Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Indian Economy at the time of Independence
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Text book Questions
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Objective Type Questions
Indian Economy before British era was
The main source of livelihood before independence was
(c) Cottage industry
(d) Service sector
In which century was India considered to be the richest country?
At the time of independence, most land ownership was
(a) With the farmers
(b) With the Jagirdars
(c) With the labourers
(d) All these
(b) With the Jagirdars
The task of laying railway lines in India in 1853 began in
(a) British colonial era
(b) Mughal era
(c) Under the rule of kings
(d) After independence
(a) British colonial era
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What was the condition of farmers before independence?
Zamindars molested the farmers badly. Due to this situation, farmers became their slaves and their condition became miserable.
Of which commodity did India became an exporter during British rule?
During British rule, India became an exporter of cotton, silk cloth, rice, jute, sugar, spices etc.
Where were cotton textile mills established in 19th century?
In Maharashtra and Gujarat.
What was the number of banks under joint capital in India by 1870?
When was the first census in India held during the British rule?
The first census in India was held during the British rule in the year 1881.
Which land ownership systems existed in India at the time of Independence?
There were three land-holding systems which existed at the time of independence:
- Zamindari System, also known as Permanent System.
- Ryotwari System.
- Mahalwari System.
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Short Answer Type Questions
Clarify India’s industrial status at the time of Independence.
The British imposed “free trade policy” in India forcibly while imposing a protectionist policy in England. There was a dual objective behind de-centralization of India. One, they wanted India to become a supplier of raw materials for modem industries developing in England, and two, they wanted India to become an extensive market for their finished products. Capital formation was very low due to low levels of income and saving. Due to low levels of saving and capital formation, productivity was also very low, and thereby, low .level of income.
Express your ideas about the basic economic infrastructure in India at the time of independence.
During the British rule, basic infrastructure like railways, ports, water transport, posts and telegraph were developed. However, this development was to serve various colonial self-interests and not to improve the basic living of Indians. Two important contributions were the starting of Railways in 1850 and The Reserve Bank of India on April 1, 1935 under the RBI Act of 1934.
Explain the status of export- import during the British rule.
India exported cotton and silk textiles, rice, jute, sugar, spices etc. and received gold in return whose profit was earned by the Britishers and they made India the exporter of raw materials, and products made from these raw materials were sold in England at a higher price. India was made the importer of the goods, by which industries started declining gradually.
Clarify the status of basic social infrastructure in India at the time of independence.
Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services. For example – healthcare (hospitals), education (schools and universities), public facilities (community housing and prisons) and transportation (railways and roads). The first census in India was done in 1881, according to which India’s population was 25.4 crore. Therefore, the size of population of India was limited and its growth rate was low.
The literacy rate was also less than 16 per cent. Before 1921, India was in the first stage of demographic transition in which the birth rate and death rate both were high, and after 1921, India entered the second stage (death rate decreases and birth rate remains high). At that time, there was extreme lack of health care services, so people used to be affered by infections diseases. Life expectancy rate level was 32 years only. The problems of poverty and unemployment were acute, and the Britishers did not take steps for the resolution of these problems.
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the status of agricultural sector in India before the British era.
Before the British era, 85 per cent of the population was dependent upon agriculture only. There were three classes in village- farmers, artisans and servants. Among these, the status of farmers was the highest. Farmers used to allot their portion of work to other people and gave them wheat in return. India exported cotton and silk textiles, rice, jute, sugar, spices etc. and received gold in return. Before British era, every Indian village was prosperous and self-reliant in political, social and economic aspect. Agriculture was the main source for income for the government and livelihood of the people.
Indian agriculture was sufficiently developed and farmers were mostly skilled in agricultural activities and productivity of land was high, and the land produced gold in the form of food grains. That is why the Indian Economy was called “The Golden Bird” and this was the reason that foreign traders kept coming to India for trade. British East India Company also came for trading but soon formed India its colony by interfering politically. The Britishers’ main objective was to make India an exporter of raw materials for the rapidly growing industries of England. As a result, the economy of India declined rapidly.
Clarify the status of basic economic infrastructure in India before the British era.
A country’s physical resources, irrigation, transportation, energy, communication, banking, technological know-how, etc. are included in the basic economic infrastructure.
The structure of basic infrastructure of India before the British Era can be clarified through the following points :
- The Indian industries were already established before the British rule. Industrial efficiency, technical knowledge, and engineering skills were clearly visible even before the British ruled in India. India had become globally famous as a center for cotton and silk textiles, metal, based and gemstone related handicrafts. Indian products had become prestigious commodities in the global market. India obtained gold, silver and precious stones in exchange of exporting these products. India was considered the richest country in the world in the 17th century.
- Before British era, animals were used as a means of transport, but t he roads at that time were not in a good position like today. Roads in the rural regions were not reasonably developed and the life of the villagers became extremely difficult during the rainy season.
