey dedicated for entertainment is called Tourism.
- Official language : The language using which we perform official obligations is called official language.
- Separatism : When a community or a sect seeks to form a separate and free state after getting influenced under narrow-mindedness of regionalism, it is called separatism.
- Prof. B.G. Khare : Chairman of first official language commission, constituted in 1955.