Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Science NotesChapter 14 Health, Disease and Yoga
Meaning of Health:
- Health is a state of physical, mental and social well being.
- Health of all organisms depends on their surroundings or the environment. Our social environment is an important factor in our individual health. Even our physical environment is decided by our social environment. Public cleanliness is important for individual health. We need food for health, and this food will have to be earned by doing work. Good economic conditions and jobs are therefore needed for an individual’s health. Social equality and harmony are also necessary for health.
Significance of Health:
- Good health makes a person’s life joyful, happy and cheerful.
- Good health provides energy to progress, individually. Self progress contributes to community progress and ultimately, towards nation progress.
- Healthy community is essential for the national progress.
Balanced Diet and its Components:
Balanced diet can be defined as the food which contains daily need of calories, minerals, vitamins and other nutrient in right amounts, which are necessary for the proper growth and development of the body.
Importance of Balanced diet:
- It provides energy for various voluntary and involuntary functions.
- It provides materials for growth, repair and replacement of tissues and cells.
- It creates immunity to fight against diseases.
- It maintains body heat and keep the body healthy and well-built.
Elements or Components of Balanced food:
Human body requires 2500 calories a day. It should be available from the following six elements of food as listed below:
|Carbohydrates, Vitamins,Water, Minerals||1625||65|
They are complex organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, in proportion of 2:1 : 1. They occur in nature in the form of sugar and starch. By the process of digestion, starch firs converted into sugars and then oxidised, to produce energy. Sugars are rapidly and easily oxidised, to produce energy. Carbohydrates helps to convert, other elements of food to glucose in the process of digestion which get dissolved in blood and reaches the muscles
Uses of Carbohydrates:
They produce and maintain heat and energy and are required for the metabolism of fats. They are necessary for the players and manual labor.
Source of Carbohydrates:
- Starch: The starchy foods are rice- wheat, potato, millets, urad, moong, masur, gram, etc.
- Sugars: The sugary foods are glucose, sugarcane, jaggery, sugar, sweet-fruits, honey, dates, beat root, currant etc.
- Deficiency of carbohydrates results in weakness, fatigue, giddiness, loss of body weight, etc.
- Excess of Carbohydrates may cause diabetes and obesity.
- Obese persons should minimize the use of carbohydrates.
They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in different proportions. All fats contain fatty acids and glycerin.
Uses of Fats:
- They are essential for the absorption of soluble vitamins.
- They lubripate the body and helps to maintain the skin soft and oily. In case of deficiency of fats, many skin diseases are caused.
- They give flexibility to body joints.
- Fats are stored in the body, below skin and protects body against cold.
Sources of Fats:
- Vegetable sources: Coconut, groundnut, different oils, ghee, soyabean, cashewnut, almond, walnut, sesame, etc.
- Animal Sources: Meat, fish, egg, milk, curd, butter, etc. Excess of fats may cause heart disease, high blood pressure and obesity.
Proteins are complex organic compounds of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur. They are made of small units called amino-acids. They are present in each cell of the body, in the form of protoplasm.
Uses of Proteins:
They are the source of energy. They are essential for body building and help in growth and development of the body. They are converted to carbohydrates, during the process of digestion and also help to produce digestive juices. They are useful for lactative mothers, infants, adolescents and manual labour.
Sources of Proteins:
- Animal sources: Milk and milk products, eggs, meat and fish.
- Plant or vegetable sources: Pulses (urad, Moong, peas), and beans, especially soyabean, nuts (groundnut, almond, cashewnut, etc.) and cereals (Wheat, barley, rice etc.)
Human body contains 3/4th of water, i.e about 75% and the 20% are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Water acts as lubricant in the body, especially in the joints. It keeps the body temperature, salts and oxygen, under control. It helps in the excretion of waste matter in the body, in the form of tears, perspiration, urine and faces.
It helps to carry oxygen and food to all the organs of the body Dehydration or loss of water will result in quicker death than starvation. Water is taken directly or along with other foods. We must take, at least 8 to 10 glasses of water everyday, in the summer and at least 5 to 6 glasses, in the winter. In certain circumstances, like fever, sun stroke, hypertension fast heart beat, constipation, etc., water should be taken in large quantity.
