Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 2 Main Philosophies of the World
- It is the main philosophy among ancient philosophies of India. This philosophy is found in Vedic literature. Parts of Vedic literature are: Veda, Brahaman, Sanhita, Arnyak, Upnishada (Vedanta) and Vedang and combinedly they are called Vedic literature. Vedas are the oldest scriptures of the world.
- They are four vedas
(a) Rig Veda
(b) Yajur Veda
(c) Sam Veda
(d) Atharva Veda.
Among them, Rig Veda is the most ancient and first scripture of the world.
- It consists of Dharmpurak Suktas. It also has Darsanik Suktas related to development of religious thoughts and the world. Suktas related to Dev Stuti are also mentioned in it. Yajur Veda and Sam Veda consist of Suktas related to Karmkanda.
- In early Vedic period, the ways of worship (upasana) were simple. In Sam Veda, there is a collection of Mantras in form of Yajnas (Yagyas). In Atharva Veda, there is a collection of abhicharparak mantras.
- In Brahaman scripts those Anushtans described vividly in which vedic mantras are used. Beside Anushthan meaning of Ved mantras and their Bhava, and Viniyog method everything is described.
- Vedic saints thought over spiritual, philosophical and parlokik subjects. “What is Soul? How world originated? The world is made up of which elements? Who is the creator, preserver and destroyer of the world ? What is the form of Chetan (Brahm).” Answers of such questions are given in Vedic literature.
- Number of Brahmin scriptures and Arnyaks is many. Hence, Vedic literature is mainly Dharmik Sahitya, which represents the Darshnik Chintan.
- In Vedic period, people worshipped many natural forces. Among them Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, Yama are main. To please them anushthans were done. The creator, preserver and destroyer is one God (Ishwar). Multi-gods and goddesses described in Vedas are living forms of natural forces. .
- Some gods in Vedas are considered as feelings (Bhavas). Feeling of Shraddha (devotion), Krodha (anger), in man are considered as god and goddesses in Vedas. The basis of Vedic philosophy was no form of gods and goddesses (Nirakar) as these were natural forces.
- The first mandat of the Rig Veda says that (Ishwar or ultimate truth) is one but intellectuals call it with different names.
- According to Upnishadas, the all pervasive Brahma in the world and the soul in man are one and the same. The objective of man is to feel this Ekatma. Due to feeling of this Ekatma, a person gets permanent bliss or happiness (Sachidananda). This philosophy has given the message of tolerance (Sahishnuta) to all mankind. System of four Purusharthas is given in Vedic philosophy to elevate man’s spritual and physical life.
- They are (i) Dharma (ii) Artha (iii) Kama (iv) Moksha.
- Dharma: Fulfillment of duty and good behaviour.
- Artha: Achieving material prosperity.
- Kama: Achievement of physical pleasure.
- Moksha: To achieve salvation or Mukti by following the path of Karma (deeds), Gyana (knowledge), Bhakti (devotion). The development of man and society is possible by appropriate co-ordination of four Purusharthas.
- According to Vedic philosophy, rebirth occurs on the basis of Karma (deeds). Hence by doing good deeds man can make his life best.
- In Vedic Darshan, Vasudhev Kutumbkam is illustrated, and by this a man make free himself from the chains of narrowness and consider whole earth as his family.
- In Vedic philosophy, inspiration is given to keep the elements of nature like Agni (fire), Jal (water), Prithvi (earth), Vayu (air), Aakash (sky) pure through Stuti and Yajanas (Yagyas).
- In Upanishads thought of balanced or disciplined consumption is illustrated. By following this, a person follow his duties keeping him away from greed and attachment. Service of others is Dharma and giving others grief is sin is said in Vedic Darshan. In this way, Vedic philosophy gives inspiration of love, brotherhood, good behavior, co-operation and co-ordination to whole world.
- The Jain thought emerged as a way of reformation in the background of complexity of yagyas and elaborate rituals. It was a contemporary movement to Vedic thought.
- The Jain philosophy is very old. There were 23rd Tirthankaras born before Mahavir. Rishabh Dev or Adinath was the first, Parshavnath, the 23rd and Mahavir Swami the 24th.
- Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara was the most renowned thinker of Jainism.
- The teachings of Jain Tirthankaras are complied in the twelve Angas.
- The word ‘Jain’ is originate from Jin, the literal meaning of this word is winner.
- The ultimate motive of this religion is to achieve Moksha. To achieve moksha, three measures were given by Mahavir Swami which later called as Tri-Ratna.
- Another great man took birth in East India in 6th century BC. He also opposed orthodox rituals, social evils of that era and showed the right way to Indian people. He was Mahatma Buddha.
- Mahatma Buddha’s teachings are complied in three Pitakas known as ‘Tripitaka’s’.
- Buddha gave the message of non-violence and love for all the creatures. He believed that the results of our Karmas (actions) whether good or bad affect us both in this life and the next.
- Like Mahavir, Buddha was also a teacher of humanity. Through his teachings, he explained how to become free from pains of human life.
- Islam believes in one God or Ekeshwarvad.
- Hazrat Mohammad was the founder of Islam.
- He said, “Allah (God) only deserves to be worshiped.” There are five main teachings of Islam
- Mool Mantra (Kalma),
- Roja (Vrat),
- Jakat (Charity),
- Christianity emerged in West Asia around 2000 years ago.
- Founder of Christianity was Jesus Christ.
- The teaching and philosophy of Jesus Christ are contained in Bible, the holy book of Christians. Later Christianity divided into two sects:
- Catholics: Followers of the old principles of Bible.
- Protestants: Those who favored reforms. They opposed political rights of Pope, demoralized fathers and sale of forgive letters. Later a reform movement was run by the protestants, which resulted in a ban on sale of forgive letters. In this way kindness, service, good character and tolerance -are main elements of Christian philosophy.
- Parsi religion took birth in Pharas (Iran). There religion of the people was based on worship of nature. Their main gods were Surya (Sun), Prithvi (earth), Chandrama (moon), etc. But Surya was considered the most supreme god among them.
- Nature-based Dharma of Pharas (Iran) later accepted in form of Dharm Shravon.
- Zoroaster was a renowned prophet of Iran. He founded this religion. He was born in Aza Baijan, a province of west Iran. His father’s name was Pomshashpa and mother’s name was Durodha. He got enlightment in the age of 30 at Sablan mountain. Most of the intellectuals believed the era of Zoroaster to be 600 BC.
- His teachings are comprised in Zend Avesta.
Here we can say that different religions took birth in different parts of the world. All religions inspire people to save from sin and follow the path of truth. They tried to tie different societies in one thread of unity.
- 600 BC : The period of Zoroaster, the founder of Parsi religion
- 599 BC : Mahavir Swami was born.
- 563 BC : Mahatma Buddha was born.
- 527 BC : Salvation of Mahavir Swami.
- 483 BC : Buddha passed away.
- 570 CE : Hazrat Mohammad, the founder of Islam was born.
- 622 CE : Beginning of Hazira, a Samvat (calender) is Ismal.
- 632 CE : Hazrat Mohammad passed away; their caliphs set up a vast empire.
Words That Matter
- Vedas: Originated from the world ‘vid’ which means ‘knowledge. Vedas are the oldest texts composed in India.
- Rig Veda: The oldest of all the four vedas which was composed about 3500 years ago.
- Upanishads: Upa mean near, ni mean down and shad means to sit, that is, sitting near down. Group of students, in the quiet of the forests, sat near the teacher to learn from him.
- Philosophy: The ideology which is formed during the rise of a religion in course of time.