- In British era, the banking sector did not contribute substantially to economic development. Due to the lack of development of banking system, Indian industrialists could not receive the required financial facilities.
- Before British era, due to the independent economy of India, villages were economically independent and self dependent. There were three classes in the village- farmers, artisans and servants. Among these, the status of farmers was the highest. Farmers used to allot their portion of work to other people and gave them wheat in return. The servants were asked to collect lagaan (land tax) and give it to the government.
- Indian agriculture was sufficiently developed and farmers were mostly skilled in agricultural activities before the British Era. India exported cotton and silk textiles, rice, jute, sugar, spices etc. and received gold in return.
Describe in ‘detail the British policy related to the development of agricultural and industrial system during the British era.
Agricultural system during British Era :
Indian agriculture remained completely traditional and primitive during the British rule. Agricultural technology followed during those days was simple and no transformation was made in it. Oxens were used as the means of transportation and wooden ploughs were used as the major tool. No commercialization had taken place during this time. This had resulted the problem of uneconomic holdings and unproductive agriculture in the country. Thus, agriculture remained merely a means of subsistence for most of the farmers. In the second half of 19th century, famines deteriorated the condition of agriculture further.
The British ruled over India for 200 years but took no sufficient steps to develop irrigation facilities. However, some canals were built in the 20th century. Although, this provided some benefit to agriculture, but no significant change took place in agriculture. On the contrary, due to elimination of agriculture-based industries, the condition of Indian farmers became more miserable and the Indian economy came under the grip of poverty and unemployment.
Industrial system during the British era :
Before the Britishers ruled over India, Indian economy was at its peak. It was the centre point for every business activity. Indian spices, handicraft items, clothes etc. had made their identity in the entire world. But when the Britishers started ruling upon India, the handicraft industry of India started declining due to their exploitative and oppressive policies, because clothes and other items made in England were started to be sold in the Indian markets. The consequence o ‘this was that the cotton textile industry of India declined in a big way due to which all the weavers deployed in the industry became unemployed.
Along with this, the occupation of melting iron also faced slump and the problem of unemployment emerged in both metal industry as well as cotton textile industry. Due to unemployment, people left the towns and migrated to the villages. After many years, in the 10th century, cotton textile and jute industries developed, but the process of industrialisation could not take place in a significant way along with this. Even after India gained independence in 1947, the economy of the country remained agrarian.
Describe the main characteristics of Indian economy at the time of independence.
Features of Indian economy at the time of independence :
Due to British economic policies, at the time of independence, Indian economy was stagnant, semi-feudal, backward, and agriculture based. Therefore, the main characteristics of Indian economy at the time of independence were the following :
- Underdeveloped Economy :
At the time of independence, Indian economy was
underdeveloped. Percapita income and status of industrial development was low. Dependence on agriculture was more and basic infrastructure was backward. Dependence on import was greater and social challenges like poverty, unemployment and illiteracy rate existed in India. .
- Stagnant Economy :
At the time of independence, the speed of development on Indian economy was obstructed, agricultural production and productivity was less, development rate was low, tendency of exploitation was high and Indian industries had declined. Technical development had become inert.
- Semi-feudal Economy :
The British government encouraged Zamindari System, Mahalwari
Settlement and Jagirdari Settlement, etc. for the ownership of land and adopted a capitalized system in the economy. As a result of this, intermediaries were created and these intermediaries exploited the farmers and transformed the skilled Indian workers and farmers into merely salaried labours and servants.
- Backward Economy :
As a result of excessive exploitation of resources in the British rule, the production capacity declined. Modem industries lagged behind, and social and economic infrastructure declined.
- Effect of Partition :
The country was divided into India and Pakistan on 15th August 1947. As a result of it, India received 77 per cent land and 82 per cent population. The partition did not favour India from the point of view of agriculture, but it was favorable from industrial point of view.. However, the fertile area which produced industrial raw material went in the hands of Pakistan.
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Objective Type Questions
Which was regarded as the richest country in the 17th century?
The classes in villages population were
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
The growth rate of income of India before the 20th century was
(a) 2 per cent
(b) More than 2 per cent
(c) Less than 2 per cent
(d) None of these
(c) Less than 2 per cent
When was Zamindari system born?
(a) During British Period
(b) During Mughal period
(c) In ancien t India
(d) None of these
(a) During British Period
When was TISCO established?
(a) In 1907
(b) In 1807
(c) In 1970
(d) In 1820
(a) In 1907
How much contribution from lagaan (land revenue) was required to be given to the government through servants by the collection from Zamindars under the Zamindari System?
When were the Railways started in India?
(a) In 1853
(b) In 1850
(c) In 1851
(d) None of these
(b) In 1850
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Explain the situation of Indian economy at the time of independence.
