Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Notes Chapter 8 Political Development in India
- We have taken birth in such a nation where knowledge, its collection has been progressed from the very beginning.
- Truth, justice, charity and world welfare are the main basis of the nation. Peal of human civilization is an example of courage and human knowledge, administration and well managed society.
- Evidences are found regarding this in Vedic literature and period of Mahajanapadas. .
- Principles of political system and art of administration are given in Manusmriti of Manu, Shukraniti, the son of Shukra, economics (Arthashastra) of Kautilya, the concept of Ashvamedha Yajna of Chakarvarti Samrat throw light on ancient India. Hence, India is not only an organized unit in the field of philosophy but politically also from ancient times.
- According to our ancient saints, India is a nation which is located between South of Himalaya and North of Oceans though means of transport and communication were not available but still India had relations North to South widely.
- Concept of Bharatiyata is a historical truth. India is not only a group of vast population but there is collective feeling present in them.
- Though history says many dynasties ruled over India and they struggled with each other but a feeling of nationalism was always present in them.
- In the period of colonialism National movement against British gave India a political recognition.
- From ancient to present day in India political development and unification is a result of continuous process. On the eve of Independence, India was faced by such a problem related to political land, which perhaps no nation of the world had faced in history.
- During British rule India was divided into two parts: 1. British India 2. Princely states.
- British India: On some parts British had their direct rule. The responsibility of ruling here was of Governor and his other subordinates. On the other hand, the other parts of India were called Princely States.
- Princely States: Though on these states kings had their rule but in reality they had accepted the right of rule of British by different alliances. When in 1947 British left India there were more than 500 small and large states, Rajwadas, Thikanas and Princely states. 40% of total land area of the country was under these princely states where 1/3 of the total population resided. The size, condition, political power and aspirations of these states were different. On one side there were large states like Hyderabad and Kashmir which were equal to any country of Europe in size. On the other hand, small Jagirs were there, which had hardly dozen of villages in number.
- There were some states which had confronted the attacks of invaders from 11th to 16th century bravely, while some were related to these invaders. East India Company which came to India as a trading company and got foothold in whole India was supported by many princely states, while others had lost their existence in stopping the establishment of this new empire. There was a Political Department to look after the rule in princely states which was based on alliances held between company and the state rulers. This department was under the council of Viceroy. In 1946, when an Interim Government was organized in India, the administration of political department was given to Home ministry. It was under Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Hence, issue of princely states came under him.
- Lord Mountbatten, the then Governor General, wanted to solve the problem of princely states before Independence. Hence, he established a state department before 15 August 1947,4on 27th June 1947 and handed over power to Sardar Patel, Home Minister of the Interim government. On the other hand by the Act of Independence 1947, British government declared that with the Independence of India the rule of British Government would be ended over princely states too. These states would be free to merge either with India or newly formed Pakistan.
- Therefore, the task of merging these states into India and its unification was difficult and challenging. It was completed by Sardar Patel, who appointed V.P. Menon as his secretary. Both of them prepared a ‘merging document’ to merge princely states with India before 15th August 1947. They got it signed from the kings and completed the process of merger.
Merger of Junagarh in India
Those states which did not merge in India till 15 August 1947, among them Junagarh was also included. At the time of Independence, the Nawab of Junagarh was Mohbat Khan, while larger percentage was of non-Muslim in the population. Shah Nawaz Bhutto became the Diwan of Junagarh in 1947, who was the leader of Muslim League and relative of Mohammad Ali Jinnah. On the consent of Diwan, Nawab declared to merge his state in Pakistan. On 13 September Pakistan accepted the merger of Junagarh in it. In fact Pakistan wanted to use Junagarh’s merger with Pakistan against the issue of Jammu-Kashmir. This event made Patel aggressive.
He sent a regiment of army to merge two states with India. On the other hand a large movement started against Nawab in Junagarh. By this time Nawab fled away to Pakistan. After some time Shah Nawaz, Diwan of Junagarh was compelled to handover the administration of Junagarh to India. In February, 1948, a referendum was made, which was largely in India’s favour. It resulted in the merger of Junagarh in India.
Merger of Goa and Pondichery in India
The main policy of Independence was the opposition to imperialism and communism. British left India but Goa was still under the control of Portugal while in Pondicherry (present Puducherry) France had their control. Just after the Independence of India, people of these states demanded for their freedom and merger in hdia. They started movement for it. In 1954 the environment in Pondicherry became very tensed.
People started demonstrating in front of Embassy of France in Madras (Chennai) every day. In September 1954, France handed over Pondicherry to India which was welcomed by people with a great enthusiasm. In 1955, first time the tableaux of Pondicherry was shown on Rajpath on the Republic Day. In this way, merger of Pondicherry in India was done peacefully.
