Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 English Reading Unseen Passages
India is a great country with rich heritage where since Vedic times doing one’s duty has been preached and practiced. In the Bhagwat Geeta, Lord Krishna stresses the performance of duty in the Karma Yoga. Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak in his commentary on the Geeta explains: “It is our duty to act but not to expect reward thereof. Expectation of fruit causes bondage. Action should, therefore, be performed without seeking the fruit, but it should not be forsaken. The former leads to salvation and the latter to sin, i.e., action must be performed as a duty without attachment.”
This philosophy of the Karma Yoga was pursued further when Niti Shastras were written. In Kautilya’s Arthshastra, non-performance of duties was made punishable under law. Kautilya championed the cause of civilized society and specifically laid stress on the concept of neighborhood. For instance, one of the duties for which he made laws was: “No one shall interfere in the affairs of a neighbor, without due cause. However, everyone has the duty to run to the help of a neighbor in distress.”
Our country achieved freedom after a long period of slavery. Therefore, the framers of our constitution thought it proper to grant certain fundamental rights to the citizens of India so that they might experience a sense of freedom. Some of the main rights given to the people are : the right to equality, to freedom, to life and individual freedom, to religious freedom, to cultural and educational freedom.
It is human nature to desire rights first and then to think of duties. That is to say, every individual wants only rights, not the fulfillment of his/her duties. It is because of this human tendency that after independence the people of our country became less and less devoted to their duties. They began neglecting their duties and started giving greater importance to their rights. So much so that some people began disregarding even our constitution, national unity and integrity and so on. When this tendency started asserting itself more and more, it was felt necessary to amend the constitution of India and specify the fundamental duties too.
- How can you say that India is great?
- Who has advocated for the performance of duty?
- What is ‘Arthshastra’?
- How, according to Kautilya, should one behave with his neighbor?
- Write down the fundamental rights mentioned here.
- Which human tendency of our citizens does the author criticize?
- How does the Geeta explain Karma or action?
- Locate from the passage the words which mean :
(i) the state of being saved from the power of evil
(ii) change a law to improve it.
- India has rich heritage. Doing one’s duty has been preached and practised here since vedic times.
- Lord Krishna, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Kautilya and so on advocated for the performance of duty.
- Arthshastra is a book having the philosophy of Karma Yoga written by Kautilya.
- No one was to interfere in the affairs of one’s neighbour without due cause. However, everyone was to help one’s neighbour in distress.
- The fundamental rights mentioned here are : right to equality, to freedom, to life and individual freedom, to religious freedom, to cultural and educational freedom.
- After independence the citizens began neglecting their duties and started giving greater importance to their rights.
- Action should be performed without seeking the fruit. The Geeta explains karma in this way.
- (i) salvation
Thus we all have a role in making India great. India can soon emerge a major developed country provided we all vow to ourselves to do the jobs we are doing using all our energies and keeping the nation’s interests in mind. Don’t think that one person can do. Many drops make a flood. Here are some suggestions that may be followed by different professionals.
If you are a politician, you can rise above your own and party’s interests and frame policies and laws that are conducive to development. If you are a clerk in a government department, you can work more efficiently in clearing a new project. If you become an instrument in creating a feeling that Government works speedily and justly, you have created necessary conditions for a developed country. If you are a worker in a factory, you can decide to increase your productivity a little more and give attention to quality. If you are a contractor, make it a point to spend on your own to improve some part of your town. If you are a banker you could take interest in some innovative project and encourage youth who are very capable and are enthusiastic about taking up something new. If you are a doctor you can extend the benefits of free and inexpensive medical aid to the poor at least to a limited extent. It will make the suffering person’s life a little better. If you are a teacher you can constantly upgrade your knowledge and skills in order to enthuse the children to think big. A student is generally as good as a teacher. Similarly, ex-servicemen can attempt to organize a few productive activities in villages or small towns. Even small grocers can contribute to the health of people by refusing to sell adulterated things.
- How can India emerge a major developed country?
- How can a politician contribute?
- What, according to Kalam, can a clerk do?
- How can a worker in a factory contribute?
- What should a contractor do?
- How can a banker contribute?
- What, according to Dr. Kalam, can a doctor do?
- Write the words for the following groups of words :
(i) a person studying at a school or college or university
(ii) persons who used to be an army, navy, etc.
(iii) a person who own shops selling foodstuffs.
- India can emerge a major developed country by vowing to do our jobs keeping the nation’s interests in mind.
- A politician can frame policies and laws that are conducive to development.
- A clerk can work more efficiently for clearing a new project.
- A worker in a factory can increase productivity and quality.
- A contractor should spend on his own to improve some part of the town.
- A banker can contribute by encouraging youth to take up some innovative project.
- According to Dr. Kalam, a doctor can provide face and inexpensive medical aid to the poor at least to a limited extent.
- (i) student
It has become common knowledge that yoga is good for you. Currently yoga is being used as a therapy for cancer, infertility, lung disease, multiple sclerosis. Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, high blood pressure, and joint pain. Yet there is very little awareness and understanding on exactly how yoga heals, even in the yoga and medical communities. The key is to understand the relationships between stress, yoga and disease.
Medical research estimates that as much as 90 percent of illness and disease is stress related. A few of the many diseases and conditions that have been linked to an overactive stress response include : cardio-vascular disease, depression, anxiety, some types of diabetes mellitus, etc.
What we feel as stress, is the product of the sympathetic nervous system or the “fight or flight” response : an almost instantaneous surge in heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, sweating, shallow breathing and metabolism, combined with a tensing of muscles. Internally, the “fight or flight” response shuts down digestion and elimination and reduces blood flow to the internal organs. Short term, this stress reaction is a good thing. The “fight or flight” response prepares us to respond to any environmental threat by fighting against it or fleeing from it. But long term continuous exposure to stress is harmful, placing excess wear and tear on the body’s system and severely limiting the body’s natural maintenance and healing abilities.
Chronic stress can lead to continuously high levels or cortisol. This hormone at normal levels helps to maintain an active, healthy body (including regulation of metabolism and blood pressure). But excessive amounts of cortisol can suppress the immune system and cause sleep disturbances and loss of appetite. High levels of cortisol can also increase your heart rate, blood pressure and your cholesterol and triglyceride levels (risk factors for both heart attacks and strokes). The by-products of cortisol act as sedatives, which can lead to changes in mood, especially to feelings of depression.
- For which diseases is yoga being used as a therapy?
- What is the key to understand how yoga heals?
- What does medical research estimate?
- Which diseases and conditions have been linked to an overactive stress response?
- What is stress?
- How is long term stress harmful?
- How is high level of cortisol harmone harmful?
- Locate from the passage the antonyms of the following :
- Yoga is being used as a therapy for cancer, infertility, lung disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, high blood pressure and joint pain.
- The key to understand how yoga heals is the relationships between stress, yoga and disease.
- Medical research estimates that as much as 90% of illness and disease is stress related.