At the time of independence, the Indian economy was underdeveloped, stagnant, semi-feudal and agrarian.
India was under British rule for almost how many years?
India was under the British rule for almost 200 years.
Explain the British policy towards Indian Industries.
The British policy towards Indian Industries was not good, rather it was obstructive to hinder the development of industries.
The first census in India was done in which year?
The first governmental census was done in the year 1881.
Before 1921, India was in which stage of demographic transition?
In the first stage.
In the beginning of the 20th century, what was the rate of growth of national income in India?
In the beginning of the 20th century, the rate of growth of national income in India was even less than 2 per cent.
In which period was the Zamindari system born?
During the British period.
Before Zamindari system who ruled the land?
Who gave the ownership right of land to the Zamindars?
Governor General Cornwallis.
Who initiated the Mahalwari system?
In context to revenue, what was regarded as the unit under the Mahalwari System?
In context to revenue, the entire village was regarded as the unit under the Mahalwari System.
Who was the owner of land under the Ryotwari System?
Under the Ryotwari System, the ryot or the farmer was the owner of land.
Prepare a list of those items which were exported from India during the British rule.
Cotton and silk textiles, wool, sugar, indigo, jute, spices, other types of raw material etc.
Prepare a list of those items which were imported by India during the British rule.
Cotton clothes, silk clothes, woolen clothes, light-weight machines, and other final consumer products.
Basic infrastructure can be divided into how many parts?
Basic infrastructure can be divided into 2 parts :
- Social infrastructure
- Economic infrastructure.
What do you mean by economic infrastructure?
Economic infrastructure includes country’s physical resources, irrigation, transportation, energy, communication, banking, technological know-how etc.
What are capital industries?
Those industries that manufacture machines, tools and intermediate goods.
What is meant by social infrastructure?
This includes human resources, under which, the study of population, education, health, housing etc. is done.
What was the rate of land revenue under the Zamindari system?
The rate of land revenue under the Zamindari system varied from almost 34 per cent to 75 per cent.
When was TISCO established?
Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was established in 1907.
What was the number of banks with joint capital by the beginning of the 20th century.
The number of banks had increased from 2 to 9.
When was the RBI established?
On April 1, 1935 under the RBI Act of 1934.
What did RBI work on?
RBI worked on issuing of notes and credit control.
After how many years is the census conducted in India?
Census is conducted in India after an interval of every 10 years.
What was the literacy rate during the British rule?
The literacy rate during the British rule was 16 per cent, in which female literacy rate was only 7 per cent.
According to the census of 1881, What was India’s population?
What was the infant mortality rate during the British rule?
During the British rule, the infant mortality rate was very high at almost 218 infants per thousand.
Who was the first to perform the estimates of data of national income?
Dadabhai Naoroji was the first to perform the estimates of data of national income.
When did Dadabhai Naoroji present the national income estimates?
In the year 1876, Dadabhai Naoroji presented the national income estimates for the year 1867-68 for the British Indian economy.
How much population was dependent upon agriculture in the year 1881?
Around 61 per cent.
How much percentage of population was dependent upon agriculture in year 1951?
Around 72 per cent.
How much percentage of land and population was received by India after the India- Pakistan partition?
After the partition, India received 72 per cent land and 82 per cent population.
What was the rate of land revenue under the Zamindari System?
Around 34 to 75 per cent.
How much tax was imposed on cotton textiles?
5 per cent excise duty.
What was the life expectancy rate during the colonial period?
Who was the first to estimate the data of the national income?
State two forms of colonial exploitation in India.
- Drainage of wealth from India due to faulty trade policies.
- Indian wealth was drained out from India by the British Companies in the form of interest, dividend and profit.
The level of agricultural production during the British period was low. Throw light on this statement.
At the time of attaining independence, agricultural productivity was at a low level in India. Disinterest of the farmers in agricultural works, lack of modes of irrigation, negligence by the government and lack of latest technology were some reasons which were not allowing increase in per hectare produce.
What is meant by Zamindari Settlement or Permanent Settlement?
Under the Zamindari Settlement, the ownership of the land was not that of the workers employed on it, rather it was the Zamindar, who used to collect land revenue from the workers deployed in farming.
What is meant by Mahalwari Settlement?
Under the Mahalwari System, the unit of land revenue was not the field of the farmer, rather it was the entire village or mahal.
The work of collecting land revenue fixed for a particular village through settlement and to deposit it with the government was that of the head of the village.
Where was Mahalwari Settlement enacted?
This practice was started by William Bentinck in Agra and Awadh, and after that, it was implemented in Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. At all places, the period of settlement and the rate of land revenue was different.
What do you mean by Ryotwari Settlement?