Body requires a number of different minerals such as calcium, potassium, sulphur, phosphorus, iodine, Iron, etc. Calcium and phosphorus build, strong bones and teeth. Iron helps to form haemoglobin. Calcium also helps in clotting of blood. In case of deficiency of calcium, bleeding, following injuries, does not stop fast. Iodine helps in the functioning of the thyroid gland. Minerals in general, activate the digestive system and maintain the normal functioning of blood and other liquids in the body.
Sources of Minerals salts:
- Vegetable or plant sources: Cereals, pulses, soyabean, apples, carrot, green corriander, mint, bitter gourd, etc.
- Animal sources: Meat, egg, fish, etc. Liver is the best source of iron, sea food is an excellent natural source of Iodine. It is also found in drinking water, cereals and vegetables. Potassium is found in green leafy vegetables and pulses. It strengthens the heart muscles. Sodium chloride found in the body helps in digestion of Protein. Sulphur helps in the digestion of food. Its deficiency may result in fall of hair and decaying nails. We get it from fruits, fig, onion, peas, egg, fish, etc.
Vitamins are chemical substances found in food. They can also be made synthetically in the laboratory. They are required in small amounts, but their function are of great significance for the body. Their absence in food may cause deficiency diseases. Infact it the vitamins which activate the body tissues and protect us against diseases. They are also considered as nutrients, because they develop an immunity in the body, to keep away various diseases.
Types of Vitamins:
- Water Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins B’ and C’.
- Fat soluble Vitamins: Vitamins A’, D’, ‘E’ and K’.
- Vitamin ‘A’: It helps in keeping eyes, throat, nose, ears and skin healthy and eyesight normal. Its deficiency can cause cough, intestinal diseases, short – sightedness, etc.
- Sources: Milk, egg, butter, carrot, mint, green coriander, spinach, ripe tomatoes and skinned grams.
- Vitamin ‘B’: It is better known as ‘B’ complex, because it consists of at least 12 vitamins, all of which are needed by the body in small amounts. These vitamins together as vitamin ‘B’ helps in the normal working of nervous system, proper digestion of food^etc. They also help in improving the appetite and keeping the skin smooth.
- Sources: Milk, leafy vegetables, wheat, rice, fermented food, fish, egg, cereals etc.
- Vitamin ‘C’: It is necessary for healthy skin, gums and joints. It also helps in clotting of blood and healing of wounds. It is also known as ‘scurvy preventive vitamin. Its deficiency retard the growth of child, blood vessels become weak, wounds take time to heal and the gums start bleeding and there likelihood of anaemia.
- Sources: Amla, orange, lemon, grapes, apple, tomato, guava, etc. It occurs especially in citric foods.
- Vitamin ‘D’: It is required for healthy and strong bones and teeth. Its deficiency causes ‘Rickets’. It is the vitamin which is produced under skin, with the help of sun-rays.
- Sources: Sun rays, egg yolk, fish oil, sesame, milk, butter, cream, oils, groundnut and beans.
- Vitamin ‘E’: It is required for the growth of the body. It increases the body weight and strengthens reproductive system. Its deficiency causes sterility.
- Sources: Leafy vegetables, specially lettuce, wheat, carrot, milk, butter, egg, meat, groundnut, spinach, etc.
- Vitamin ‘K’: It helps in the coagulation of blood. It is especially required for the pregnant ladies and mothers.
- Sources: Cauliflower, potato, tomato, wheat, carrot, spinach, leafy vegetables, milk, butter etc.
- Undigestible fibrous material in the food is called roughage. Though roughage is not a component of food, yet it is an important part of the balanced diet. It balances water and mineral salts in the body and helps to prevent intestinal diseases and control cancer and diabetes.
- Sources: Skinned vegetables and fruits, salad, cabbage, unpeeled apple, flour-bran, etc.
- Fast food can be defined as any food that contributes little or no nutrient value to the diet, but instead provides excess calories and fat. These foods that are of little nutritional value and often has high fat content. Sugar and calories. Common fast foods are snack foods, gum, candy, fried fast food and carbonated beverages. It also include chips, hot pies, pasties, sandwiches, burger, pizza, chicken soup and soft drinks.