- Cardio-vascular disease, depression, anxiety, some types of diabetes mellitus diseases and conditions have been linked to an overactive stress response.
- Stress is an almost instantaneous surge in heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, sweating, shallow breathing hand metabolism combined with tensing of muscles.
- The long-term stress is harmful. It places excess wear and tear on the body’s systems and severely limits the body’s natural maintenance and healing abilities.
- It suppresses the immune system, causes sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, increases heart rate, blood pressure, cholestrol and triglyceride.
- (i) infertility
We want purity—pure food, pure water, pure air. We long for pure surroundings. We yearn for pure heart and pure love. We prefer pure environment and pure society. We are fond of purity because purity promotes health. Impurities are injurious to health. Purity provides peace of mind. Impurities impair the mind. Both for bodily health and mental health, we need purity. We do require environmental purity for overall health.
Purity of body is physical health. Purity of speech is unsullied truth. Purity of heart is unselfish love. Purity of thought is righteous reason. Purity of mind is wholesome peace. Purity of action is sincere and unselfish service. Purity of society is harmonious unity. Purity of environment is soul-elevating serenity.
In the Mahabharata, there is an interesting episode to illustrate the nature of purity. The Pandavas and Kauravas were Drona’s disciples. They were once summoned by the preceptor Drona for a test. The eldest of the Pandavas, Yudhishthira was asked to bring one bad person from society. The eldest of the Kauravas, Duryodhana, was asked to fetch one good person from the same society in Hastinapura. After a thorough search, both the cousins returned empty-handed. The pure-minded Yudhishthira found everyone to be pious and pure. The impure mind of Duryodhana found everyone to be evil and impure. As in the mind, so is the vision.
Purity of mind makes our vision, words and deeds pure. It has also the power to purify people. Evil has no place in the presence of purity. Nor can it face purity, as darkness cannot face the sun. It only gets changed into purity. Fools who come to scoff remain to pray in the presence of purity. Villains who come to harm stand in adoration in the presence of purity. Murderers become votaries of peace in the presence of purity.
- Why are we fond of purities?
- What is the purity of body, speech and heart?
- What is the purity of thought, mind and action?
- Why did both the cousins return empty-handed?
- Who was Drona?
- What changes are noticed in villains and murderers in the presence of purity?
- How can you say that the author is thoughtful about the environment?
- Write from the passage the words that have the following meanings :
(i) long for something
(ii) persons who worship or love something.
- are fond of purities because purity promotes health-bodily and mental.
- The purity of body is physical health, of speech is unsullied truth and of heart is unselfish love.
- The purity of thought is righteous reason of mind is wholesome peace, and of action is sincere and unselfish service.
- It was so because the pure minded Yudhishthira found everyone to be pious and pure. The impure minded Duryodhana found everyone to be evil and impure.
- Drona was the guru of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas.
- In the presence of purity villains who come to harm stand in adoration, and murderers become votaries of peace.
- The author highlights that environmental purity is overall health. Purity of -environment in soul-elevating serenity.
- (i) yearn
But science not only provides knowledge about nature: it also provides a means for controlling nature. So besides general ideas, science also affects practical affairs and everyday life. Perhaps the most obvious example concerns transport. Up to the end of the eighteenth century, transport on land differed very little from what it had been in Roman times. A Roman officer in second-century, Britain could get from London to York just about as quickly and comfortably as an eighteenth-century gentleman. Owing to the compass and to improved design of ships, sea transport had improved a little, but not much. Then came the invention of the steam-engine, and its improvement, which was dependent on the general scientific knowledge of the time. Steamships, and railways with steam engines, completely changed the business of travel and of the transport of goods. The internal combustion engine, again based on the scientific study of heat and how it is generated by gas explosions, made possible first the motor-car and the diesel engine and then the aeroplane. Now people are talking of the possibility of flying at five hundred miles on hour or more by means of rocket propulsion in the thin higher layers of the atmosphere. It is interesting to note down the highest speeds possible for land, sea and air travel every ten years from 1820 to the present day.
Similarly with communication. Not only did the steam engine, and then the aeroplane, speed up the sending of letters and newspapers, but the discoveries about electricity made possible first the telegraph, then the telephone, then wireless, and today television is just about to become practical. As a result of science, the possibilities of tying the world together by quick transmission of facts and ideas have completely changed in less than a century.
- Which two powers does science equip us with?
- Which two areas of knowledge are talked about here?
- Which inventions have led to the improvement in transportation?
- Which inventions have led to the improvement in communication?
- How could motor car, diesel engine and aeroplane be possible?
- What have the discoveries about electricity made possible?
- From when to when have the speeds changes taken place?
- Locate from the passage the antonyms of the following words :
- Science equips us with the power of knowledge and the power of controlling nature.
- Land transportation and communication are the two areas of knowledge about which we are taking here.
- Inventions of compass, steam engine, internal combustion engine, rocket propulsion etc. have led to the improvement in transportation.
- Inventions of telegraph, telephone, wireless, television etc. have led to the improvement in Communication.
- The internal combustion engine based on the scientific study of heat and low it is generated by gas explosions could make these possible.
- The discoveries about electricity have made possible telegraph, telephone, wireless, television etc.
- The speedwise changes have taken place from 1820 to the present day.
- (i) practical
The young village boys, great pals of Anna, were very keen to meet him. Within no time, they reached his house. Warm hugs were exchanged. Anna narrated his terrible dream to them and they realized that only ‘pooja-paath’ will not solve this grave water problem.
They discussed the importance of trees in conserving water. In the forests, water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the fall. This groundwater in turn, feeds wells, lakes and rivers. Protecting forests means protecting water ‘catchments’. They resolved that they will motivate everyone to plant and take care of at least one tree and prevent the indiscriminate cutting of trees.
Mahesh, a vibrant boy, with glowing eyes said, “I know that over the years, rising population, growing industrialization and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water,” He further said that people should develop a habit of saving water in their day-to¬day lives because, “every drop matters.”
Ramuda, a bright chap with calm, meditative face made his presence felt and said, i “In urban areas, the construction of houses, footpaths and roads has left little exposed | earth for water to soak in. In parts of the rural areas of India, floodwater quickly flows to the rivers, which then dry up soon after the rains stop. If this water can be held back, I it can seep into the ground and recharge the groundwater supply.” I
Mahesh looked at Anna with questioning eyes, “Bhaiya, I have heard of rain-water harvesting. What is it?”
“Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of the buildings and storing it underground for later use. Not only does this recharging stop groundwater depletion, it also raises the declining water level and can help increase water supply. It is necessary to stop the decline in groundwater levels, prevent sea-water from moving landward and conserve surface water run-off during the rainy season”, explained Anna.
They realized that there is enough water and the need of the hour is to manage the available resources properly.
- How can you say that Anna and his pals have scientific temper?
- How do forests help in maintaining groundwater level?
- Why has the demand for water pushed up?
