Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 29 United Nations Organization: Contribution towards World Peace and Security
United Nations Organization:
- It is called an effective international platform of present world.
- The second Secretary General of UNO, ‘Dag Hammerskjold’ said, “The formation of UNO is not to elevate humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell.”
- The great destruction of second world war, made it clear that the efforts of League of Nations were insufficient to stop World War II.
- The foundation of UNO took place on October 24, 1945 with the support of five major nations- Russia, China, France, Britain and USA.
- October 24 is observed as U.N. Day.
- The first meeting of the general assembly of U.N. was held on June 10, 1946 in London.
- There are 111 articles in the charter of U.N. in which its organization, powers and functions are described.
Goals pf UNO:
- To save the world from the wars.
- To secure human rights for all.
- To provide better life and social progress to all.
Aims of UNO:
- To maintain peace and security in the world.
- Solving all sorts of international problems.
- To establish friendly relation for equal status.
Principles of UNO:
- To respect the sovereignty of all member countries.
- To solve the disputes Of member countries, in peaceful manner.
- Not to interfere in internal affairs of any country by UNO.
Membership of UNO:
- All those peace loving countries which obey the responsibilities and moral restrictions given in the charter, may be included in UNO.
- Membership of any country in UNO is granted by general assembly on the recommendation of security council.
- If any state violates the rules repeatedly, it can be removed by general assembly on the recommendation of security council.
- At present 193 countries are the members of UNO. In 2006 ‘Montenegro’ was the last member country to join the UNO.
General Assembly of UNO:
- General assembly is that institution of UNO which can be called the “meeting hall of the world”.
- In general assembly, all the member nations, big or small, are heard.
- All the members of UN are the members of general assembly.
- Any member country cannot send more than five representatives to general assembly and each country has only one vote in general assembly.
- The general assembly of UNO is an international stage to put any problem or to raise the voice against injustice.
- General assembly is a top institution of UNO which has its own rules and regulations.
- General assembly elects its President for a year. That person is elected on the basis of his ability. He is elected through secret ballot.
- Mr Paul Spook of Belgium was the first President of general assembly, who presided over the first meeting of general assembly on January 10, 1946.
- The President of the general assembly is taken from any small country. In general assembly, there is a chief D-cabinet to help the President. There are 17 vice-presidents of the General Assembly and along with 7 permanent committes, a general body is formed.
- General assembly meeting is regularly held on 3rd tuesday of September every year.
- Its special session can be called at the request of the majority of members of UN general assembly or the security council.
- The president of general assembly is elected for one year, but if a special session is called, it elects its president for each session.
- Established in 1950 under a special process, if any hindrance is produced in restoration of peace by the use of Vito in security council, then, there may be a special meeting of General Assembly in 24 hours and it can take suitable decision for world peace, and security council is bound to accept it.
- In 1950, through a proposal of establishment of peace, wonderful changes took place in the powers and role of general assembly.
- Organised proposal for peace made general assembly a guardian of collective security of United Nations members.
- It is an important organ of UNO, it has the responsibility to maintain international peace and security.
- On security council, there lies the final responsibility of UN’s success and failure because it only has the power to implement the decisions and charter of U.N.
- If the general assembly is a directive body then security council is the decision making executive organ of U.N.
- There are 15 members in the security council of UNO- China, France, USA, Russia and U.K. are permanent members and 10 temporary members are elected by general assembly for two years.
- At the time of electing members of security council, geographical conditions of general assembly has to be kept in mind.
- Security council of U.N is the highest guardian of world peace and security.
- Security council is bound with the principles and aims of U.N. Thus, it cannot work according to its wish.
- In the article 92 of charter, it is said that international court is a main organ of U.N, its headquarters is in ‘Hague’.
- It provides full freedom to the members of the nation, to file their disputes in other courts.
- The members of U.N. are bound to follow its decisions on the subjects, in which they are included.
- Generally all the members of the U.N are .also the members of the court.
- On the recommendation of security council and by the directive of general assembly, on . each subject according to earmarked conditions, those nations can join the constitution of international court who are not its members.
- General assembly and security council freely select suitable candidates for membership of international court.
- There are 22 judges in international court.
- In international court, the people who get majority in security and general assembly, are declared elected.
- The justices of international court are elected for 9 years, and after third year, 5 judges retire, they can fight the election again.
- The government of member countries, to nominate the judges, participate in election, but the justices neither can represent their country nor work according to the directions of their government.
- India’s justice Dalbir Bhandari is at present a justice of international court.
- International court has optional right regarding the cases which are brought before it by voluntary consent of the two countries. It is not binding on any country to bring the case in this court.
- International court has the power to give advice to other agencies as recommended by security committee and general assembly.
- It is described in the article 7 of the UN charter.
- As a helping body of general assembly, it works in inspection of non-strategic land trust area and in strategic cases.