- Fast food is high in calories and sugar, that contribute to increased weight gain. It is harmful to health and leads to increased risk for illness and disease. Some side-effects are also caused by fast foods.
Effects of Synthetic Food Beverages:
Soft drinks have become a major part of modern living, especially for younger generation. A majority of soft drinks contain large amount of refined sugar content, which erodes teeth, increases risk of diabetes, heart diseases indigestion and skin problem. These beverages also cause numerous adverse side effects, which are memory loss, emotional disorder, blurred vision, and shortness of breath. So, instead of taking these beverages, youth can take limanwater, lassi, chach, etc.
- Malnutrition is a state of bad nutrition, leading to under- nutrition or over-nutrition. This can be due to either lack of essential nutrients or excess of certain nutrients. Malnutrition may be in the state of under- nutrition or over- nutrition or unbalanced diet. v
- Under nutrition: When inadequate amount of food is eaten over an extended period of time resulting in low nutrient consumption, it is called under nutrition. Due to under-nutrition, there is a shortage of blood in the body, resulting in weakness and slow growth and development.
- Over-nutrition: Consumption of excessive quantity of food over an extended period of time is over nutrition. It leads to obesity which itself becomes the cause of many diseases. Over-nutrition is problem mainly with those who take more fatty foods such as ghee, milk, butt sweets, etc.
- Imbalanced Food: It is a slate when certain nutrients are in large proportion in the diet, while other nutrients are negligible.
Symptoms of Malnutrition:
- Worry, tension and upsetting
- Bad cold and cough
- Inertness or laziness
- Muscular problems
- Weak teeth and pain in gums
- Mental disorder
- Fear and suspicion
- Lack of vision
- Loss of weight
- Loss of appetite
- Pale skin
Causes of Malnutrition:
- Absence of healthy atmosphere.
- Failure to participate in games, and recreational activities.
- Over- work and loss of sleep and rest.
- Absence of adequate proportion such of nutrients in the food.
- Poverty, unemployment, ignorance and unhealthy environment.
- Irregularity in taking food.
- Consumption of intoxicants such as wine, cigarettes, drugs, etc.
- Insufficient amount of fruits, vegetables, milk, curd, ghee, etc. in the food due to large family.
- Lack of regularity and punctuality in daily activities.
- Deteriorating financial condition of the family.
Deficiency of Proteins: Proteins are essential for body growth and development. Their deficiency in human food causes retardation of physical and mental growth. Bones become feeble. After weaning mother’s milk protein is discontinued for a long period, child becomes the victim of Kwarshiorkar.
Symptoms of deficiency of proteins in children:
- Body growth is retarded the child becomes short tempered.
- Muscular growth slows down.
- Teeth become weak and starts decaying.
- Body suffers from anaemia.
- There is stunted growth and muscle wastage.
Symptoms of deficiency of Proteins in Adults:
- Loss of body weight.
- Reduction in body immunity.
- Lack of blood i.e anaemia.
- Difficult for bones to join properly, in case of injuries.
Salt/Minerals Deficiency Diseases:
- Anaemia: It is caused due to lack of iron and vitamin B-12. Its symptoms are weakness, fatiguing tendency, restlessness, pale eyes and face, white nails, fast respiration and fast heartbeat.
- Goitre: It is caused due to insufficient iodine. Its symptoms are enlargement of thyroid gland, swelling of neck, mental imbalance, difficulty in breathing, weak mind, slow physical growth, etc.
Vitamin ‘A’ Deficiency Diseases:
- Night Blindness, i.e. blurred vision in dimlight.
- Toad Skin-Rough and dry skin. Patches appear on the skin. Skin of the face too becomes dry and rough and pimples or black heads are formed on the face.
- Dry conjunctives: Tear glands become weak and eyes balls swellup.
Vitamin “B” Deficiency Diseases:
- Beri-Beri: Pain in legs, wastage of muscles, weakness of heart, slow heart beat, short- cognizance, due to effect on nerves are some of the symptoms.
- Pellagra: It is caused due to deficiency of nicotinic acid, B,, B2, Be and proteins. It causes stomach ache.
- Ulceration on Tongue: It is caused due to the deficiency of riboflavin, colour of the tongue becomes violet red and sores appear on the tongue.