- Why does the urban rainwater flow to the rivers quickly?
- What is rainwater harvesting?
- How is rainwater harvesting beneficial?
- What is the need of the hour?
- Find from the passage the words which mean the following :
(ii) a continuous decrease in something.
- They realise that only pooja-paath won’t solve the grave water problem. They discuss the importance of tress in conserving water.
- Forests seep rain water. The seeped water feeds wells, lakes and rivers.
- The demand for water has pushed up because of rising population, growing industrialisation and expanding agriculture.
- It is so because the construction of houses, footpaths and roads has left little exposed earth for rain water to soak in.
- Rain water harvesting essentially means collecting rain water on the roofs of the buildings and storing it underground for later use.
- It stops ground water depletion. It raises declining ground water-level. It increases water supply.
- The need of the hour is to manage the available resources properly.
- (i) pals
Forests are considered the ‘green gold’ of a country. The very survival of humans and other living beings is dependent on trees and plants which are a major source of oxygen-the vital gas for our respiration. They also act as a ‘sink’ for the carbon dioxide exhaled by humans and animals and spewed from the chimneys and by the automobiles.
Forests play a vital role in sustaining our life and the nation’s economy. They provide oxygen without which life is not possible on earth. They maintain a healthy gaseous balance in the atmosphere. They are great moderators of climate. Plants increase the humidity of water vapour from their exposed surfaces by way of transpiration.
As one may be aware, forests extensively control soil erosion and landslides. Forests in the hilly areas keep the soil of riverbanks intact with their extensive root system. They also maintain the stability of the mountain slopes. The aerial parts of the plants intercept rain, decreasing its erosive power. Ground flora and the thick layer of litter and humus in the forests act as sponge and help to retain the water received in the form of rain or through the melting of snow; this prevents floods in the plains. By decreasing the velocity of water coming down the hills, forests help in greater absorption of water by the soil in the plains and thus preventing droughts. As the soil retains its moisture, it is released slowly, giving rise to perennial streams and rivulets.
The material advantage, offered by forests needs no mention. Through centuries forests have provided us fuel, fodder and timber wood; our several industries are based on certain resources which are found in the woods. Our paper pulp, rayon and plywood industries are completely dependent on forest produce. Trees provide drugs, spices, fruits, fibers, gums, resins, rubber and latex. Raw materials required by the dyeing and tanning industry include myrobalan, oliseeds, honey, beeswax, bidi leaves and sandalwood. It is estimated that our national income via these products and timber wood is more than 600 crores of rupees per annum.
- Write the phrase the author uses to highlight the outstanding importance of forests.
- How do trees maintain a healthy gaseous balance in the atmosphere?
- How do forests control soil erosion?
- How do forests prevent floods?
- How do forests prevent droughts?
- Who give rise to perennial streams and rivulets.
- Mention two material advantages offered by forests.
- Give the opposites of the following from the passage :
- The phrase is ‘green gold’.
- Trees inhale carbondioxide and exhale oxygen. In this way they maintain a healthy gaseous balance.
- The aerial parts of the plants intercept rain. Thus the erosive power of the rain is decreased.
- Ground flora and thick layer of litter and humus in the forests act as sponge and help to retain the water received as rain. Thus they prevent floods.
- Forests help in greater absorption of water by the soil in the plains and thus prevent droughts.
- Forests give rise to perennial streams and rivulets.
- Forests provide us fuel, fodder and timber wood.
- (i) exhaled
Fortunately, the body has a natural counterbalance to the “fight or flight” response, called the parasympathetic nervous system or the “relaxation response.” The parasympathetic nervous system becomes activated when the threat or stressor has passed or ended, but it can also be consciously activated by deepening the breath and by relaxing the skeletal muscles.
When activated, the parasympathetic nervous system lowers blood pressure, heart rate and respiration (the pace of the breath). Digestion and elimination are allowed to be stimulated and blood is free to travel to the digestive, reproductive, glandular and immune systems —systems necessary for the promotion of long-term health. The “relaxation response” is also known as the “rest and renew” stage, when the body has the time and resources to heal the body and to respond to illness. Obviously, by increasing the frequency, time and depth of the “relaxation response” we not only allow our body to recover from illness and disease, but we also practise preventive medicine by allowing the body to perform all of its essential maintenance tasks.
Yoga’s emphasis on long, deep breathing and conscious relaxation activates the parasympathetic nervous system and promotes its “rest and renew” functions. In fact, a recent study has shown yoga to decrease the level of the stress hormone cortisol in the blood. The meditative practices of yoga help to reduce the responsiveness of the mind to stressors and to lessen the intensity of the “fight or flight” response. Yoga also teaches us to see potential stressors as challenges rather than threats, enabling one to avoid the stress response entirely.
The inverting, twisting and compressing that occur in yoga postures enhance the circulation of blood and body fluids. This increase in circulation not only improves the body’s ability to deliver the materials needed to allow healing to take place, but also activates the lymphatic system to maintain normal functioning of the immune system and inflammation response. Yoga poses also improve muscle strength, flexibility and range of motion, all very important for the healing and prevention of musculoskeletal diseases such as arthritis and osteoporosis.
- What is the parasympathetic nervous system or the relaxation response?
- How can parasympathetic nervous system be consciously activated?
- What is the other name for relaxation response?
- When does body perform all of its essential maintenance tasks?
- How is yoga useful in reducing stress?
- How are yoga postures beneficial for the body?
- Name two musculoskeletal diseases.
- Locate from the passage the opposite words for the following words :
- Body’s natural system of counter-balancing is called the parasympthetic nervous system on the relaxation response.
- It can be consciously activated by deepening the breath and relaxing the skeletal muscles.
- The other name for relaxation response is the rest and renew stage.
- By increasing the frequency, time and depth of the relaxation response we can do so.
- Yoga decreases the level of stress harmone cortisol in the blood. It reduces the responsiveness to the stressor.
- Yoga postures enhance the circulation of blood and body fluids. This enhancement heals the body and activates the lymphatic system.
- These are arthritis and osteoporosis.
- (i) long-term
All the fundamental duties inspire us to preserve national unity, integrity and sovereignty, give us a message for defending morality and humanity and teach us to be kind and sympathetic to all living beings. These duties are imbued with national and humanitarian feelings, not with selfish interests. It is the duty of every citizen to respect the constitution, the national flag and the national anthem, to follow the high ideals that inspired the nationalist movement, to defend and protect the country, national unity, integrity and sovereignty, and forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, to serve the nation, to give up (a) practices which go against the dignity of woman and (b) discrimination on the basis of religion, language, state, or class, to have compassion for living beings, to stay away from violence, to protect public property, to develop scientific outlook, humanitarian attitude, a desire for acquiring knowledge and an urge for improvement, to inculcate a feeling of harmony and brotherhood, and to strive for excellence in all spheres of individual and group activities, and to provide opportunity for education to the children between the ages of 6 and 14 years.