In Ryotwari System, the ownership rights were handed over to the peasants and the role of the intermediaries (zamindars) was abolished. The settlement was also temporary in this. The rate of land revenue for the holding under the ownership of the Ryot (farmer) was also different.
What do you mean by free trade policy?
Free trade policy is a policy to eliminate discrimination against imports and exports. Buyers and sellers from different economies may voluntarily trade without a government applying tariffs, quotas, subsidies or prohibitions on goods and services.
Which crops were replaced by food crops during the British period?
Due to less production of food crops, the farmers were forced to grow cash crops during the British Period. They were used as raw material for the industries of England.
What was the effect of prohibitionary policies of commodity production, trade and customs of the British Government on the foreign trade of India?
The prohibitionary policies of commodity production, trade and customs of the British government had an adverse affect on the condition and situation of foreign trade of India, and as a result of this, India became the exporter of silk, cotton, wool, sugar, indigo, jute, etc. and the importer of goods made in England.
What was the objective of British Government behind the establishment of Railways?
The establishment of Railways was done by the British Government in 1850. The main the objective of the British Government behind starting of Railways was not the favour of India, but to make it easier to transport the raw materials from different parts of the country to England and to .sell the goods manufactured there in the Indian markets.
What were the benefits of development of Railways on the Indian Economy?
Development of railways benefitted the Indian economy in two ways :
- It made easier for the people to travel long distances.
- Encouragement of commercialization of agriculture. Although exports increased due to this commercialisation, yet the Indians did not gain any benefit out of this and in stead the country suffered economic loss.
Comment on Post and Telegraph services of British era.
Post and Telegraph services developed during the British era. The expensive telegraph service was developed whose main objective was to maintain law and order in the country. These postal services gave common people comfort, but they were not enough.
“Banking could not be flourish during British reign”. Comment.
During the British reign, till 1870, there were only 2 joint stock banks and this number increased to 9 in the 20th century, but due to the banking crisis in 1913, many banks failed. In British era, the banking sector did not contribute substantially to economic development. Due to the lack of development of banking system, Indian industrialists could not receive financial benefits, but financial assistance was provided to those industries which were under the control of the Britishers.
State the 1st and 2nd phases of Indian population during the British feign.
Before 1921, India was in the first stage of demographic transistion, and after 1921, India entered the second stage (in which death rate decreases and birth rate remains high). Life expectancy rate level was 32 years only. Therefore, it can be said that during the British period, the size of population and its growth rate was less in India.
“There was a lack of health and medical facilities during the British rule”. Comment.
The public health and medical facilities were inaccessible for the common citizens during the British rule. And the places that had these facilities did not have proper doctors to look after them and thus there were raging infectious diseases resulting in higher Gross Mortality Rate and Child Mortality Rate.
What was the condition of literacy rate and life expectancy rate during the British rule?
The literacy rate during the British rule was 16 per cent, in which female literacy was only 7 per cent and Life expectancy was 32 years only. This was due to the increased death rate. Therefore, the problem of low literacy and low life expectancy rate prevailed in India during the British rule.
What can be done to study the conditions of economic development of any country?
The study of the condition of economic.development of a country can be done on the basis of data of national income and per capita income, extent of poverty, form of poverty, actual wages, commercial distribution of population, technical reforms in agricultural activities, industrial development, etc.
Which industries were in developed state before the British rule?
Before the British rule, cutting, weaving, painting, textile, bricks, leather work, ship building, salt, sugar, paper etc. industries were in developed state.
Which industries were established during British period in the end of the 11th century?
Only few industries were established during British period in the end of the 19th century, but their development was made at a very slow pace. Initially, in India, cotton textile and jute industry was developed. The cotton industries were established in western areas in Maharasthra and Gujarat by the Indian entrepreneurs. Whereas jute industry was established by the Britishers and was limited to Bengal province only.
Which all industries developed in the 20th century?
Iron and Steel industry developed in the beginning of the 20th century. Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was established in 1907. After World War n, sugar, cement, and paper industries were established.
Mention the effects of the underdeveloped condition of Indian economy during the British period.
The Britishers ruled in India for almost 200 years. A stagnance in per capita income, increase in poverty, traditional form of agriculture, decline in the wages of labourers, decline of handicraftsmen, insufficient industrial development can be enumerated as the effects of the underdeveloped condition of Indian economy during the British rule.
The Britishers encouraged de-industrialisation in India. Justify this statement.
The Britishers did not allow the development of industrialisation in India. The Britishers had dual objective behind this policy of decentralisation. First, they wanted to make India the exporter of raw material, and second, they wanted to transform India into a market to absorb goods made in England.
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Short Answer Type Questions
Comment briefly on Indian agriculture before Independence.