Vitamin ‘C’ Deficiency Diseases:
Scurvy: The gums become spongy and swollen and bleed easily. As a result, the teeth fall faster. Hands, feet and joints pain. Joints become tender and swollen. The victim loses interest in doing any work. Small children should be given fruit juices. The adults should take spinach, leafy vegetables, juicy fruits, tomato, lemon, amla etc.
- For strong teeth and bones. Deficiency diseases is Rickets.
- Rickets: This disease is commonly found among the children upto the age of five years. It is caused due to lack of intake of milk, food rich in fats, lack of pure air, sun light and malnutrition. The patient becomes short tempered and hunchbacked. His head bone is deformed.
- Sources: Sun rays, egg yolk, fish oil, oils, groundnut, sesame, etc.
- For reproductive organs, growth and body weight.
- Deficiency disease: Sterility.
- Sources: leafy vegetables, carrot, meat, spinach, milk, groundnut, egg etc.
- For blood coagulation, expectant women and mothers.
- Deficiency disease : Haemmorhage, due to abnormal flow of blood and blood clotting. Sources: Cauliflower, potato, tomato, wheat, carrot, milk, spinach, leafy vegetables.
Disease is a condition in which body gets damaged, due to micro- organism or by some other reason. It can occur in any part of the body. According to spontaneous theory, it has been believed that diseases are caused due to ill will of god and due to diseases, the tissues of the body change into micro-organisms.
Causes of Diseases:
- Infection by micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and worms cause communicable diseases.
- Malfunctioning of body organ- Non-communicable diseases like diabetes and heart diseases are caused by the malfunctioning of pancreas and heart, respectively.
- Deficiency of one or more nutrients: Marasmus and Kwashiorkor are such diseases.
- Genetic factors present from the birth of the individual, e.g., haemophilia is a genet disease.
- Polluted environment like air and water. All diseases have immediate causes and contributory causes. Most diseases have many causes rather than one single cause.Diseases can be classified into two groups: • Congenital diseases • Acquired diseases.
- Congenital diseases: These disease are present in the individual, since birth. They are caused by genetic abnormality or by malfunctioning of agents of the body.
Example: diabetes and haemophilia.
- Acquired diseases: These diseases develop after birth and can be classified in two types:Communicable diseases and non communicable diseases.
Communicable and Non communicable diseases:
Communicable diseases. These diseases are caused by various agents, like bacteria etc. These diseases spread from one person to another by mosquitoes, house flies, contaminated food and water.
Disease caused by virus are:
- Polio: It is caused by entero virus. It damages the motor neurons. A vaccine, OPV is given to children.
- Measles: It is caused by Paramixo virus. It affects the buccal and respiratory passage.
- Chicken Pox: It is caused by Herpes virus. In this diseases, dew drop like rashes develops on the body.
- Rabies: It is caused by Rhabdo virus, and spread by the bite of a rabid dog.
Disease caused by bacteria are:
- Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It produces a toxin, called tuberculin, discovered by Von Pirquet (1907). TB was discovered by Robert Koch in 1882.
- Cholera is a diarrhoeal disease, caused by Vibrio cholerae. Dehydration of body occurs. It multiplies in human intestine and produces exo-or enterotoxin which produce diarrhoea.
- ORS is oral rehydration fluid, for children.
- DTS is diarrhoea treatment solution, for adults.
- RW is Rideal water, used for disinfection of cholera patient clothes, stools and vomit.
- Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi. AKD is antityphoid vaccine, while TAB is an antityphoid and paratyphoid vaccine.
- Leprosy: It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It is a chronic infection of the skin. It include ulcers, nodules, scaly scabs, deformities of fingers and toes. Sulphur drugs like diaminodiphenyl sulphone is very effective in this disease.
- Tetanus: It is caused by bacterium, Clostridium tetani. Bacteria enters through wounds and injuries. Tetanus involve stiffness of neck and rigidness of jaw muscles. The body becomes arched like. Use the A.T.S injection within 24 hours of injury.