To respect and honour the national anthem and the national flag is not only a constitutional but also a moral responsibility. The national anthem is the symbol of the glory of the whole culture of our nation. It neither assails any religion or caste not does it disregard them.
So far as the dignity of woman is concerned, the Indian woman is even today a victim of several ill practices. Take for instance the custom of sati. Some people regard it as a part of religion. On account of this superstition, several women in no time bum themselves to death on the funeral pyre of their husbands. No civilized society will regard it as justifiable.
Protection of environment too is one of the state’s duties. In order to protect our environment, if we have to even close down the mines, it will be in accordance with the constitution of our country.
Rights and duties go hand in hand. As we cannot dream of duties without rights, so can we not think of rights without duties. If we have duties, rights will automatically come to us. Rights and duties are two sides of the same coin.
- For what do all the fundamental duties inspire us?
- What messages do the fundamental duties give us?
- What should we develop in our citizens?
- Write any two fundamental duties?
- What should we defend and protect?
- Express the writer’s views about rights and duties.
- What should we give up?
- Locate from the passage the words that mean the following—
(i) basic or essential
(ii) try very hard to achieve something
(iii) the fact of being given respect and honour by people
(iv) to cause somebody to learn moral principles etc.
- All the fundamental duties inspire us to preserve national unity, integrity and sovereignity.
- The fundamental duties give us the message for defending morality and humanity and to be kind and sympathetic to all living beings.
- In all our citizens, we should develop scientific outlook, humanitarian attitude, a desire for acquiring knowledge and an urge for improvement.
- First, we should respect the constitution, the national flag and the national anthem. Second, we should follow the high ideals that inspired the nationalist movement.
- We should defend and protect the country, national unity, integrity, sovereignity, forests, lakes, rivers and wild life.
- Rights and duties are the two sides of the same coin. We can’t think of rights without duties. If we have duties, rights will automatically come to us.
- We should give up the practices which go against the dignity of woman and discriminate on the basis of religion, language, state or class.
- (i) fundamental
The numerous trees that grew in India also attracted his attention. The banyan tree, whose branches grew downwards and took root, particularly charmed him. Megasthenes says that these trees were so huge that even five men could not put their arms around them. He describes one particular banyan tree, which formed such a vast sunshade that 400 horsemen could pass the afternoon in its shade.
He mentions that the climate of India was good. Its fertile land gave two crops a year. Wheat, barley and pulses were grown in winter and flax, millet, sesame and rice during the rainy season. Two products seem to have surprised Megasthenes. He remarks on the production of honey although there were no bees. This must have been ‘gur’ (Uf). He was equally surprised to find wool growing on plants. It is clear that he saw cotton and thought it was wool. He tells us that India was rich in gold mines and pearls.
His account of animal life is equally interesting. The powerful tiger of East India charmed him. He talks about the langur with its long tail and blackface, and the talking parrots. He tells us how horses were blindfolded and made to go around in a circle to train them to draw chariots. There was no shortage of wild elephants in India. They were caught and trained for warfare.
About the people of India Megasthenes says that Indians were generally tall and slim. Most people wore a white cotton dress, which contrasted with their dark complexion. The lower garment was like the dhoti. The upper covering was thrown over the shoulders and sometimes covered the head. The rich, however, wore gaily-colored linen clothes. They dyed their beards in different colours; white, blue, purple or green. They wore ivory ear-rings and gold ornaments. They were also fond of wearing flowers. They used thick-soled white leather shoes and carried umbrellas to protect themselves from the sun.
- Why did banyan trees particularly charm Megasthenes?
- Which crops were sown in winter and rainy seasons?
- Name the animals and bird mentioned by Megasthenes.
- What did Megasthenes say about the physique of Indians?
- How did the most people dress up themselves?
- Which ornaments did the rich wear?
- In which things was India rich?
- Locate from the passage the antonyms of the following words ;
- It was so because banyan trees were veiy huge. Under one such tree 400 horsemen could pass the afternoon in its shade.
- In winter wheat, barley and pulses were sown and in rainy season, flax, millet, sesame and rice.
- He mentioned the animals—tiger, langur, horses and horse and bird—parrots.
- The Indians were generally tall and slim.
- The most people wore a white cotton dress. The lower garment was like a dhoti. The upper covering was thrown over the shoulders.
- The rich wore ivory ear-rings and gold ornaments.
- India was rich in gold mines and pearls.
- (i) attracted
That night, I was sleeping in the passage room. When I woke up in the morning I found my elder brother’s blanket on me, added to mine. Early at dawn he had left for the fields without a blanket on his shoulders. If he had been asked why, he would have surely said in his usual manner, that he did not feel the cold. Now I have a comfortable income. Yet it had never occurred to me to think of buying any warm cloth for my elder brother. He is still satisfied and happy with that old tattered blanket that he had covered me with once. The same blanket was there before me, with all the other things.
I shivered with the cold, and my own ingratitude. The process of division was finally over. Whatever the second brother demanded, my elder brother agreed to it with a smile. My second brother proposed to buy the share of land that was given to me and offered eighteen thousand rupees as the price.
In the evening, my elder brother took me along with him to show me the paddy fields that were to be mine. I quietly followed him. We moved from boundary to boundary. Everywhere, I could feel the imprints of his feet, his palm and his fingers. On the bosom of the paddy fields sparkled the pearls of my elder brother’s sweat. He was showing me the fields, as a father would introduce a stranger to family members.
In the morning, I was to leave for Bhubaneswar. I had no courage to meet my elder brother. Before leaving for the bus stop, I had handed over the same slip of paper to my elder sister-in-law, which had the details about my share. Writing on the blank side of that slip, I had asked her to deliver it to my elder brother and stealthily slipped out of our house. I had written Brother, What shall I do with the lands? You are my land from where l could harvest everything in life. I need nothing save you. Accept this, please. If you deny, I shall never show my face to you again. Babuli
- Which article at home stirred the conscience of the speaker?
- What did the second brother want from the speaker?
- How can you say that the speaker is emotional?
- What type of relationship does the speaker have with his elder brother?
- How can you say that the speaker put pressure on his elder brother to accept his share of land?
- Who is the speaker here?
- Which of the three brothers in your opinion is the most satisfied and happiest?
- Locate from the passage the words that have the following meaning—
(i) old and tom
(ii) done quietly and secretly
- The old tattered blanket that the speaker’s elder brother had covered the speaker with once is that article.
- The second brother wanted to buy his share of land from the speaker.
- The tattered blanket made him emotional. His share of paddy fields made him emotional.
- With his elder brother, the speaker has ‘father-son’ relationship.
- The speaker says that he will never show his face to him (elder brother) if he denies.
- Babuli, the youngest of the three brothers, is the speaker here.
- The eldest of the three brothers is the most satisfied and happiest.
- (i) tattered
Whilst I was in the midst of my creative work there came to me an inner message asking me to come out of my seclusion and seek life in the heart of crowd. I knew hot what I could do. I had a love for children, so that I called them round me, in order to rescue them from the dismal dungeons of the educational department, and find for them that atmosphere of sympathy and freedom which they needed most. I chose a beautiful and secluded spot where, in collaboration with Mother Nature, it was possible to bring up these boys in a spirit of wisdom and love.
While I was still busy doing service to children I do not know what possessed me all of a sudden. From some far-away sky came to me a call of pilgrimage reminding me that we are all bom pilgrims-pilgrims of the green earth. A voice questioned me ‘Have you been to the sacred shrine where Divinity reveals itself in the thoughts and dreams and deeds of Man?’ I thought possibly it was in Europe where I must seek it and know the full meaning of my birth as a human being in this world. And so for the second time I came to this continent.
But, meanwhile I had grown up and learnt much of the history of man. I had sighed with the great poet Wordsworth, who became sad when he saw what man had done to man. We too have suffered at the hands of man—not tigers and snakes, not elemental forces of nature, but human beings. Men are ever the greatest enemy of Man. I had felt and known it; all the same, there was a hope, deep in my heart, that I should find some place, some temple, where the immortal spirit of man dwelt hidden like the sun behind clouds.
- What was the inner message?
- Which place for children’s study was chosen by the speaker?
- Who reminded the speaker about pilgrimage?
- Where did the speaker try to seek the full meaning of his birth as a human in this world?
- From what had the speaker learnt much?
- Why had the speaker and Wordsworth sighed?
- Why is the speaker still hopeful?
- Find from the passage the words that mean the following :
(i) the state of having little contact with other people
(ii) basic and important.
- The inner message was to come out of seclusion and seek life in the heart of crowd.
- A beautiful and secluded spot where, in collaboration with Mother Nature, it was possible to bring upon the boys in a spirit of wisdom and love.
- A call of pilgrimage reminded the speaker about that.
- The speaker try to seek the full meaning of his birth in Europe.
- The speaker had learnt much from the history of man.
- The had sighed because men had suffered at the hands of men.
- The speaker is still hopeful because the spirit of man is immortal like the sun.
- (i) seclusion
Happiness is not a house that can be built by man’s hands, but a song that you hear as you pass the hedge rising suddenly and simply into the night and dying down again. Happiness is optional. It is an inner feeling of contentment and joy. Everyman should give a little thought to the duty of being happy. People generally under-rate and neglect this significant duty. ‘Nothing too much’ is a good maxim of a Greek philosopher. We should control our desires. We should not be a slave to our desires. We should learn to stop while we still wish to continue. We should call off our desires before they are satisfied. ‘Nothing too much’ should be our guiding principle when we control our desires. Happiness is inside, not outside. It is not in the objects. Every day a person should think and realise that he is a soul and he is alone. For this sake, he should spare some time and realise that nothing belongs to him for ever. He should smile and try to internalise the effect of his smile. He should try to retain the pleasing effect in the inner recesses of his heart and in the ideas of his mind. Health is also related to happiness. Walking, light physical exercises and light food free from harmful components are as useful for health as hobbies and company of good friends. Company of nature and company of good books create a basis of happy living. Happiness rooted in activity with devotion is an inner feeling of satisfaction or contentment for those who are not enslaved by desires. We are happy only when we exist in relation to the social environment with a positive attitude.
- What, according to the author, is happiness?
- Which maxim did a Greek philosopher follow?
- How can we keep ourselves happy?
- What should a person think and realise everyday?
- Which activities are useful for health?
- What things create a basis of happy living?
- When are we happy?
- Locate from the passage the words that mean the following-
(ii) made slave.
- Happiness, according to the author, is an inner feeling of contentment and joy.
- A Greek philosopher followed the maxim of ‘Nothing too much’.
- We can keep ourselves by controlling our desires.
- Everyday a person should think and realise that he is a soul and he is alone and nothing belongs to him forever.
- Walking, light physical exercises and light food free from harmful components are useful for health.
- Company of nature and company of good books create a basis of happy living.
- We are happy only when we exist in relation to the social environment with a positive attitude.
- (i) contentment
Civilised man is perpetually tired, stress-prone, cigarette-smoking, paan and tobacco chewing, Scotch-consuming, antacid-taking, tranquilliser-swallowing, purgative-dependent, and often minus his tonsils and appendix. Cervical spondylosis or a duodenal ulcer or raised blood pressure are additional qualifications for the presidentship of a transnational You will naturally want to know : ‘How do I protect myself against stress, modem life-style and environment pollution?’
Let us start by redefining health as ‘a state of harmonious integration of mind, body and spirit of a person within himself and within his society.’ In other words, holistic health (‘holos’ in Greek means whole).
In holistic health, the emphasis is on prevention. For example, a person does not wait to have a heart attack. Instead, he looks after himself with periodic check-ups, lives sensibly and exercises regularly to prevent such a catastrophe. This is in complete contrast to the conventional concept of medical care which equates health with illness care. The individual sits tight until he is unwell. His attitude is : ‘Why should I worry when modem medicines and surgery can right my ills?’ To cap it all, he delegates the responsibility of getting well entirely to his doctors.
Let me illustrate with two case histories.
Ramesh smokes 30 cigarettes and drinks a quarter bottle of Scotch a day, in 20 kilos overweight and has a heart attack to his credit. ‘You doctors will perfect a pill or an artificial heart within the next five years, so why should I bother? I can have a coronary by-pass or a plastic ticker!’ he tells me when I complain to him about his weight and his life-style.
Twenty-nine-year-old Usha, a professor of history, suffered from repeated urinary tract infections. ‘I don’t like drugs and I hate to drink water,’ she says, ‘If my kidneys stop functioning I can have a transplant.’
- How does the author delineate the civilized man?
- What, according to the author, is health?
- What is holistic health?
- What is the conventional concept of medical care?
- How is Ramesh neglecting his health?
- Which organ remove waste product from the blood and produce urine?
- From which disease did Usha suffer?
- Write one words for the following group of words :
(i) persons trained in medical science and treat patients
(ii) substances that you drink or swallow to cure from illness.
- Civilized man is perpetually tired, stress-prone, cigarette-smoking, paan and tobacco chewing, scotch-consumer, antacid-taker, tranquiliser-swallower and purgative-dependent.
- According to the author, health is a state of harmonious integration of mind, body and spirit of a person within himself and within his society.
- Holistic health includes periodic check-ups, sensible living and regular exercises to prevent a catastrophe.
- The conventional concept of medical care equates health with illness care.
- Ramesh smokes 30 cigarettes and drinks a quarter bottle of scotch a day. In this way he is neglecting his health.
- Kidneys remove waste product from the blood and produce urine.
- Usha suffered from repeated urinary tract infections.
- (i) doctors
The first characteristic of Bharatiya culture is that it looks upon life as an integrated whole. It has an integrated viewpoint. To think of parts may be proper for a specialist, but it is not useful from the practical standpoint. The confusion in the West arises primarily from its tendency to think of life in sections and then to attempt to put them together by patch-work. We do admit that there is diversity and plurality in life, but we have always attempted to discover the unity behind them. This attempt is thoroughly scientific. The scientists always attempt to discover the unity behind them. This attempt is thoroughly scientific. The scientists always attempt to discover order in the apparent disorder in the universe, to find out the principles governing the universe and frame practical rules on the basis of these principles. Chemists discovered that a few elements comprise the entire physical world. Physicists went one step further and showed that even these elements pulsate with energy. Today we know that the entire universe is only a form of energy.
Philosophers are also basically scientists. The western philosophers reached up to the principle of duality; Hegel put forward the principle of thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis.
Karl Marx used this principle as a basis and presented his analysis of history and economics. Darwin considered the principle of survival of the fittest as the sole basis of life. But we, in this country, perceived the basic unity of all life. Even the dualists have believed nature and spirit to be complementary to each other than contradictory. The diversity in life is merely an expression of the internal unity. There is complementarity underlying the diversity. The unity in seed finds expression in various forms—the roots, the trunk, the branches, the leaves, the flowers and the fruits of the tree. All these have different forms and colours and even to some extend different properties. Still we recognise their relation of unity with each other through the seed.
- How does Bharatiya culture look upon life?
- How does the West look upon life?
- What do the scientists always attempt to discover?
- What did the Chemists and the Physicist discover?
- Which principles about life was given by Darwin?
- In what forms does the unity in seed find expression?
- What have even the dualists believed?
- Locate from the passage the words that have the following—
- Bharatiya culture looks upon life as an integrated whole.
- The west thinks of life in sections and then put them together in patch work.
- The scientists always attempt to discover order in the apparent disorder in the universe to find out the principles governing the universe and frame practical rules.
- The chemists discovered that a few elements comprise the entire physical world. The physicists discovered that these elements pulsate with energy.
- Darwin considered the principle of survival of the fittest as the sole basis of life.
- The unity in seed finds expression in roots, trunk, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of trees.
- Even the dualists have believed nature and spirit to be complementary to each other than contradictory.
- (i) apparent
According to Swami Vivekananda every improvement in India require first of all an upheaval in religion. In his travels, he found that for the uplift of nation it was necessary to energize the masses which could be achieved only by religion, rejuvenated and revitalized by infusing Vedantic ideas. “In religion,” he said, “lies the vitality of India and so long as the Hindu race do not forget the great inheritance of their forefathers, there is no power on earth to destroy them.” He wanted a religion which would “give us faith in ourselves, a national self-respect and the power to feed and educate the poor and relieve the misery around us. According to him the problems of India are more complicated, more momentous than the problems in any other country. Swamiji’s plan for the elevation of the masses was to give them secular education and to prepare them to work for a better standard of life. But in his view this secular education was to be imparted through religion, for it was only through religion that even ideas of social and political advancement take root in India. “Keep the motto before you,” he said, “elevation of the masses without injuring religion.” Religion was getting confined to don’t touchism, the kitchen and the cooking pot, and Swami Vivekananda wanted to reinstate, pristine Upanishadic religion.” His beautiful summing up of what religion means deserves’ thoughtful consideration. “Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within by controlling Nature, external and internal. Do this either by work or worship, or psychic control or philosophy—by one or more or all of these and be free. This is the whole of religion. Doctrines or dogmas or rituals or books or temples or forms are but secondary details.”
- What, according to Vivekananda, does cause upheaval in religion in India?
- What was necessary for the uplift of nation?
- Which type of religion did Vivekananda want?
- What did Vivekananda say about the problems of India?
- What was Swamiji’s plan for the elevation of the masses?
- What did Swamiji want to reinstate?
- What, according to Vivekananda, is religion?
- Locate from the passage the words that mean the following—
(i) the money, property etc. you receive from somebody when they die
(ii) a series of actions as part of religious ceremony.
- According to Vivekanand every improvement in India causes upheaval in religion.
- For the uplift of nation it was necessary to energize the masses.
- The religion which would give us faith in ourselves, a national self-respect, power to feed and educate the poor and believe the misery around us.
- According to him the problems of India are more complicated and more momentous than the problems in any other country.
- Swamiji’s plan was to give them secular education and prepare for a better standard of life.
- Swamiji wanted to reinstate pristine Upanishadic religion. ‘
- According to Swami Vivekananda religion is to manifest the divine element of a person by work or worship or psychic control or philosophy.
- (i) inheritance
Highly intellectual and given to abstract thinking as they were, one would expect the ancient Indians to excel in mathematics. Europe got its early arithmetic and algebra from the Arabs-hence the ‘Arabic numerals’—but the Arabs themselves had previously taken them from India. The astonishing progress that the Indians had made in mathematics is now well known and it is recognized that the foundations of modem arithmetic and algebra were laid long ago in India. The clumsy method of using a counting frame and the use of Roman and such like numerals had long retarded progress when the ten Indian numerals, including the zero sign, liberated the human mind from these restrictions and threw a flood of light on the behaviour of numbers. These number symbols w’ere unique and entirely different from all other symbols that had been in use in other countries. They are common enough to-day and we take them for granted, yet they contained the germs of revolutionary progress in them. It took many centuries for them to travel from India, via Baghdad, to the western world.
A hundred and fifty years ago, during Napoleon’s time, La Place wrote : ‘It is India that gave us the ingenious method of expressing all numbers by means of ten symbols, each symbol receiving a value of position, as well as an absolute value; a profound and important idea which appears so simple to us now that we ignore its true merit, but its very simplicity, the great ease which it has lent to all computations, puts our arithmetic in the first rank of useful inventions; and we shall appreciate the grandeur of this achievement when we remember that it escaped the genius of Archimedes and Apollonius, two of greatest men produced by antiquity.
The origins of geometry, arithmetic, and algebra in India go back to remote periods. Probably to begin with there was some kind of geometrical algebra used for making figures for Vedic altars.
- Where was the foundation of modem arithmetic and algebra was laid?
- Which country gave the zero sign to the world?
- How did the Indian numerals travel to the western world?
- Who appreciated the ingenious Indian numerals?
- Who are the two greatest men produced by antiquity?
- What go back to remote periods in India?
- For what was geometrical algebra used?
- Locate from the passage the words which mean the following—
(ii) the quality of being great and impressive.
- The foundation of modem arithmetic and algebra was laid in India.
- India gave the zero sign to the world.
- Indian numerals travelled from India via Baghdad to the western world. They took many centuries.
- La Place, during Napoleon’s time, appreciated the ingenious Indian numerals.
- They are Archimedes and Apollonius.
- The origins of geometry, arithmetic and algebra go back to remote periods.
- Geometric algebra was used for making figures for Vedic altars.