Indian agriculture was under British rule before Independence. Due to the following exploitative policies of the British, Indian agriculture became backward and underdeveloped :
i. Zamindari system under British rule :
Under this land settlement system, Zamindars were recognized as owners of the lands. Zamindars were given the rights to collect the rent from the peasants. Zamindars molested the farmers badly. Due to this, farmers became their slave and their condition became miserable.
Due to these reasons, zamindar started molesting farmers. Upon resisting, they used to take away the lands of the farmers and made them landless. After that, two new systems also came in existence, i.e. Mahalwari system and Ryotwari system, due to which, the economic condition of the farmers suffered a severe setback.
ii. Inferior level of Technology :
Along with the faulty land-ownership system during the colonial rule, the level of technology employed in agriculture was also inferior and backward.
iii. Revenue System :
Also due to the conditions of the revenue system, the farmers were exploited to the maximum by the zamindars. So, on the basis of the above mentioned reasons, it can be said that till the time of attaining independence, the agricultural sector was completely backward and stagnant.
“Indian Economy was backward at the time of independence”. Comment on this statement.
Due to various exploitative policies of the Britishers, the Indian economy had severely weakened by the time of independence. The economic condition of various parts of the country was as follows:
- Condition of agriculture :
During British era, 85 per cent of the population was directly or indirectly depend upon agriculture only. But agricultural development remained stagnant, and there was no technical reform in this.
- Condition of Industrial sector :
The British imposed “free trade policy” in India forcibly, while imposing a protectionist policy in England. There was a dual objective behind de-centralization of India. One, they wanted India to become a supplier of raw materials for modem industries developing in England, and two, they wanted India to become an extensive importer for their finished products.
- Condition of Infrastructure :
The basic infrastructure is divided into 2 parts-Social infrastructure and Economic infrastructure. In both these spheres India couldn’t grow well.
Explain in detail the results of colonial exploitation in India.
Results of Colonial Exploitation in India :
- India was prevented from modernising its industrial structure. Its arts of craftsmanship were destroyed and India was transformed merely into an importer of finished goods.
- The Britishers made direct investment in capital goods industries such as tea, coffee and rubber plantations, while no concrete efforts were made for the glorious future of heavy and basic infrastructure industries.
- Even after being an agricultural country, India was made the exporter of raw materials and a region of commercial agriculture for the self interest of Great Britain.
Explain the commercial structure of Indian population at the time of independence.
According to some economists, most of the population between the year 1881- 1951 was dependant upon agricultural activities. In 1881, almost 61 per cent was dependant upon agriculture and related tasks only, while it increased to 72 per cent by 1951. Due to this reason, it can be said that during the British era, India economy was under developed. 85 per cent of the population was directly or indirectly dependant upon agriculture only that resulted in non- development of Industrial sector.
In British Era, India’s traditional handicraft Industry was destroyed. Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons in support of your answer.
We fully agree to the statement that India’s handicraft Industry was destroyed during the British era. Following are the major reasons for that :
- The economic policies made by the Britishers did not have the objective of economic development of India, instead, they were protecting and enhancing the economic interest of their native country England with the help of these policies.
- The Indian handicraft was based on old traditional techniques, which caused a huge expense on inputs.
- The goods coming from England were made by machines, therefore they were attractive, and the expenses incurred were also less.
What were the reasons behind the backwardness of agriculture in colonial period?
The reasons behind the backwardness of agriculture in the colonial period:
- Raising of excessive land revenue from both the capable and incapable farmers.
- No proper facility of irrigation.
- India was backward from both economic and social point of view.
- The land settlement system applied by the colonial government was not satisfactory.
- The level of technology was inferior.
- The usage of manures and fertilizers was not sufficient.
- The landlords of the country were loyal to the Britishers and used to take undue advantage of farmers.
- The landlords did not pay enough attention towards the development of agriculture and farmers, they only believed in raising maximum amount of land revenue.
Give a numerical picture of the demographic condition of India during the colonial era.
The first census in India was done in 1881, and since then, it is performed every 10 years in India. In 1881, India’s population was 25.4 crore. Infant mortality rate was about 218 per thousand during the colonial period and life expectancy rate was 32 years only. The literacy rate during British rule was 16 per cent, in which female literacy rate was only 7 per cent. Therefore, it can be said that the demographic condition of India was not satisfactory during the British rule.
“In British era, there was no technical improvement”. Throw light on this statement.
Indian agriculture remained completely traditional and primitive during the British rule. Oxens were used as a means of transportation and wooden ploughs were used as a major tool in agriculture. Thus, agriculture remained merely a means of subsistence for most of the farmers. At places where partial commercialisation of agriculture had taken place, there also, the rural life and economic condition of farmers did not improve and increase in famines largely affected the pace of development of agriculture. The British ruled over India for 200 years, but took no sufficient steps to develop irrigation facilities.
Explain the Industrial condition of India during the British era.
During the British rule, the extremely developed handicraft industry of India declined and clothes and other goods made in England started to be sold in Indian markets. As a result of this, the Indian textile industry started getting destroyed. Along with this, condition of unemployment emerged in iron industry and textile industry. After the 19th century, though the textile and jute industry developed, yet the process of industrialisation could not start along with this.
Mention the consequences of the decline of Indian industries.
Write the consequences of de-industrialisation in India.
Consequences of decline of Indian industries :
Significant changes took place in the direction of trade in India. India used to export finished goods to foreign countries, but in the view of the Britishers, the only country which had the capacity to fulfill the demand of raw material due to the industrial revolution of England, was India. Along with this, large markets were present in India to absorb the goods manufactured in England. Due to this, import of finished goods and export of raw material both increased.
Describe the demographical framework of India during the British period.
The demographical condition of India during the British period depicts all those characteristics which can be seen in a stagnant and backward economy. The figures of both birth rate as well as death rate were extremely high. This condition of high birth rate and death rate depicted the poverty present in almost all the parts of the country. During the British period, child Mortality Rate was 218 per 1000 infants.
- Life Expectancy :
During that period, average life expectency of an individual was 32 years.
- Literacy Rate :
The percentage of literate people was 16 only, which was an indicator of social and economic backwardness. The female literacy rate was only 7 per cent, which was an issue of serious concern.
Describe the condition of Indian infrastructure at the time of Independence.
The British rulers had developed roads, railways, airports, water transport and post-telegraph etc. resources for their selfish self-interests. Their motive of development of roads was not to provide these services to the common people, but to make it easier to spread their services within the country and to transport the goods to the nearby markets. Commercialisation of agriculture was done by the development of railways.
What do you understand by the term demographic transition?
In the history of demographic transition, the year 1921 is known as “a great segmentation year”. The first census in India was done in 1881, and since then, it is done at the gap of every 10 years in India. Before the year 1921, India was in the first stage of demographic transition, where both birth rate and death rate were high. While after 1921, it went into the second stage, where death rate decreased but the birth rate remained high. .
Explain the characteristics of Indian economy before the British period.
Agricultural Economy : Indian economy was an agricultural economy even before the British rule. Most of the population here was engaged directly or indirectly in agricultural works. Indian agricultural land used to produce gold in the form of food grains. Therefore, Indian economy was a prosperous economy with the point of view of agriculture.
Industrial Development :
Before the British period, industries had already been established in India. The Indian industrial goods were famous globally.
- Barter system was in existence in India.
- Lack of mobility existed in the factors of production.
- Animals were used as modes of transportation and power.
- Industrial knowledge, technical skills, and engineering skills were present in people.
What was Zamindari system and what were the demerits of this system?
Zamindari System :
This system emerged during the British period. Earlier, there was the ownership of the farmers upon land. With the objective of increasing the income, Governor General Cornwallis of the East India Company granted the right of ownership of agricultural land to the landlords and handed them the responsibility of collection of land revenue. In the beginning, 10/11th part of the land revenue collected by the landlords went to the government and the remaining 1/11th part was retained by them.
Demerits of the Zamindari System :
Following were its demerits :
- There was a lack of modernization in agriculture.
- No encouragement was given to the farmers to invest, due to which they continued to perform agriculture in traditional ways.
- There was a huge number of mediators.
- Zamindars raised and revenue from the farmers according to their own wish.
- Other than land revenue, farmers were forced to do forced labour without being paid, give gifts and douceur.
- Farmers who had taken loans were treated as servants.
The industrial development remained stagnant during the British period. Why?
Following were the reasons for the industrial development remaining stagnant during the British period :
- Indian artisans were destroyed.
- Indian workers were exploited and were made servants.
- Import duty was applied on Indian products, while the export of Indian goods was reduced.
- The British imposed “Free Trade Policy” in India forcibly, while imposing a protectionist policy in England, due to which India suffered a huge loss.
- The shipping industry was also neglected by the Britishers.
- Consumer goods industries were established in the country, while there was lack of capital goods industries.
How was national income calculated during the British Period?
Before independence, estimates of national income in India were not collected officially so that the Indians could not realise the stagnancy of the Indian economy, but even during the British period, several economists performed estimates of national income and per capita income. Dadabhai Naoraji was the first person to perform the estimates of national income. He presented the national income estimates of 1867-68 in the year 1876. Dr. V.K.R.V. Rao made the necessary amendments in these estimates in an effort to make them more useful for comparative analysis.
What was the nature and extent of poverty during the British period?
Nature and Extent of Poverty during the British Period :
The greatness of the nature and extent of poverty in a country depicts its underdevelopment. It can be said that the increase in poverty during the British period was a reason for economic backwardness. There was lack of estimates of poverty in the British period, but on the basis of information received from official figures, it can be said that the extent of poverty had increased during the British period. As there was lack of official data at that time, it is difficult to tell about the nature of poverty prevailing at that time. Scholars of social and economic standards, William Hunter and Sir Charles Eliot, have described poverty in their articles by which we come to know that people were victims of starvation at that time.
State the level and trends in the rate of real wages during the British reign.
In order to determine the level of economic development, it is important to know the actual level and trends in real wages. A lack of data related to this was found in the British period. Radhakamal Mukherjee collected all kinds of historical data available to him, for the United Provinces, (present Uttar Pradesh), and prepared the real wages index for the period between 1600 and 1938. It can be said on the basis of these indicators that in comparison to 1807, the wages of both skilled and non skilled workers were less in 1938. However, the condition between 1916 and 1928 was so bad that the wages of workers in these categories were less than half of that in 1807.
Explain the population distribution of India on the basis of occupation during the British period.
Observing the production-related process in an economy carefully, it is clear that the productivity of labour is higher in manufacturing and service sectors as compared to agricultural sector. Due to this, the economic development of the country can be estimated by population distribution on the basis of occupation. In India also, almost 85% people were directly or indirectly engaged in agriculture. Countries, in which agriculture is the main occupation, are considered underdeveloped. According to economists, most of the Indian population was dependant upon agriculture during 1881 to 1951.
Did Britishers do anything in favour of India? Explain.
Although the policies of Britishers were hard and ruthless, yet their positive aspects can be seen in the following points:
- The expansion of roadways and railways :
Starting of Railways was firstly done by British Government in 1850. It made it easier for them to transport the raw materials to different parts of the country. Also, it made easier for the general people to move from one part of the country to another.
- Commercialization of agriculture :
Commercialisation of agriculture is a boon provided by the Britishers only. In this era, people started growing cash crops on a large scale.
- Encouragement to foreign trade :
The Britishers encouraged trade from India in the interest of England. England enjoyed almost monopoly on the foreign trade of India. But the positive aspect of this was that its export surplus was in favour of India.
- Establishment of modern industries :
In the later half of 19th century, some modem industries were established in India. Sugar, cement, paper etc. industries were developed to encourage further industrialization in India after the Second World War.
- Administrative System :
Another important gift of the British rule was an efficient administrative system for India, due to which it holds an important position even today.
What was the condition of the foreign trade of India during the colonial period?
After colonial exploitation of the Indian economy, India became a major exporter of primary goods of raw material (such as raw silk, cotton, wool, jute, indigo, sugar, etc.) and a major importer of goods produced by British industries (such as cotton, silk and woolen clothes). Most of the capital goods produced in England were included in items of our import. This condition of exports and imports during the British rules tells the saga of the backwardness of the Indian economy.
Describe the condition of the secondary sector (industrial sector) of the Indian economy at the time of attaining independence.
At the time of attaining independence, the condition of industrial sector of the Indian economy was extremely backward. The famous handicrafts were declining. India was unable to gain a powerful industrial base. Diplomatic objectives of the Britishers were behind all this to make India only an exporter of raw material and to provide a large market to the producers of England in order to absorb the goods produced in England. Apart from this, disinvestment was made only in consumer goods industries such as cotton textile and jute. TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) was established in the form of a basic infrastructure industry in 1907.
After the Second World War, although attention was given on sugar, paper and cement industry, yet the capital goods industry was neglected. At that time, along with the low rate of development of industrial sector, the national income was also extremely low.
“Agriculture is merely a source of livelihood”. Explain.
Excessive dependence on agriculture means continuous decline in the per capita availability of land for the population engaged in agricultural work. Due to this reason, agriculture was mostly considered as merely a source of sustaining livelihood and not profitable. So, at the time of gaining independence, most of the population percentage was engaged in agricultural work, as a result of which, Indian economy was in a state of extreme backwardness, i. e. common people had to perform unflagging labour in order to earn two meals a day.
Although the Britishers initiated railways for their own favour, but did India get an advantage from that? Explain.
The starting of Railways was done by the British Government in 1850. Main objective of British government behind starting of Railways was not in favour of India, but to make it easier to transport raw materials to different parts of the country. However, this affected the Indians in some way.
Transport system helped India in the following ways :
- Firstly, it made easier for the people to move from one place of the country to another and travel long distances.
- Secondly, it provided encouragement to commercialization of agriculture. But it had a negative effect on the rural economy of India. It definitely increased the export, but the profit was never received by India and thus Indians faced a huge economic loss.
What was the center point of economic policies of the colonial rule in India? What were the effects of those policies?
The objective behind economic policy of colonial rule in India was not to develop the country, but its main objective was to make India an exporter of raw materials for the rapidly growing industries of England. As a result, India was badly exploited and the traditional industries of India were destroyed in no time, and the remaining ones also couldn’t sustain and their growth rate remained extremely low.
“There was low level of technology during the British rule”. Explain.
During the British rule, along with faulty land holding system, the technical level of agricultural sector was also weak and backward. The economic condition of the farmers was miserable. The traditional agriculture techniques were used. There was no use of high quality seeds, chemicals fertilizers, agricultural equipments, irrigation facilities and agricultural credit etc. due to which agricultural production and its level declined continuously.
Throw light on the revenue system during the British period.
Zamindars also exploited the farmers through the terms and conditions of the revenue system. The dates for depositing the fixed amount of revenue in government treasury were fixed in advance. It the Zamindars did not deposit the land revenue according to the system, then they were deprived of their rights. Thus, the zamindars made more efforts to extract maximum revenue from the farmers.
What do you understand by the term basic infrastructure?
Every resource available in the economy is included in basic infrastructure. The economic development of an economy depends upon the quantity and quality of physical and human resources of that country. The industrial infrastructure of any country must be strong, then only the economic development a country can be rapid. The infrastructure is divided into 2 parts :
- Social basic infrastructure
- Economic basic infrastructure.
In India, through the policies of development of basic infrastructure, what all objectives did the Britishers want to fulfill?
The British rulers developed roads, railways, airports, water transport and post-telegraph etc. resources. The main objective of British government behind development of these structures was not for the favour of India, but to strengthen the administrative and police system within the country and to make it easier to transport the raw materials to their country and to transport the finished goods from their country to Indian markets.
Explain the reasons for the underdevelopment, backwardness and stagnancy of the economy of India during the British period.
Following are the reasons :
- The anti-Indian economic and political policies, land settlement systems and collection of excessive land revenue during the British period.
- Among Indian industries, the handicraft industry declined.
- Faulty trade policies were implemented, for example – implementation of anti-Indian trade policy.
- Development of basic infrastructure for vested interest of the British.
- Backwardness and lack of social indicators such as education and healthcare facilities.
RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 15 Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the land settlement system introduced by the British government in India in detail.
Land Holding System during the British Period :
The British government imposed systems such as the Zamindari system, jagirdari system, mahalwari system, etc. in the Indian agricultural sector due to which the intermediate class emerged. These intermediaries snatched most of the part of agricultural produce from the farmers in the form of land revenue. The ownership of land was granted to the intermediaries. They collected high rate of land revenue, due to which the farmers were left with food grains which were even not enough for their sustenance. Due to this, the farmers became financially and physically weak.
Following were the land holding systems in India prevalent during the British period:
- Zamindari System
- Mahalwari Settlement
- Ryotwari Settlement
1. Zamindari System or Permanent System :
Zamindari system emerged during the British period. Earlier, there was ownership of farmers upon land. Governor General Cornwallis of the East India Company granted land ownership to the landlords, and handed them over the responsibility of collecting revenue in order to increase income.
2. Mahalwari Settlement :
Mahalwari system was implemented by William Bentinck in Agra and Awadh regions and later it was implemented in Madhya Pradesh and Punjab. In this system, the land was divided into Mahals. Each Mahal comprised one or more villages and the head of the village used to collect revenue from all the land holders of the village.
3. Ryotwari System :
In this system, the Ryot or farmers were regarded as land owners and there was no intermediary between the farmers and the government. In this, the settlement was done on temporary basis. The rate of revenue was different for respective holdings owned by the farmers.
Present your views on the economic infrastructure of India at the time of independence.
The economic infrastructure includes physical resources, irrigation, transportation, energy, communication, banking, technological know-how etc. of a country. The British rulers developed roads, railways, airports, water transport and post-telegraph etc. resources. Main objective of the British government behind starting of railways was not the favour of India, but to make it easier to transport the raw materials from various parts of the country to the nearest railway stations or ports so that the Indian raw material could be easily sent to England from there and the items manufactured in England could be sent into the Indian markets. But the roads in rural regions were not developed, due to which the lives of rural people used to become miserable in times of natural disasters such as famine.
The starting of railways was done by the British Government in 1850. Although, this is considered as a significant contribution of the Britishers to the Indian economy, yet a huge amount of land revenue was raised from the farmers for its development, and as a result, farmers were attacked by the loan sharks and they were badly exploited. There were two benefits of development of Railways Indian Economy-First, It made easier for the people to move from one part of the country to another and travel long distances. And secondly, it encouraged the commercialization of agriculture.
Water transport was also developed along with railways and roadways, but these efforts did not prove to be reasonably beneficial. Post and telegraph services were also developed. Before the First World War, the pace of development of banking sector in India was very slow. Till 1870, there were only 2 joint stock banks in India which had increased to 9 in number by the beginning of the 20th century, but several bankers became bankrupt due to the banking crisis of 1913. On 1st April 1935, the Reserve Bank of India was established under the RBI Act, 1934.