Economic and Social Council:
- The economic and social council of UNO pays attention towards the economic and social welfare of the member countries.
Secretariat and Secretary General:
- It is one of the main organs of U.N. It is the headquarter of U.N which administers and . co-ordinates programs and policies made by other organizations and agencies of UNO.
- Being incharge of secretariat, the main work of secretary general is to keep the records of UN and to fulfil the works which are directly or indirecdy not given to other organs.
- The staff of the secretariat is appointed by the Secretary General in accordance with the established rules of general assembly.
Special agencies associated with UNO:
- These are UNESCO, WHO, WTO, UNICEF, IMF, etc.
Importance of UNO and World Peace:
- For world peace and security, the formation of a world organisation was considered an essential tool, and on October 24, 1945 UNO was founded for this very purpose.
- In cold war period, there were about 100 major armed conflicts in which almost 2 crore people were killed.
- In the security council of UN, the permanent members stopped U.N from working by using Veto power 279 times.
- Now U.N is the organization of 193 countries.
- In Afghanistan, Soviet Union’s interference remained for 10 years.
For world peace and security, following was done by UNO to resolve problems :
- Iraq-Iran problem
- Greek crisis
- Kashmir controversy
- Indonesia disputes
- Congo crises
- Ending racism in South Africa
In the security council of UNO, there is need of representation of India including developing countries.
Important Dates and Related Events:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 29 Important Terms
- United Nations Organization : An international organization established on October 24, 1945 whose main aim is to stop disputes and to show the way of cooperation among the nations.
- International Organization : It is a group of sovereign nations, which is formed by the choice of nations, its main aim is to establish peace in the world.
- League of Nations : First world war ended in 1918, and peace conference was held in Paris.The Warsaw Pact of 26 streams was accepted on April 28, 1919 and under it League of Nations’ format was prepared. On January 10, 1920, League of Nations was founded. The covenant of the League of Nations is a small one. It has almost 4000 words and apart from the introduction, there were 26 articles.
- Charter : UNO has its own constitution which is called charter. It was prepared in San Fransisco conference. It has its separate importance which has to be obeyed by each member.
- General Assembly : It is a managing assembly of UNO. In it, representatives of all the countries are included. Each member country can send its five representatives in it. But each nation can cast only single vote. It discusses issues associated with international peace and security.
- Security Council : It is an executive committee of UN. It consists of 5 permanent and ten temporary members. USA, Russia, Britain, France and China are the permanent members of security’ council. It is the greatest guardian of world peace and security.
- International Court : It is Judicial body of UNO, It has 22 justices. They are elected for 9 years. Its headquarters is in ‘Hague’. In it the solution of disputes among the member nations is given on basis of judges’ majority.
- Secretariat: There is a secretariat of UNO to perform daily work. Its head officer is secretary general. Secretary general is elected by general assembly on the proposal of security council.
- UNESCO : Its full form is United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. It is a special agency of UNO. It was founded on November 14, 1946. Its aim is to encourage education science and culture among the nations, through which peace and security get stabilised, its headquarter is in Paris, France.
- Economic and Social Council : It is a main part of UNO. It has 57 members, which are elected by general assembly for three years. It informs general assembly about the works done for economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. It also pays attention to the welfare of member nations.
- Trusteeship Council: This is an important part of UNO. As a helping body in inspection of non-strategic land trust areas and in strategic cases, works as a helping body of security council.
- WHO : Its full form is World Health Organization. It is founded on April 7, 1948. Its main aim is to improve health level of the people of all races. Its headquarters is in Geneva (Switzerland).
- WIPO : Its full form is World Intellectual Property Organization. It was founded in 1967 and its headquarters is in Geneva. Its aim is to evaluate intellectual property and to fulfil the agreements associated with it.
- UPU : Its full form is Universal Postal Union. It was founded on October 9, 1974. Its main aim is to develop charity- like facilities in the countries included in the union. Its headquarters is in Bern (Switzerland). .
- ITU : Its full form is International Telecommunication Union. Its headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland. Its aim is to make international rules to provide cheap service to common people through telegram, telephone and radio by developing broadcasting services.
- FAO : Its full form is Food and Agriculture Organization. It was founded on October 16, 1945. Its aim is to improve agricultural distribution and production for international agricultural development through preparing new seeds and scientific research.
- ICAO : Its full form is International Civil Aviation Organization and its aim is to solve international problems of air transportation. Its headquarters is in Montreal (Quebec), Canada.
- UNIDO : Its full form is United Nations International Development Organization. It was included in UNO in 1985 as a special agency. The main aim of this organization is to make harmony in the programs associated with UNO’s economic and industrial development. It headquarters is in Vienna (Austria).
- Churchill : Former P.M. of Britain. He was in the favor of formation of an international organization of world level, through which countries could interact with each other.