- (i) astonishing
It was the London Times that remarked: “No country other than India, could have produced a Gandhi.” That is why he belongs to us in a very special sense. There are several ways in which he has worked for the country and the world. He was a great nationalist leader. He was a liberator of the enslaved. He taught the doctrine of love that never fails. He was a moral genius who tried to chasten himself first before trying to exert any kind’of influence on other people. In all these ways he has helped us.
It was over thirty years ago that I put to Gandhi three questions:
(1) What is your religion?
(2) How were you led to it?
(3) What is its bearing on life?
He gave the answer, the brief answer.
I used to say, “I believe in God”, now I say, “I believe in truth”. “God is truth”, that is what I was saying and today I say, “Truth is God”. There are people who deny God. There are no people who deny Truth. It is something which even the atheists admit.
Here he was not enunciating any new proposition. He was merely declaring some fundamental truths which have come down to us from the environment in which he lived, the environment which nourished him.
He took up these two things : satyain vada dharmam cara. Speak the truth and do the right. He used to call them satya and ahimsa. These were the principles which he had. Truth is not something which we can casually get at. It requires considerable travail of human spirit to bring out harmony between the inward and the outward. Vammanasyoraikya-rupam satyam. Vak (word) and manas (thought) must have identity. If we are able to establish that identity, then it is that we have truth. Such a kind of truth will not allow us to indulge in distortion, in innuendoes, in exaggerations. It will not merely not allow us to speak lies but it will not allow us to indulge in any statements made with mental reservations. It is, therefore, something which we have to acquire at considerable cost. We cannot get it for the mere asking of it.
- What did the London Times remark?
- What kind of moral genius was Gandhi?
- Write the questions the author put to Gandhi.
- What did Gandhi say about truth?
- Which two principles are his guiding principles?
- How can we get at the quality of truthfulness?
- Write two ways Gandhi worked for the country and the world.
- Locate from the passage the words that mean the following-
- The London Times remarked, ‘No other country than India could have produced Gandhi’.
- He was a moral genius who tried to chasten himself first.
- What is your religion?, How were you led it?, What is its bearing on life?
- About truth, Gandhi said that it is God. Even the atheist admit it.
- Truth and non-violence are his guiding principles.
- We can get at it by not indulging is distortion, innuendoes, exaggerations, lies, reservations etc.
- He was a liberator of the enslaved. He taught the doctrine of love.
- (i) exaggerations
To return, therefore, to where I began, if your horizon goes as far as Srinagar in the North and Cape Camorin in the South, Karachi in the West and Dibrugarh in the East—as, indeed, it should—there is for you nothing for it but to learn Hindi, English, I have shown to you, cannot be our lingua franca. I have no prejudice against English. A knowledge of English is necessary for a few scholars, it is necessary for international contacts and for a knowledge of the sciences pursued in the West. But I am pained when an attempt is made to give English a place it cannot take. That attempt, I have no doubt, is bound to fail. Everything looks proper in its own place. There is a scare of which I should like to disabuse your minds. Is Hindi to be taught at the expense of Kannada? On the contrary, I claim that the more we propagate Hindi, the more shall we stimulate a study of vernaculars and even improve their power and potency. I say this from my experience of different provinces.
The first and the greatest social service we can render is to revert to our vernaculars, to restore Hindi to its natural place as the national language, and begin carrying on all our provincial proceedings in our respective vernaculars and national proceedings in Hindi. We ought not to rest till our schools and colleges give us instruction through the vernaculars. It ought not to be necessary, even for the sake of our English friends, to have to speak in English. Every English civil and military officer has to know Hindi. Most English merchants learn it because they need it for their business. The day must soon come when our legislatures will debate national affairs in the vernaculars or Hindi, as the case may be. Hitherto, the masses have been strangers to their proceedings. The vernacular papers have tried to undo the mischief a little. But the task was beyond them In this ancient land of cultured thinkers, the presence in our midst of a Tagore or a Bose or a Ray ought not to excite wonder. Yet the painful fact is that there are so few of them. It is my conviction that all national activity suffers materially owing to this radical defect in our system of education.
- Which language can’t be our lingua franca?
- For what is the knowledge of English necessary?
- When is the author pained?
- What does the author claim?
- What does the author want to restore?
- What does the author hope from the legislators?
- What type of people does the author want in India?
- Write from the passage the words that mean the following—
(i) to spread an idea
(ii) the language spoken by a particular group.
- English language can’t be our lingua-franca.
- The knowledge of English is necessary for international contacts and the knowledge of the sciences pursued in the West.
- The author is pained when an attempt is made to give English a place it can’t take.
- The author claims that the more we propagate Hindi, the more shall we stimulate the study of vernaculars.
- The author wants to restore Hindi to its natural place as the national language.
- From the legislators, the author hopes to debate in the vernaculars or Hindi.
- The author wants the following type of people in India—Tagore, Bose and Ray.
- (i) propagate
From the beginning, children should be allowed to develop in their own natural happy way within the control of parental love, guidance and care and without too much pressure. A change of some conventional parental attitudes may help to prevent many cases of drug dependence and other adolescent problems.
We should also understand our parental responsibilities to the world environment. Remember that the living space of this world is limited and we must leave enough space for our future generations to live happily. To achieve that aim, we must practise family planning and limit the birth rate by having only one or two children per couple. Between each birth there should be a gap of three or four years so that each child is not deprived of the right to sufficient parental love and care. Family planning really means family welfare, as it helps to keep women healthy enough to contribute to a happy home environment. A happy healthy mother is a key to the welfare of the whole family.
The mind is most important in the maintenance of positive health. To develop a healthy mind it is important to learn to relax properly and to develop ways to deal with day to day stress. Many diseases such as high blood pressure and some heart problems are thought to be related to stress, so by using relaxation, techniques you may avoid many health problems.
However, even when we enjoy good health, diseases may occur. According to international statistics, each person is at risk of becoming sick or injured about twice a year on average. It is important to deal with any sickness or injury in a realistic and intelligent way without panic. Knowledge of the body should help you to manage an emergency situation before contacting a doctor for proper medical management when necessary. Any medications or drugs such as antibiotics, or strong pain killers need to be monitored by a doctor or other qualified person in the health profession.
- How should we allow the children to develop?
- What can help to prevent adolescent problems?
- What should we also understand?
- Who is a key to the welfare of the whole family?
- How can we develop a healthy mind?
- What can help us to manage an emergency situation?
- Who should monitor any medications or drugs?
- Locate from the passage the words which mean the following—
(ii) a sudden feeling of great fear.
- We should allow the children to develop in their own natural happy way within the control of parental love, guidance and care and without too much pressure.
- A change of some conventional parental attitudes can help to prevent adolescent problems.
- We should also understand our parental responsibilities to the world environment.
- A happy healthy mother is a key to the welfare of the whole family.
- To develop a healthy mind it is important to ‘earn to relax properly and to develop ways to deal with day to day stress.
- Knowledge of the body can help us to manage an emergency situation.
- A doctor or a qualified person in the health profession should monitor any medications or drugs.
- (i) conventional
There is a danger of the world getting liberty drunk in these days like the old lady with the basket. We should think, ‘what does the rule of the road mean?’ It means in order that the liberties of all may be preserved, the liberties of everybody must be curtailed. When the policeman steps into the middle of the road and puts out his hand he is the symbol of liberty. You may not think so. If he pulls up your motor cycle at the wrong side, you will feel injured. You may feel that your liberty has been outraged. Why does this fellow interfere with your free use of the public road? If you have rationality, you’ll reflect and praise his act. If he didn’t interfere with you, he would interfere with no one. The result would be chaos. You have submitted to a curtailment of private liberty in order that you may enjoy a social order which makes your liberty a reality.
Liberty is not a personal affair only, but a social contract. It is an accommodation of interests. In matters which do not touch anybody else’s liberty I may be as free as I like. If I choose to go down in a dressing gown, with long hair and bare feet, who shall object? You have liberty to laugh at me, but I have liberty to be indifferent to you. And if I have a fancy for dyeing my hair or wearing a tall hat, a frock and sandals or going to bed late or getting up early, I shall follow my fancy and ask no man’s permission. I shall not inquire of you whether I may take fruit juice with my dinner. I may like fruit juice with my dinner. You will not ask me whether you may follow this religion or that, whether you may marry the dark lady or the fair lady.
In all these and a thousand other details you and I please ourselves and ask no one’s permission. We have a whole kingdom in which we rule alone. We can do what we choose, be wise or ridiculous, harsh or easy, conventional or odd. But as we step out of that kingdom our personal liberty of action becomes qualified by other people’s liberty.
- What is a danger of the world in these days?
- What does the rule of the road mean?
- When is the policeman a symbol of liberty?
- Why is personal liberty curtailed?
- Mention two ways of personal liberty.
- What qualifies the personal liberty?
- What is liberty?
- Locate from the passage the words that mean the following—
(i) the state of being rational
(ii) very silly or unreasonable.
- There is a danger of the world getting liberty drunk.
- The rule of the road means to maintain liberties of all and curtail everybody’s liberty.
- When the policeman is in the middle of the road taking care of the road users, he is a symbol of liberty.
- Personal liberty is curtailed for a social order.
- I may take fruit juice with dinner. I may choose to go down in dressing gown.
- Other people’s liberty qualifies your personal liberty.
- Liberty is an accommodation of interests, its a social contract.
- (i) rationality
Shivaji, the great, was a very wise and brave king. When Aurangzeb imprisoned him at Agra, he thought of a clever plan, and escaped from there in 1666. At this, the whole of Maharastra was filled with great joy. Aurangzeb, on the other hand, not furious, and broke all the treaties made by him with Shivaji and began to trouble the small Maratha Kingdom in many ways. Shivaji did not watch all this quietly. He at once decided to take suitable steps to face the new danger. He consulted his brave and trusted generals, like Pratap Rao Gurjar and Niraji Raoji, organised his own forces and began to wrest fort after fort from the hands of Aurangzeb. The Maratha soldiers were determined even to die for Shivaji. This bravery and determination helped them to recover the forts under the Moghul possession one after another. Such was the state of affairs in January, 1670.
Though Shivaji’s forces captured many forts in the Deccan, he did not feel very happy till he took back the great and important fort of Kondana. His mother Jijabai was also equally anxious that her son should get back the strategic fort soon. She said to him, Shivaji, I love the fort of Kondana because of its importance, and unless that is taken back from the Moghuls my heart will never be at rest. I am pleased to see the brave deeds of your Mavalas and faithful generals who have so far driven out the Moghuls from many a fort. I shall be happier if they can recapture Kondana too as soon as possible.”
Shivaji felt immensely happy at this; for he too had the same keen urge. He said, “Dear Mother, your wish will be carried out and that too without delay. I will not enjoy a hearty meal or sound sleep till we recapture Kondana.” This promise gladdened the heart of Jijabai and she blessed her heroic son, saying “May God give you a speedy success in the undertaking.”
- What type of king was Shivaji, the great?
- How did Shivaji come out of the prison of Aurangzeb?
- What did Shivaji do to get back his forts?
- What helped the Maratha to recover the forts?
- Which fort was the strategic fort?
- What pledge did Shivaji make to recapture Kondana?
- Who blessed whom for Kondana?
- Write the opposites of the following words from the passage—
(v) wake up.
- Shivaji, the great, was a very wise and brave king.
- He thought of a clever plan and escaped from the jail.
- Shivaji organised his own forces and began to wrest fort after fort.
- The bravery and determination helped them to recover the forts under the Moghul possession.
- The fort of Kondana was the strategic fort.
- He pledged not to enjoy hearty meal and sound sleep till he recaptured the fort of Kondana.
- Jijabai blessed Shivaji for Kondana.
- (i) happy
Very few persons, know how to read. Considerable experience with literature is needed before taste and discrimination can possibly be acquired; and, without these, it is almost impossible to learn how to read. I say, almost impossible; since there are some rare men who, through a kind of inherited literary instinct are able to read very well even before reaching the age of twenty-five years. But these are great exceptions, and I am speaking of the average; for to read the characters of the letters of the text does not mean reading in the true sense. You will often find yourselves reading words or characters automatically, even pronouncing them quite correctly, while your minds are occupied with a totally different subject. This mechanism of reading becomes altogether automatic at an early period of life, and can be performed irrespective of attention. Neither can I call it reading to extract the narrative portion of a text from the rest simply for one’s personal amusement, or in other words, to read a book “for the story”. Yet most of the reading that is done in the world is done in exactly this way. Thousands and thousands of books are bought every year, every month, I might even say every day, by people who do not read at all. They only think that they read. They buy books just to amuse themselves, “to kill time” as they call it; in one hour or two their eyes have passed over all the pages, and there is left in their minds a vague idea or two about what they have been looking at; and this they really believe is reading. Nothing is more common than to be asked, “Have you read such a book?” or to hear somebody say, “I have read such and such a book.” But these persons do not speak seriously. Out of a thousand persons who say, “I have read this”, or “I have read that”, there is not one, perhaps, who is able to express any opinion, worth hearing about what he has been reading.
- What do very few persons know?
- What is needed before taste and discrimination can possibly be required?
- Who can read very well?
- What is the mechanism of reading at an early period of life?
- How is most of the reading done?
- Who, according to the author, is a good reader?
- Which type of readers is the author speaking about?
- Locate from the passage the words that mean the following—
(ii) not clear in a person’s mind.
- Very few persons know how to read.
- Considerable experience with literature is needed for that.
- Some rare men with inherited literary instinct can read very well.
- You will find yourself reading words while your attention is occupied with a totally different subject.
- To read a book ‘for the story’ just to get a vague idea. Most of the reading is done in this way.
- A reader who can produce the thoughts worth hearing about what he has read is a good reader.
- The author is speaking about the average reader, not the exceptional reader.
- (i) amusement