Unification of Rajasthan
Rajasthan has its own historical importance. Many rulers of here worked for keeping its glorified culture and traditions eternal. At the time of independence except Ajmer-Marwar whole of Rajasthan was divided into princely states. Rajasthan’s main states Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner, etc. had boundries with newly established Pakistan, and rulers of these states were given many offers so they may merge with Pakistan.
Hence, merger of these states was very sensitive issue which was done by the Iron man Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel skillfully. To bring present form of Rajasthan its unification took 8 years 7 months.
The unification of Rajasthan was completed in seven steps – 1. Matsya Sangh, 2. East Rajasthan, 3. United Rajasthan, 4. Greater Rajasthan, 5. United Greater Rajasthan, 6. Rajasthan Union, 7. Formation of Present Rajasthan.
Reorganization of States
Just after Independence, the demand of reorganization of states took birth in the form of a main movement, specially organization of states on linguistic basis. In fact long before independence in 1917 Congress Party had accepted that after getting independence she would support the formation of states on the linguistic basis.
But after Independence Nehru and other leaders were not in its favour. Hence, formation of Karnataka for Kannad-speaking people, united Maharashtra for Marathi-speaking, Punjab for Punjabi-speaking were raised as a demand, but a fierce movement was started in Andhra region by the Telugu-speaking people.
Telugus were demanding an Independent State as Andhra Pradesh by separating from Madras. P. Sriramulu went fast unto death for this demand in October 1952. After hunger strike of 58 days, he died. By hearing this the whole region of Andhra went into violence. Two days after his death, the government declared to form Andhra Pradesh. In October 1953. Andhra Pradesh was formed. In this way Andhra was the first state formed on linguistic basis.
After this demand of the formation of states became strong. Hence, Indian Government, formed a State Reorganization Commission in 1953. Justice Fazal Ali was made president of this Commission. K.M. Pannikar and Kunjaru were made members of it. In 1955 the Organization presented its report. On the basis of this report, the Indian Parliament passed State
Reorganization Act in 1956. Fourteen States and six union territories were arranged, but demand for the formation state was continued in different parts of the nation in form of movements.
The greatest movement was held in Maharashtra. In 1987 Arunachal Pradesh and Goa were given the status of full state from union territories. Before in 1972 Meghalaya was made a separate state. Manipur, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh also became separate states.
Demand of separate state of Punjab was continued for a long period. Hence, through reorganization of Punjab, Haryana state was formed. Chandigarh was made an union territory and common capital for both Punjab and Haryana. Hilly region of Himachal Pradesh was made union territory which was given status of separate state in 1971 till 1975. Sikkim demanded the merger of it in India which resulted into the formation of new state in 1975 by 36th constitutional amendement. In 2000 Chhattisgarh from MP, Uttarakhand from Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand from Bihar were created.
Formation of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh was demanded from a long period. This movement converted into violence. Hence, in 2014 Telangana was carved out of Andhra Pradesh. Therefore, we have 29 states and 7 union territories at present.
- 1932 : Muslim Conference was held in Jammu & Kashmir.
- 1946 : Interim Government was formed in India.
- June 27, 1949 : Under the guidance of Sardar Patel, interim government of India formed Princely States.
- Aug., 15, 1947 : India got freedom.
- Sep. 1948 : Jammu and Kashmir was merged in India
- 1951 : Elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir
- 1953 : The states Reorganisation Commission was set up; formation of Andhra Pradesh
- 1954 : Pondicherry was merged in India.
- 1956 : The States Reorganisation Act was passed
- 1 May, 1960 : Formation of Maharashtra and Gujarat
- 19 Dec., 1961 : Goa, Daman and Diu became union territories
- 1 Dec., 1963 : Formation of Nagaland.
- 1966 : The Mizo National Front began an armed campaign for Independence; Statehood for Punjab came, where the territories of today’s Haryana and Himachal Pradesh were separated from the larger Punjab state
- 25 Jan. 1971 : Formation of Himachal Pradesh.
- 1972 : Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura became separate states
- 1974 : Sheikh Abdullah became the Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.
- April 1975 : Sikkim assembly passed a resolution asking for full integration with India.
- 1987 : The states of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh came into existence.
- 2000 : Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were formed.
- 2 June 2014 : A new state of Telangana carved out of Andhra Pradesh
Mahajanapadas: A larger form of janapada. Janapadas registering a good expansion and grew into mahajanapadas.
Ashvamedha Yajna: Horse sacrifice.
Nation: It means the people who are tied together in a thread of national unity.
Manu Smriti: The first text on the social set up of ancient India, written by Manu.
British Indian Provinces: The Indian provinces which were directly under the British government before independence.
Princely States: States ruled by Princes who enjoyed some form of control over their states internal affairs under the British supremacy.
Razakars: A para-military force of Nizam was sent to respond to people’s movement which had no bounds.
State Reorganisation Commission: It was set up to look into the matter to redraw the boundaries of states.
Linguistic: Related to language.
Seven Sisters: Seven states of North-East region to be referred as Seven Sisters.