Diseases caused by Protozoans are:
- Amoebiasis: It is caused by an microscopic protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. Flies are the carriers of Entamoeba. The main symptoms are diarrhoea, blood and mucous in the stool. Patient also feels abdominal pain. Eatables should be covered to prevent contamination of food by vectors. Metronidiasole is useful and effective medicine for this disease.
- Malaria: It is caused by a parasitic protozoan, plasmodium. It is transmitted in man by the bite of infected female anopheles mosquito. These parasite enters the red blood corpuscles and damage them. Red blood corpuscles release toxin into the blood, which causes fever, proceeded by chill. The patient has high fever and headache. Various drugs such as Primaquine, Pleudrin, Chloroquine, etc. should be used and taken, according to the advice of doctor.
The non-infecious diseases are restricted only to those persons, who are suffering from them. These cannot spread from infected person to healthy person.
Non-infectious diseases may be caused from:
- Lack of certain essential substances in our diet, e.g., proteins, vitamins, minerals.
- General wearing out or degeneration of tissues, as in old age.
- Uncontrolled growth of tissues, in any part of body.
- Defects in metabolic system.
- Injury or damage to any part of the body, by accidents.
Obesity is the cause of Diabetes. A diabetic patient urinates very frequently and his body cells loose the capacity to absorb carbohydrates. Insulin is given to the patient for treatment.
Cancer is one of the most serious and fatal disease. Cancer is caused by uncontrolled growth and division of certain body cells, resulting in the formation of malignant tumour. It is suggested that every living organism has some inactive cancer causing genes called proto¬oncogenes. A number of physical, chemical or biological agents activate proto-oncogenes, into active, cancer causing oncogenes. If detected early, it can be treated by surgical removal of tumou/or radio therapy.
The life history of Patanjali is full of legends and contradictions. There are no records regarding his birth. As per one legend, he fell into the hands of a woman, thus giving him the name Pathanjali. Yoga Sutras are considered to serve as the basis of the Yogic techniques. Maharishi Patanjali, the father of Yoga compiled 195 sutras, which serve as a framework for integrating yoga into the daily routine and leading an ethical life. The core of Patanjali teaching lies in the eight fold path of yoga. The path shows the way to live a better life through yoga.
- The origin of yoga is very old and it is endowed with rich traditional values. We do not know about the exact origin of yoga, but about 300 A.D, sage Patanjali wrote the traditional text, on yoga, which is popularly, known as Patanjali yog shastra.
- The main theme of yoga shastra is based on achieving Atma Sakshatkara (self realisation) and attaining control over the mind. Yoga requires mental equilibrium. Term, Yoga is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Yuj’ Which means union or to join. In other words, yoga means unification of ‘Atma’ with ‘Parmatama’. Yoga stresses on the concepts which promote physical, mental, moral and spiritual values.
“Checking the impulses of mind is yoga”.
Sage Patanjali, the founder of Hatha, yoga darshana has described the eight fold.
Effects of Yoga on Health Path of Yoga:
- Yama: It symbolises self discipline. There are five Yama, i.e., non-violence, Satya, Astay, Brahmacharya and Aprigrah.
- Niyama: There are five rules:
- Purity of mind and body,
- Devotion or complete
- surrender to God (v) Rigorous penance.
- Asana (Yogic postures)
- Pranayama (regulated breath)
- Pratyahara (sense detachment)
- Dharama (Inner abstraction)
- Dhayana (meditation)
- Samadhi (State of bliss)
- All these elements of eight fold path are the universal commandants for all human beings. Infact yoga is not only the physical concept, but more than that, it controls the mind, body and the entire human actions and reactions.
Life History of Nagarjuna:
Nagarjuna was an Indian metallurgist and alchemist born at Fort Daihak, near Somnath in Gujarat, near about 7th or 8th century. He wrote the treatises, Rasoratnakara, Rashrudaya and Rasendramangal, that deals in preparation, of mercury compounds. It gives a survey of the status of metallurgy and alchemy in the land. Extraction of metals, such as silver, gold, tin and copper from their ores and their purification were also mentioned.
He also wrote Uttaratantra as a supplement to Sustrutasamhita, dealing with preparation of medicinal drugs and an ayurvedic treatise, arogyamaniari. His other treatise are Kakshaputatantra, Yogasara and Yogasatak. Because of his profound scholar lines and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda.