Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 World’s Major Civilizations
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Text Book Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the ‘total sign’?
In Neolithic age, for a separate identity of its existence, if any group of families had adopted the shape of an animal or plant as a sign of its caste or group, it was called the “total sign” of that group.
Who are called ‘sphinx’?
In Egypt, a giant Lion-headed statue of stone situated in front of the pyramid of Khufu (Giza) is called ‘sphinx’.
What is ‘Mummy’?
In the civilization of Egypt, the body that was preserved in a pyramid with special spices is called ‘Mummy’.
Write the names of the chief deities of ‘Babylonian Civilization’?
The chief deities of ‘Babylonian Civilization’ were Ana (Akash), Shamas (sun), Biel (earth), Sin (Moon), Ningal (Moon’s wife) and Marduk.
What are the main religions of ancient China?
The main religions in ancient China were Taoism and Confuciunism.
Which of the sites of Indus Saraswati civilization are located in Rajasthan?
Write the speciality of the Indus Saraswati script.
This script was written from the right side to left side.
What is called lyric?
The short Greek poems were called lyrics.
Where and why were the Olympic games held?
The Olympic games were celebrated every fourth year in Greece in honour of God Zeus.
Where was the Roman trading post established in India?
Rome’s trading post was established in Arikmedu near Madras in India.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions
Write the major paradigms of Neolithic era.
The major paradigms of Neolithic era are following :
- Farming and Animal husbandry were practised by humans in the Neolithic age.
- People started living in houses made of clay, wooden pillars and grass pallets.
- The development of organized social life began.
- In this period animals were mainly reared to obtain milk and meat.
- Stone tools were made smoother in this age.
- In the Neolithic period, humans started making tools such as needles, barbed maces and slingshots with bone and horn.
- Pottery was invented.
- The art of spinning and weaving developed.
- Dead bodies were buried with pottery and food items.
- In this period humans invented the wheel.
Describe the status of women in the civilization of ancient Egypt?
In ancient Egypt, the position of women was good. They had sufficient respect. The girl’s opinion was taken while arranging her marriage. After marriage, the wife was cosidered equal to the husband in every aspect. They were also given equal rights in the distribution of family property. After father’s death his heir apparent was his eldest daughter. Women also had adequate social freedom. Women participated in trade and in public banquets. They also went on journeys. Examples of governance in Egypt have been found by the queens Hepsepsite and Cleopatra
What is the main contribution of Babylonian civilization to the world?
The Babylonian civilization located on the land area in the heart of present day Iran’s Dajzla and the Farhat Rivers provided significant contributions in the following ways in the development of world civilization and culture.
- The practice of imposing agricultural taxes and assignment of separate responsibility to the ministers of the council of ministers was also established.
- The code of law (code of Hammurabi) was first created in Babylon.
- The Babylonians gave legal recognition to the three classes—high, middle and slave class in the society and protected women by law.
- Babylonian civilization also initiated important concepts in the economic sphere. They kept land records and the revenue recovery was done by the government. The farmers were willing to pay taxes as they were given compensation for crop losses and fixation support price was done.
- The ancient Babylonians divided the day into 24 hours, each hour into sixty minutes and each minute into 60 seconds. This is followed today.
What were the functions of the Public Service Commission in the ancient civilization of China?
In China, Han Dynasty rulers formed a Public Service Commission for the selection of administrative officers for governance. This public service commission conducted competitive examinations and selected the best candidates for the administrative services.
Describe the major inventions of ancient Chinese civilization.
Answer: The main inventions of the ancient civilization of China are following :
- Invention of paper: Paper was invented in China in the first century AD, this revolutionized the art of writing.
- Invention of water wheel and water clock: With the invention of water clocks, the Chinese tried to deal with the floods after acquiring knowledge of dams and sluices.
- Invention of Earthquake device: The Chinese developed earthquake science. They invented a seismic recording machine, by this device they used to detect the starting point of an earthquake.
- Invention of kite: People of China invented Kites.
- Invention of Umbrella: The Chinese also invented the Umbrella.
Describe the drainage system of the Indus-Saraswati civilization.
A major feature of Indus-Saraswati civilization in India was its drainage system. This civilization is the best symbol of urban sanitation. There was a systematic system for drainage. On each side of the house there were drains for rain and dirty water drainage. The water of the upper floors fell below through grooves made of Pucca bricks. The drains of each house opened into the main drains of the street and into the drains of the main roads. Road drains were made on both sides of the road. Drains were made from clay, lime, bricks and gypsum, etc. The drains were covered with bricks and stones. They were recovered after cleaning. The water of the drains would fall into a large drain that took the water out of the city.
Describe the major reforms of Salan in Athens.
Athens was a major city state of Greece. In Athens, in the 7th century BC, the wealthy class established an oligarchy in place of monarchy. There were also some independent citizens in Athens apart from the elite and slave class, which were called ‘Demas’. Farmers, labourers, artisans and businessmen were involved in this. Those people were against oligarchy. As a result of their struggle Salan was appointed a new magistrate in 594 BC. Salan made several important improvements. He abolished the mortgage system and freed all the citizens of Athens from Slavery. He also made the rule that in future no resident of Athens will be made slaves due to non-repayment of loans. The reforms made by Salan benifitted both the poor and the middle classes.
Describe the interests of Sparta residents.
Sparta was an important city state of Greece. Due to its distinct geographical position, it was different from other Greek states. The mountain ranges used to separate it from other Greek kingdoms. The interest of this region’s residents was in military and wars. At a young age boys were trained hard, so that the Sparta state’s might brave and well-trained warriors and win wars. Most of the work of the residents was done by slaves, so that the citizens of Sparta would be free from the concerns of other duties and put their time in war and governance. Resident’s interest in militarism and wars remained because a military rule was established here.
Describe the role of slaves in Roman civilization.
The Roman Empire developed mainly in Italy. The fourth class of the Roman society was the slave class, which used to do all the work of landlords, wealthy merchants, moneylenders, independent farmers and residents of the cities. Here life of slaves was very hard. They were forced to work throughout the day and after that they were locked in their cells. Some slaves also lived in good conditions and some slaves were more educated and skilled than their masters. Such slaves were few in number. Thus, the slaves contributed significantly to the development of Roman civilization.
Mention the principal contributions of Julius Caesar.
Julius Caesar was the General of Rome. He was a versatile and talented person. He was an excellent military commander, administrator, legislator, politician and capable in all respects
‘The Julian Calendar’ modified by him is also relevant in the present time. He became very popular in the public by paying money for ‘food and sports’ for the people and paying for votes. He organized his own army and defeated the Gowl caste in an eight-year-long struggle and established Rome’s rule over whole Germany, England, etc. He suppressed all the opponents and established peace and order. Land revenue and other taxes were reduced in the provinces and ending the contractual practice of revenue collection. The task was entrusted to the government institutions. Thus, Julius Caesar performed many important works in Rome during his short reign.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Long Answer Type Questions
Consider the political, social, economic and religious life of ancient Egypt.
Egypt is a country irrigated by the Nile River in the northwest of the continent of Africa. This civilization was developed in the valley of Nile. Egypt’s civilization is very ancient. The description of the political, social, economic and religious life of ancient Egypt is presented under the following points:
Political life of ancient Egypt: The unified credit of unifying the 40 small states of ancient Egypt goes to king Minaj. Minij made a political structure in 3400 BC in Egypt. The Egyptian governance system was completely religious (Theocratic). The rulers of Egypt were called ‘Pharaohs’. His power over the people was absolute. There was a council named ‘Saru’ to give advice to the pharaoh in administrative affairs. Egypt was divided into approximately 40 provinces for administrative convenience. The provinces were known as ‘Nome’. Diferent officers appointed by the pharaoh ruled the major cities of the Kingdom. Intelligence system was present for day to day information to the pharaoh. Ancient Egyptian society was mainly divided into three sections. The dynasty, the feudals the priests were included in upper class. In middle-class clerks, merchants.
Crafstmen, artisans, intellcatcuals and some independent farmers were present. Servants and slaves were in lower class. Labourers and slaves had no independent existence. Farmers had to pay 1/8th of their income in the form of a tax. Workers were forced to work for long hours. Slaves were treated like animals. Family was a unit of Egyptian society. In the family parents, brother-sister, son-daughter, etc. lived jointly and women had great respect. There was a great difference in the living condition of the people of upper classes and lower classes. The people used different types of food such as wheat, barley, rice, millets and various vegetables in their diet. They also ate meat and drank wine.
(ii) Economic life: The basis of the economic life of the Egyptian society was farming. They used to cultivate mainly wheat, barley, peas, mustard, fig, olives, dates, flax and grapefruit and many other fruits. Egypt was called the ancient world’s granary because crops were sown three times in a year. The plough of wood was dragged by oxen. The basis of the irrigation system was the Nile river. The network of ponds and canals was spread to collect and bring the rainwater into the fields. Animal husbandry along with agriculture was also a major means of livelihood.
The main mode of transport and traffic in Egypt was the Nile river. Their trade links with Sudan, Mesopotamia, Arabia and India were very close. Here, people used to trade by barter. They used to export foodgrains, utensils, glass items, paper, furniture, etc. and used to import various types of paddy, wood, colour, spices, sandalwood and toilet items.
(iii) Religious life: The ancient Egyptians had the most prominent place of religion in their life. In their religious life, polytheism, humanization of the deities, the temples and the idols, the religious rituals of the priests, offering worship and sacrifice, the occult, the mantras, the superstitions, the worship of natural powers, the worship of trees and animals, the soul in the immortality of the universe, the primary principles of faith, rebirth and feelings of empowerent and duly completed rituals are visible. E-man-Ray (sun), Osiris (Son of sun) Sin (moon) and Osrim (Nile river) were the main gods of ancient Egyptians. Their gods were symbols of natural powers.
The Egyptians believed that the soul resides after death in the body. So they used to put a special type of spice on the dead body. The dead body did not decay for hundreds of years with this. Huge tombs were made for the protection of dead bodies. These were known as pyramids. The dead bodies which were kept in pyramids were called ‘Mummies’.
Describe the views of Laotse and Confucius in the ancient civilization of China.
Thoughts of Laotse: The famous Chinese philosopher Laotse was born in 604 BC in a poor family in Hunan province of China. His original name was Lee. He assumed the title of Laotse ‘the ancient teacher’. He collected his ideas in the book Tao-Ta-Ching. His ideology is called ‘Taoism’.
The teachings and ideas of Laotse are the following
- The education of materialism increases the superstitions of the people. Physical knowledge is not a virtue. Humans should be naturalists. Nature should be the ultimate teacher. Simple living should be the code.
- Social freedom is possible only through rural cottage industries.
- There should be minimum government control for the advancement of the state. Ego increases arrogance, which leads to downfall.
- One should adopt friendly behavior even with the enemy. In exchange for harm, instead of revenge, there should be behavior of goodness rather than that of retaliation.
- Fighting for the king was unnecessary. Innocent people were killed in wars. The life of peace was the proper path.
- Peace is the tao of development. Thoughts of Confucius: Famous philosopher Confucius was born in China’s ‘Lu’ province, in a traditional family in 551 BC. He introduced people to appropriate living as a Teacher due to his logical views.
The teachings and ideas of Confucius are the following :
- Education is the main means of building character. In schools, nothing should be taught about religion and history. Students must be taught literature, poetry, and science in higher educational institutions.
- The teacher should have proper respect for the society.
- We should respect our parents.
- All should be treated with humble behavior. Respect of Guru, duties, and kindness to a friend are noble. Harsh speech, anger, jealousy, blasphemy should be discarded.
- The king should be treated like a god. The tyrannical emperor should be removed from power by rebellion. State officials and employees ought to be compassionate, patient, fair, just and fearless and should not misuse the power of authority.
- People must obey the law honestly.
- The person who lives for others is a true human.
- To became a virtuous, dutiful and selfless man, the five qualities must be compassion, knowledge, justice, truth and service.
Describe the main features of the Indus-Saraswati civilization.
The main features of Indus-Saraswati civilization are the following :
Town Planning: The construction of planned cities is a unique feature of the Indus-Saraswati civilization, artifacts found from the cities of Indus-Saraswati civilization show that the people here used to make plans and build buildings and houses according to their cities. The main features of town planning are as follows :
(i) Town Planning Plan: As a result of the well-planned road system of the cities of Indus-Saraswati civilization, a system was created in the housing scheme of the cities and the city was divided into several sections and neighborhoods in a well-planned form. The buildings were of different sizes and types. Generally the house was large enough and the open courtyard was kept in the middle of every house and the rooms were made around the courtyard. Fired bricks were used in building houses.
(ii) Systematic Roads and Streets: The roads and link roads and lanes of the cities of Indus-Saraswati Civilization were built according to a certain plan. The roads of the cities are straight and intersect each other at right angles. The roads of this civilization were very wide. Their width range putting from 20 feet to 34 feet and trash boxes (dust bin) were kept on the corner of roads for putting garbage.
(iii) Drainage System: There were drains to carry out rain and dirty water of houses in Indus-Saraswati Civilization. The drains of each house fell through into the main drains of the street and into those beside the main roads. Drains made from fired bricks were mostly covered.
Management of cleanliness and neatness: Indus-Saraswati Civilization is the best symbol of urban cleanliness. There is a proper arrangement of cleanliness and neatness in the cities and towns houses. Day to day waste-disposal bins were kept everywhere on the streets for putting garbage.
Special Production: In the excavation of the cities of Indus-Saraswati Civilization, grains of various types, mansions and buildings have been found. Among them are the fortess of the upper city place of melting metal, the furnaces, the sacrificial aftar, the Great bath, the dockyard and the huge granary are in the fortess of the city. These relics are evidence of the advanced state and scientificity of this civilization.
Social life: The society of the Indus-Saraswati Civilization was divided into several classes. Here were the professional people they were goldsmiths, well-diggers, merchants, craftsmen, who made jewellery and beads. The people of fortress area may have been prosperous and there would have been ordinary people in the lower city. There was a specific class of priests and officials and royality. Family was the main unit of society. In this civilization, the plan for living apart in families are seen. Women had a respectable place in society and family.
Economic life: The excavations at Kalibangan gave the evidence of farming in the fields. It seems that the people of Indus-Saraswati Civilization used to cultivate the land to grow crops. These people used to grow wheat, rice, sesame, fruits, peas, mustard, cotton, etc. Cows, bulls, buffaloes and sheep were the main animals to be domesticated. There was an importance of cow dynasty. The residents here were skilled in making pottery and tools of copper and bronze, as well as in the art of making mattresses and mats. Making beads was a developed industry. ‘
Internal and foreign trade in the Indus-Saraswati Civilization was in a very developed stage. There is clear evidence of the business relationship with the people of Mesopotamia. In this civilization, the commodity exchange system for trade was in vogue.
Religious life: People of Indus-Saraswati Civilization were primarily worshippers of natural powers. They used to worship the earth, Peepal, Neem, water, sun, fire, etc. as divine powers. Based on the analysis of statues and tablets, it is evident that here superstitions, such as sacrifice and magic also prevailed. Fireplaces which were found from Lothal, Banavali and Rakhigarhi show that there should be prevalence of yagya and fire worship there. Incense was used for worship of idols. Along with the worship of Mother Goddess and Shiva, there is evidence of animal worship, tree worship and snake worship. The dead body was either burnt or burried.
Political life: We have no clear information about the political system of the Indus-Saraswati Civilization. Wheeler and Right believe that the priesthood ruled in Harappa and Mohenjodaro, while some scholars believe that there was probably the rule of the merchant class.
Art: The Indus-Saraswati Civilization had made a lot of progress in the field of art. Attractive paintings are found on the excavated utensils. Pottery made of clay, sculptures, seals, stone, jewelery, etc. are examples of their excellent art.
Script: People of Indus-Saraswati Civilization also invented the script. The number of pictorial symbols in this script was large. It appears that this script was written from right to left. This script has not been understood properly till now.
Discuss the progress made by the ancient Greek civilization in the field of literature, philosophy, art and knowledge of science.
There was great progress in the field and literature, philosophy, arts and knowledge of science in ancient Greek. This is described below in detail.
Progress in the field of literature: There was a significant progress in the field of literature in acient Greek. The Greeks gave the world many epics, poetry, drama and history texts. Iliad and Odyssey are counted among the best epics of the world, which were written by the great poet Homer. Both tragedy and joyous epics were written in Greece. Ashilus was the founder of Greek tragedy play. He wrote ‘Prometheus Bound’. The best playwright of jayous drama was Eristophenes. The Greeks wrote the books of history first. Herodotus is known as father of history. He traveled very far and wide to write the history of the wars of Greece and Persia.
Progress in the Field of philosophy: Many views were developed in ancient Greece. The most famous philosophers of Greece were Plato, Aristotle and Socrates. Many philosophical ideologies were rendered in Greece. An ideology exponent revealed logical reasoning in the prevalent myths about the nature of the physical world and their subjects. The speakers of other ideologies believed that all things are made up of atoms, and due to the variation of the configuration of these atoms, different types of creatures are found in this world. The third ideology exponent is sophism. The sophists believed that there is no absolute truth in the world. The standard of each theme is man.
Progress in the field of Art : There was a lot of progress in the field of art in ancient Greece. The best examrl^s of Greek architecture and sculpture meet in their temples. The temple of Athena is a great example of Greek architecture. The residents of Greece raised human beauty in stones. Two famous sculptors of ancient Greece were Micron and Iidius Micron’s most famous masterpiece is the statue of discuss thrower. Fidius’ most famous masterpiece is the statue of Harmaz in which he is depicted as carrying a baby dinosaur.
Progress in the field of Knowledge and Science : There was a lot of progress in the field of knowledge and science. Hippocrates kept the foundation of modern science. After the victory of Alexander there was a lot of progress in science in Greece. Aristarchus interpreted this principle that earth and other planets revolve around the sun. The calculation of earth’s perimeter by Aristatophenes was almost accurate. He made the map of the world. Alexandria became a famous center of the study of medicine.
Why is the reign of Augustus called the Golden Age of Rome’s history?
The role of Augustus was very important in the establishment of the Roman Empire. Actually the history of imperialist Rome begins with his reign. Augustus a ruled on Rome from 31 BC to 14 BC. Augustus emphasized the need to organize and strengthen the empire in place of exparding it. There was complete peace in this period. He upgraded the traffic routes and made Rome the main center of Europe by connecting all major routes. He made important contributions in the field of art, literature and education and tried to overcome the evils spread in social and religious life.
Augustus wanted to complete Julius Caesar’s programme for peace and prosperity in the Roman empire. He used his military power to protect the empire, not for the expansion of the empire. He provided all necessary rights and facilities to the citizens. He banned the unruly political parties and their institutions.
The opposition and disobedient members of Senate were removed by Augustus and he also paid full attention to the provincial governance. He appointed honest governors in the provinces and made necessary improvements in the system. He was a strong supporter of the purity of the Roman race and its preservation. On the basis of the peace prevaling during Augustus’s reign, on the basis of the progress made in different spheres of culture, his reign is called the ‘Golden Age’ of Roman history.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Other Important Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Objective Type Questions
The origin place of the world’s major civilizations is :
(a) Coastal plains
(b) Desert area
(c) River valley
(d) all of them
(c) River valley
All objects have a type of radioactive carbon, which is called :
In which of the following times did humans start animal husbandry along with agriculture
(a) stone age
(b) Middle stone age
(c) Neolithic age
(d) all of them
(c) Neolithic age
Which river is called the lifeline of the world :
(a) Saraswati river
(b) Sindhu river
Egyptian civilization emerged on the banks of which river?
(a) Nile river
(b) Sindhu river
(a) Nile river
Which of the following scholars said that Egypt is a gift of the Nile river?
In a to how many sections was the ancient Egyptian society l-vided?
Which of the following fruits were used more in Egyptian civilization?
(d) date palm
(d) date palm
By which name was the sun worshipped in Southern Egypt?
In which of the following civilizations did pharaohs get great importance?
(a) Civilization of China
(b) Greek’s civilization
(c) Babylonian Civilization
(d) Egyptian Civilization
(d) Egyptian Civilization
The main medium of transport and traffic in Egypt was :
(a) Nile river
(b) Dajla river
(c) Irravati river
(d) Hwang-Ho river
(a) Nile river
Which of the following ancient Kingdom’s military power was extremely weak?
How many symbols were there in Egyptian ancient script ‘Heiroglyphics’?
By which name the middle part of the river Dajla and Farhat was known in ancient time?
The upper class in the Babylonian society were known as :
(d) All of them
Which of the following ancient civilizations adopted the Sumerian Alphabetic script?
(a) Indus-Saraswati Civilization
(b) Roman Civilization
(c) Civilization of China
(d) Babylonian Civilization
(d) Babylonian Civilization
The oldest dynasty of China is :
(a) Han dynasty
(b) Shan dynasty
(c) Chin dynasty
(d) Ming dynasty
(b) Shan dynasty
In which of the following civilizations did the spirit of divinity prevail in the king?
(a) Chinese civilization
(b) Babylonian civilization
(c) Greek civilization
(d) All of them
(a) Chinese civilization
Kumai painter was related to which Chinese dynasty?
(a) Han dynasty
(b) Shan dynasty
(c) Ming dynasty
(d) Chin dynasty
In which of the following ancient civilizations did each family worship their ancestors?
(a) Indus-Saraswati civilization
(b) Chinese civilization
(c) Greek civilization
(d) Roman civilization
(b) Chinese civilization
Which of the following invention was made in ancient China?
(a) Water mill
(b) Water watch
(c) Earthquake recording machine
(d) all of them
(d) all of them
Which of the following civilization is the best symbol of urban cleanliness?
(a) Indus-Saraswati civilization
(b) Greek civilization
(c) Roman civilization
(d) all of them
(a) Indus-Saraswati civilization
In which of the following civilization, cotton was cultivated in the world for the first time?
(a) Chinese civilization
(b) Roman civilization
(c) Indus-Saraswati civilization
(d) Greek civilization
(c) Indus-Saraswati civilization
The highest number of objects obtained in the excavation of the Indus-Saraswati civilization
(a) Earthen Sculptures
(a) Earthen Sculptures
In the civilization of Greece the ‘goddess of victory’ was :
(d) None of these
Which of the following Greek ruler defeated king Porus?
(d) None of these
Main center of Roman civilization was :
(d) All of them
(d) All of them
Which of the following Roman ruler constructed the Julian Calender?
(a) Julius Caesar
(c) Augustus Caesar
(a) Julius Caesar
Which of the following Roman ruler’s reign is called the golden age?
(c) Augustus Caesar
(c) Augustus Caesar
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the literal meaning of the word civilization?
The word civilization has emerged from the word assembly. The literal meaning of civilization is with those rules of experience or experience of those human behaviours in which ties and mutual need take on collective life in human society.
What is age of our earth?
13 billion years
Which is known as ‘Ice-age’?
Answer: The development of human being during the period between 500 BC to five thousand BC have been studied. This era has been called the ‘Ice-age’.
What is the significance of pre-history or pre-historic times?
In remote past, when humans did not keep any written description of the events, that age is called pre-history or pre-historic times.
What is meant by middle stone age?
Almost 10,000 years ago, human began to progress rapidly. At that time he started making many advanced tools, this period is called ‘Middle stone age’.
What is the meaning of culture?
Culture means mode of human behaviour, earning livelihood, finding new knowledge and expressing thoughts through art and literature.
Who is an anarchaeologist?
One who is an expert in the science of studying and excavating relics of ancient and prehistoric civilizations to learn about the daily life our ancestors living in the past and their business, is called an anarchaeologist.
What is the Carbon-14 method of date determination?
Detection of Carbon-14 contained in an object used in determining how old such an object is called carbon-14 method of dating.
Into how many parts has the stone age been divided on the basis of their tools?
Stone age is divided into in three parts on the basis of their tools :
- Rukhani or Sholker tools.
What was the most useful weapon of humans in the stone-age?
By what names were the small tools known in the middle stone age ?
What type of cart was used by humans to travel on ice in the middle stone age ?
Sledge cart without wheels.
Which is known as ‘Dhanvakar’ Fertile region ?
First of all, agricultural work began on the borders of the deserts of Thailand, Arabia and Iran, in the valley where there was no shortage of water. This is called ‘Dhanvakar fertile region’.
What is mixed agriculture ?
When Neolithic people domesticated animals for their skin, meat and milk, along with agriculture, this was called mixed farming.
Which was the main tool of Neolithic age ?
Smooth axe of stone.
Invented in which period were Earthem utensils ?
In Neolithic period. .
Who is known as mother goddess ?
In Neolithic age small statues of women made of clay called ‘Mother Goddess’ that is found in settlements.
In what work did the man first use the wheel ?
In making pottery.
Which of the metals was first discovered by humans 7
Which river is known as the life line of the world ?
Which country is called the gift of the Nile river ?
Which king was responsible for the integration of Egypt in ancient times ?
Who was Pharaoh ?
The king of Egypt was known as Pharaoh.
In which river valley was the Egyptian civilization located ?
Answer: The Nile river.
What were the dead bodies, which were kept in pyramids, called ?
Which class was the basis of economic life of the Egyptian society ?
In Egypt, which council was formed to give advice to the ruler in administrative work ?
Which pyramid of Egypt is very famous ?
Giza pyramid made by Kufu.
Which Queen of Egypt was an expert in painting ?
Write the name of the Alphabetic script of ancient Egypt.
Which French scholar succeeded in reading all the letters of the Egyptian script?
Who was the sixth ruler of the Amorite dynasty in ancient Babylonia ?
Which ruler is called the creator of the Babylonian empire ?
What is the main contribution of Babylonia ?
Law-code created by Hammurabi.
What was the language of the law code of Hammurabi ?
What was the fine theory penal principle of Hammrabi ?
As you sow, so shall you reap and blood for blood in revenge.
In how many parts was Babylon divided ?
In three parts :
By What name was the slave class of babylonian civilization .known ?
What was the main source of income of Babylonian society ?
What were Ziggurat ?
The Babylonian civilization had a few speciments of architectural: excellence’ called the Ziggurat. They were considered to be the place of god.
Which was the first epic of the world ?
In which area did the Babylonians have great interest ?
In the field of astrology.
In which river valley was the ancient Chinese civilization located was?
In Hwang-ho river valley.
Why is the Hwang-ho known as yellow river ?
Due to excessive silt in it, the river Hwang-ho is called the yellow river.
By what name were the Chinese provinces known ?
The Chinesee provinces were known as ‘Sang’.
In which ancient civilization was the public service commission for the selection of administrative officers present?
In Chinese civilization.
Of which metal were Chinese artists skilled in making items ?
They were skilled in making objects from copper metal.
By which name was the class of scholars in China known ?
Write the names of main god and goddess of China’s civilization.
(i) Sky (Yang)
(ii) Earth (Ying)
Write the names of any four philosophers of China.
Write the names of any two texts of Confucius.
When and where was Laotse born ?
Laotse was born in a poor family in Hunan district of China in 604 B.C.
When and where was Confucius born ?
Confucius was born in a rich family in ‘Lu’ district of China in 551 B.C.
What is Taoism ?
Ideology of China’s famous philosopher Laotse is called Taoism.
Who discovered Harrappa and when ?
Dayaram Sahani discovered Harrappa in 1921 A.D.
Who discovered Mohanjodaro ?
Which is the archaeological site of Indus-Saraswad civilization in Jammu and Kashmir ?
Write the names of any two main centres of Indus-Saraswad civilization.
From where is the oldest evidence of the Great Bath found ?
From which archaeological site of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization, was a dockyard discovered?
From where was the oldest evidence of cultivated field obtained ?
From which archaeological site of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization, was the oldest evidence of Agnikund and Agnivedika obtained ?
In which civilization were signs of the existence of Yoga and Yoga Sadhna found?
Write the name of main gods and goddesses of ancient Greece.
- Zeus (God of sky)
- Poisedon (God of sea)
- Appolo (Sun God)
- Athena (Goddess . of Victory).
Which were the chief city-states of Greek civilization?
Athens and Sparta.
When and between whom was the war of Marathon fought?
The Marathon war was fought between Athens and Persian empire in 490 B.C., in which Athens was victorious.
When and between whom was the Peloponician war fought?
The Peloponician war was fought between Athens and Sparta from 431 B.C. to 404 B.C.
What is the meaning of demos ?
In Athens, there were some independent citizens other than the elite and slaves. They were called demos.
Which Greek scholar of geography calculated the circumference of the earth?
Who was the author of Greek tragedy drama ‘Promotheus Bound’?
Write the name of the best happiness drama of Greece.
Which of the Greek epics are considered to be the best epics of the world?
Iliad and Odyssey.
Who was the author of world famous epics Iliad and Odyssey?
Write the name of text written by Plato.
When and where was Rome city established?
The establishment of Rome city took place in the district of Latium in the South of the Tiber river in approximately 1000 B.C.
When and between whom were the Pumic wars fought?
The Pumic wars were fought between Carthage and Roman citizens between 264 B.C. to 146 B.C.
When and by whom was the Roman general Julius Caesar murdered?
Pompeii’s followers Cassius and Brutus murdered Julius Caesar on 15th March, 44 B.C.
Which ruler’s role was very important in the establishment of the Roman Empire?
Who was the most famous historian of Rome?
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions
Describe the art of stone age.
- The man of this age first painted human and animal figures by drawing lines on the walls of his caves. Multicolored images, carvings on the inner terraces that look like “picture galleries” have been found in excavations. In these paintings and carvings, there are large interesting scenes of wild bulls, horses, deer, reptiles, mammoths (ancient elephants) have been discovered in residential settlements in mountainous rocks.
- The human of this period made the shape of humans and animals on ivory and bones.
- He also carved on his personal materials and tools. He decorated his body with ivory, necklaces, earrings and handbags made of bones, stones and shells.
How did the settlements come into being in the Neolithic era? Explain.
In Neolithic period when the man started farming, he immediately came to know that it is not enough to sow the seeds only. It is also necessary to take care of growing plants. This led to systematic life. So, people had to stay at the place where they grew crops and live in houses made of clay and wooden pillars and hay/straw pallets. These settlements were usually close to their fields. Later these settlements developed and became a village and later these village converted into cities.
What is the contribution of the Nile river in ancient Egyptian civilization?
Answer: Ancient Egyptian civilization was developed in the valley of Nile river. Egypt is an African country. There is very low rainfall here. In the rainy season, the Nile fills its shores with plenty of water and collects fertile soil along with it to supply the other requirements of minerals, grass and greenery in Egypt. If this region did not have the Nile flowing through it, this area would also be a desert.
Based on the political events can in how many periods Egypt be divided? Explain.
In ancient times, Egypt was divided into about forty small states. There was constant struggle between these states. The credit goes to king Minij, to integrate these states in 3400 B.C. into a single empire. Based on political events, Egypt is divided into three periods :
- Epoch of pyramid or ancient kingdom (3400 B.C. to 2160 B.C.)
- Feudal era or medieval kingdom (from 2160 B.C. to 1580 B.C.).
- The era of empires or the new state (1580 B.C. to 650 B.C.).
Describe the religious life of ancient Egyptians?
The life of ancient Egyptians had the most prominent place of religion in it. In their religious life, polytheism, the humanization of the deities, the temples and the idols, the religious rituals of the priests, offering worship and sacrifice, the occult, the chants, the superstitions, the worship of natural powers, the worship of trees and animals, the soul being immortal, the primacy of faith, rebirth and feelings of empowerment and duty were some rituals that were prevalent.
The main gods of Egyptians were Aman-ray (sun), Osiris (son of sun), Sin (Moon), Osrim (Nile River). These gods were symbols of natural powers.
Egyptians believed that the soul resides in the body after death. So, they used to put a special type of spice on the dead body. By this the dead body did not rot for hundreds of years. Huge tombs were created for the protection of dead bodies, which were called pyramids. The dead bodies kept in pyramids were called ‘Mummies’.
Describe the judicial system of Egyptian.
There was no separate class of judges in Egypt just like the army officers. Often civil (non-military) officers used to fulfil the duties of the judges. The Pharaoh could also be appealed in some cases. The penal legislation was very harsh in the Egyptian civilization. There was a provision of death penalty for rape, physical torture and some criminal offenses.
Describe the ancient Egyptian architecture.
The best example of architecture in ancient Egyptian civilization is found in the form of pyramids. Pyramids were triangular. They were separated from the inner rooms in which all the necessary and comfortable material of human use were available. In one chamber, the dead body of Pharaoh was buried in a casket with spices. Pyramid built in Giza by Khufu is one of the most famous pyramids. In this pyramid, the stone blocks have been so joined that no needle can be inserted between them.
In addition to the pyramids huge temples of stones were also constructed in Egypt. Cornaka temple is famous for its vastness and artistic beauty. Similarly, Abu Simbel and Luxor’s temple are also famous for artistic beauty. In addition to the temples, a type of building (Obelisk) and hill tomb are also excellent specimens of Egyptian art. ‘
Describe ancient Egypt’s contribution to the modern world.
There is an important place of Egyptian civilization in world history. Egyptians had mastery over the science of agriculture, an excellent system of irrigation, the art of building huge pyramids and temples, making paper, glasses and glazed pottery Egypt repionnered the establishment of a united empire long before other countries and developing political philosophy and laws to govern it. The Egyptians had the knowledge of philosophy, writing, literature, mathematics, science, etc. The construction of huge buildings in the field of architecture is also an important contribution to the world.
Describe the administrative system of Hammurabi’s period in ancient Babylon.
The sixth ruler of the Amorite dynasty of ancient Babylonia was Hammurabi. During his period the power of the king increased greatly and his rule became autocratic. There was a council of ministers to help the king in administrative works. Governance was divided into several departments and responsibility of those departments was held by different ministers.
The emperor had the right to define and implement the monetary policy. The’ entire empire was divided into several provinces for the convenience of administration. The territories of the provinces were governed by officials, who were directly responsible to the king.
Who was Hammurabi?
The sixth ruler of the Amorite dynasty was Hammurabi. He ruled for 42 years (2123-2081 B.C.). He was a great warrior and creator of Babylonian empire. He was not only a winner but worthy ruler and law maker too. His versatility is seen from his code of law. He was a hardworking, disciplined, justice loving ruler. Most of his time was spent for the good of the people. He paid special attention towards the development of trade and commerce and industry.
What do you know about law-code of Hammurabi?
Hammurabi was sixth ruler of Amorite dynasty of ancient Babylonia. He made a law code for his people, which is the oldest law-code available at this time. He carved it in 3600 rows on a stone column eight feet high, which was installed at temple of Markluk in Babylonia. The penal theory of Hammurabi’s was ‘As you sow’, so shall you reap and blood for blood revenge. The language of this code is semetic. There are 285 sections in this law-code, which are divided into scientific concepts, divided into individual assets, trade and commerce, family, crime and chapters of labour. The greatest feature of this code is that its laws are completely secular.
Elucidate the social organisation of Babylonian civilization.
Babylonian society was divided into three classes. They were (i) Higher class (ii) Middle class (iii) Lower class.
- The members of this class were known as ‘Avilam’. High Officals, landlords and the merchant class were included in this class. This class was full of comfort.
- Middle Class: The members of this class were known as ‘Kmaskenam’ in the society of Babylonia. In this class traders, craftsmen, intellectuals, state employees, farmers and workers were included. The members of this class were independent like higher class members.
- Lower Class: The members of this class were known as ‘Ardu’. They were cosidered to be the property of their master. They had to wear a special type of costume. There was a system to sell and buy them as slaves.
Describe the status of women in Babylonian civilization.
The status of women in Babylonian society was respectful. They had great freedom. A contract letter was written before marriage. Decision was taken after considering the opinion of women in relation to divorce, remarriage, etc. In the condition of divorce, women had the right to receive alimony. Women were also allowed to do business and join government service. Simultaneously, control over women was also adequate. They had to live under men. Men could have more than one woman as their wives.
What are the main contributions of ancient Babylonian civilization in the field of arts and science.
The achievements of the people of Babylonian civilization were important in the field of art and science. These achievements can be understood under the following points :
- Calculation was based on decimals and hexadecimal system in the field of maths in ancient Babylonia.
- Here resideftts were more interested in astrology. They equated Jupiter to ‘Marduk’, mercury to’-‘Nebu’, Mars to Negerle, Moon to sin, Sun to Shamas, Saturn to Ninish and Venus was Considered as a goddess.
- They knew the exact time of sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset. Calculating the time of day and night, the whole day was divided into 24 hours.
- There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. The Babylonians were the first to do this division.
- They divided the year into 12 months. There were 354 days in their year.
- The people of Babylon made the maps of the provinces and cities for the first time. Later, these arrangements also spread to other parts of the world.
Write a short note on social life of ancient Chinese civilization ?
The Chinese society was divided into several classes. There were five main classes under the ruling class—
In China, people could achieve high status through education. Like ancient India, intellectuals and literary figures were highly respected in ancient China. In ancient China the position of soldiers was low. The situation of farmers and labourers was pathetic. The slaves were bought and sold. There was a separate class of scholars in China called ‘Mandarin’. In order to join this class, Young men were required to pass difficult exams. There was a joint family system in Chinese civilization. The oldest person of family was the chief of family. There was a sense of collective (joint) responsibility in the family. There was no glorious place of women in the society. The eil practice and divorce system were also in force. Dowry was also given in marriage.
Describe the religious life of ancient Chinese civilization?
The Chinese were worshippers of natural powers. They worshipped the sun, sky, earth, air, rain, mountains and vegetation, etc. They used to worship arms and ammunition and also their ancestors. Chinesee religion was similar to that in ancient Indian civilization. The Chinese also believed in magic and sacrifice etc. Later on the Chinesee religious ideology was influenced by ideology and monotheism of Confucius and Taoism of Laotse and also Buddhism. Here the new year’s celebration lasted 2 weeks. The spring season was also celebrated.
Write any two teachings of Confucius.
The teachings of Confucius :
- In schools, nothing should be taught about religion and history. Education is the main means of building character. Literature, poetry and science should be taught in higher educational institutions. The teacher should have proper respect for the society.
- Parents are the main pilgrimage. They should be respected. All should adopt humble behaviour, respect of Guru, duties and kindness to a friend. Abandoning hateful speech, jealousy, blasphemy should be discarded.
Describe the main teachings of Laotse ?
The teachings of Laotse are the following :
- The education of materialism increases the greed and superstition in the people. Physical knowledge is not.a virtue. Humans should be naturalists. Nature should be the ultimate respect, and simple living should be adopted.
- Social and economic freedom is possible only by promoting rural cottage industries.
- There should be minimum government control for the advancement of the state. Ego increases the lust for power which leads to the downfall of the ruler.
- Friendly behaviour ought to be adopted even with the enemy. In exchange for loss, instead of hardness, there should be behaviour of goodness rather than cruelty and evil.
- Fighting for the king is unnecessary. Innocent people are killed in the war. The life of peace is the proper path.
- Peace is the Tao of development.
Describe the urban life in the Indus-Saraswati civilization.
Indus-Sarawati civilization was the oldest civilization of the world. Based on the remains of excavation, this civilization has been called the urban civilization. The excavation here has found extensive roads, pucca bricks houses, a huge bath for combine bathing, well planned houses, streets and community wells, etc. On the west side of each town there is a part of the ‘fort’ or ‘Ghori’ on a platform and on the lower back towards east of the city, the city portion is located which was inhabited by the general population. The fortified part was probably the residence of priests or rulers. This civilization is the best symbol of urban cleanliness. Such drainage system can not be found elsewhere in the world. Based on the facts, it can be said that the urban life here was very advanced.
Describe the social life of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
Social Life : The society of Indus Saraswati civilization was divided into several classes. There were the professional people including goldsmiths, water-diviners, merchants, crafstmen, who made jewellery. The people of Garhari area may have been-prosperous and there would be common people in the lower city. There was a specific class of priests and officials and royalty. Family was the main unit of society. In this civilization the families lived in separate units. Women had a respectable place in society and family. The ‘Parda system’ was not prevalent and women used to wear ornaments. These people used to wear cotton clothes. They had knowledge of weapons. Among the means of entertainment music, dances, hunting and gambling were prominent People of this civilization ate wheat and rice, milk, meat, fruits, etc. in their diet.
Describe the economic life of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
In the economic life of the Indus-Saraswati civilization agriculture, animal husbandry, trade and commerce had a prominent place.
Kalibanga provides the evidence of farming in the field. It seems that the people of Indus-Saraswati civilization used to cultivate land to grow crops. These people used to cultivate wheat, rice, sesame seeds, fruits, peas, mustard seeds cotton, etc. Cows, bulls, buffaloes, sheep were the main animals to be reared. There was an importance of cow species. The residents here were skilled in making pottery and tools of copper and bronze, as well as in the art of making clay pottery and mats. Making beads was a developed industry. There is a complete workshop for making beads in the Chanhudaro and Lothal and evidence of oyster industry from Balakst.
Internal and foreign trade in the Indus-Saraswati civilization was in a very developed stage. There is clear evidence of the business relationship with the people of Mesopotamia. In this civilization, the commodity exchange system for trade was in vogue.
Describe the religions life of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
Religions life : People of Indus-Saraswati civilization were primarily worshippers of natural powers. They used to worship the earth, sky, Neem, water, sun, fire etc. as a divine power. Based on the analysis of statues and tablets, it is evident that here superstitions, such as sacrifice and magic also prevailed. Sacrificial altars which were found from Lothal, Bamawali and Rakhigarhi, show that there should be prevalence of yagya and fire worship there. Incense was lit for worship of idols. Along with the worship of mother goddess and shiva, there is evidence of animal worship, tree worship and Snake worship. The dead body was either burnt or buried.
What was the extent of Indus-Sarawati civilization ?
In present the archaeological sites of this civilization have been found in Sindh, Punjab and Baluchistan provinces in Pakistan and from Jammu-Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra in India.
The list of these are following: Balochistan (Pakistan)-Sutkagendor, Sutkakoh, Bolokh.
Punjab (Pakistan) Harrappa, Jalalpur, Rehmandheri, Sarai Khola, Goneriwal, Sindh (Pakistan)-Mohanjodaro, Chanhudaro, Koatdizi, Judirjodaro; Punjab (India) Ropar, Kotla, Nihangkhan, Sanghol-Haryana (India)- Banawali, Mitathal, Rakhigarhi. Jammu-Kashmir (India) Manda (Jammu), Rajasthan (India), Kalibanga, Uttar Pradesh (India) Alamgirpur (Meerut), Hulas (Saharanpur). Guajrat (India)- Rangpur, Lothal, Prabhaspatan, Rozdi, Deshalpur, Surkotra, Malvan, Bhagat Rav, Dholaveera; Maharashtra-Dainabad (Ahmadnagar).
Throw light on the Great Bath of Mohanjodaro.
Its an important place of Indus-Saraswati civilization, which is situated in Mohanjodaro. This bath house (bathroom) is 39 feet long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. South and North side stairs are located in this trough. In this trough masonry has been done with great care and skill. The slope of the bathing floor is towards the South-West. There was a large drain in the South-Western comer of the bath, through which water drainage was arranged. This bathroom was used on religious festivals and ceremonies.
Briefly elucidate the script of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
The script of Indus-Saraswati civilization is still a mystery for scholars. So far, more than 100 claims have been submitted about this script, but the credibility of all of them is questionable. More than 2500 records are available in this civilization. The longest records contains 17 letters. They are written on seals. So far, about 419 pictures have been identified in this script. On the basis of a record of Kalibanga, it was concluded that this script was written from right to left side.
Which elements of Indus-Saraswati culture are still visible in our culture?
Indus-Saraswati civilization may have been destroyed but the continuous flow of many elements of this culture is still visible in our culture. We can understand this under the following points :
- The architecture of this civilization is seen in many buildings of modern India today.
- Many modern cities are inspired by the city planning of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
- In agriculture and animal husbandry, the people of the Indus-Saraswati civilization did many innovative experiments which later became a part of the Indian economy.
- The jewellery used by the residents of this civilization can be seen in our social life.
- The worship of shiva, shakti and nature are the contribution of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
- Yoga is also a contribution of this civilization.
Thus, we can say that various elements of Indus-Saraswati civilization still can be seen in our culture.
Describe the ancient Greek philosophy in brief.
Many views were developed in ancient Greece. The most famous philosophers of Greece were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. They believed that knowledge shows that path of right conduct and happiness. Plato imagined such an ideal society. Aristotle believed in the middle path. New ideologies were introduced in Greece, which can be summarised in the following ways: Greek ideology exponents revealed logical reasoning about the prevalent myths regarding nature of the physical world and their elements.
- The proponents of the second ideology believed that all things were created from atoms.
- The exponents of the third ideology were called ‘Sophists’. They thought that there is no absolute truth in the world. The criteria of each object is differently interpreted.
- Apart from these, two other philosophical ideologies were also prevalent in Greece.
(a) Stoic ideology believed that men should be satisfied with their destiny.
(b) The Epicurean ideology believed that the greatest good for humans is happiness.
Who was Socrates ?
Socrates was the most famous philosophar of Greece. He was a resident of Athens. The violence in wars made him a philosopher. Socrates stressed the logic to know the truth. He said that to know the truth we should think and analyze. He believed that knowledge shows the path of right conduct and happiness. Many evils arise from ignorance. He strongly condemned the beliefs prevailing in Athens. So he was punished for misleading the youth and idolating new gods. He was poisoned to death.
Write a short note on Roman king Constantine.
Constantine was a person of righteous, moderate, discriminative, efficient and generous ideas. He built a new huge capital for Roman Empire, named Constantinople. He tried to establish religious unity within the two main sects of Christianity but he did not find notable success in it. He gave Christians the right to build churches and also to worship in it. He began to consider himself a representative of God and spent so much money on his royalty and welfare activities that his treasury became empty. The Hunas were preoccupied with the East-Europeon boundaries of the Roman empire in Constantine’s period. Constantine died in 337 AD.
Describe the life and culture of the inhabitants of Rome.
The main center of Roman civilization was Italy. Early residents of Rome were engaged in agriculture most of the time and used to rear cow, bull and sheep and make their clothes with flax and cotton. These people used to use clay and wooden utensils. Each family worshipped the goddess of the stove as “Vesta’. Women had respect in Roman society. Roman society was divided into four classes—(i) Elite class (ii) Rich traders and moneylenders (iii) Small independent farmers and towns residents (iv) Slave class.
The upper class people and the rich traders lived in palaces. The lives of slaves were pathetic. There were chariot races and fencing competitions in the cities.
Evaluate the ruler Augustus of the Roman Empire.
The role of Augustus in the establishment of the Roman empire was very important. In fact, the history of imperialist Rome begins with his reign. He paid special attention to organizing and strengthening the empire in place of empire expansion. By upgrading the traffic routes and connecting Rome with all the major routes, he made it the center of Europe. He encouraged education, literature and art. Serious attempts were made to remove evils in social
and religious life. He proudly used to say that when he got Rome it was a city of bricks and when he left Rome, it had become a marble town. Therefore, there is no doubt that he was a meritorious, benevolent and efficient ruler.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Long Answer Type Questions
Describe detail the tools, community life and art of stone age.
Stone tools have been of great significance in the life of early humans. If it is said that without the tools of stone, the life of early human was not possible, it would be no exaggeration. The people hunted animals for food with these tools and weapons made of stone. In fact, the process of cultural development of human beings started at the time when the skill of making stone tools was developed. If we think of stone tools in a functional sense, these tools are mainly found in three parts : (i) Oasis (Kuthar) (ii) Gandase (iii) Rukhani or Shalkar (cutting/sharpening) tools.
- Oasis : It was used to crush an object. It was made by stripping the stone from the hard part of the rock.
- Gundase : It was probably used to cut meat, they were prepared by making sharp edges on one side of the heavy stone.
- Rukhani or Shalkar : These tools were smaller and thinner than the Oasis and Gundase, but they had more sharp edges.
There is an important fact of stone age tools that they have been found in many places of Europe, Africa and Asia. This reveals the universal utility of stone tools.
Community Life : The community life of stone age began the later stone age. At this time, the task of collecting food items was done by the action of primitive human cooperation. Facing the circumstances he had realized that he could not live for long unless he got to meet others. It was necessary for him to be well groomed for this protection. This situation became the basis of community life. Community life was in the emergence stage and under the circumstances, it was very fragile. The size of the community depended on the quantity of fruits available in the area and the number of animals to be hunted. The community could not live in the same place for long time. With changing seasons they had to change their places with their animals.
In later stone age men and women had equal status in community life. In the Neolithic period, the situation further improved the social point of view. Due to the knowledge and practice of agriculture in this period the division of labour came into existence,
Art: Stone age’s art was also in its emergence stage. The man of this age first painted figures by drawing lines on the walls of his caves. Colourful pictures are found on the inner terraces and walls in some caves. In these pictures running wild bulls, horses, bears, deer, etc. and very beautiful pictures of hunting are seen. What was the purpose of art of stone age men ? It is not entirely clear, but by developing art, human perceptions developed. The stone-age man also carved his personal items as well as carved the tools. Pictures made in many hill caves are evidence of this. Cave paintings of Bhimbetka located in Madhya Pradesh are considered to be of the stone age.
Describe human development in the Neolithic period.
Human development in the life of early human in the Neolithic period proved to be a milestone. Virtually the Neolithic period was the period of progressive development of the human life. In this period there were revolutionary changes in the area of basic needs of life, which we can understand in the following ways :
Development of Settlements : The basic concept of human development is hidden in community life. Establishment and development of settlements gave rise to community life. When the early man started farming, he immediately came to know that it was not enough to sow the seeds only. It was also necessary to take care of growing plants. Settlements were developed in such a situation in the initial stage. Later these settlements developed and became a village. This was the beginning of a systematic and organized life, which was a very important step towards human development.
Development of mixed agriculture : One important aspect of human development in the Neolithic era was also the development of mixed agriculture in this period. Mixed farming means that at this time, human grew crops and also took up animal husbandary. The use of animals was also important for carrying goods besides obtaining milk and meat. This got rid of unnecessary violence which was an important step in terms of human development. Due to mixed agriculture, food security of the Neolithic man was ensured, which led to increase in population. In such a situation the villages started growing and some of them become cities. In this way the process of human progress speed up.
Improve community life : Due to development of settlements and mixed agriculture the community life of Neolithic man improved. As a result of this division of labour came into being. Now the land, houses, utensils and ornaments were the property of different families. This community life of Neolithic era was a sophisticated form of community life of later stone period, in which the main occupations of human were only hunting and gathering fruits.
Development of various arts : Art has a very important place in human development. In Neolithic times, man made significant achievement due to the invention of stone tools, pottery, invention of wheel and the art of spinning and weaving. Due to their development the life of man became progressive. Due to the sophisticated stone tools, the agricultural work done by the human beings became easy and simple, the storage of grains and food was made easy due to the presence of pottery. Development of art of spinning and weaving was a great success of human intelligence, thereby the surest way of covering the body was developed. The invention of the wheel was the beginning of the technological revolution in the human development of Neolithic period. It gave rise to the first transport. It became easy to take the goods from one place to another by the wheeled cart. This streng thened community life and started a new socio-economic system.
Religious Life : Religious life is an intangible part of human development. In Neolithic time, man believed that the sun, the moon, the stars and other elements of nature possess exceptional power. They pleased them by worshipping them. It has been so in the present time also. It is evident from the above description that human development in the Neolithic period was remarkable and eventful.
Describe the administrative system of ancient Egypt.
Administrative system of ancient Egypt: Egypt’s governance system can be described under the following headings :
Central administration (The Pharaoh) : King was known as ‘Pharaoh’ in ancient Egypt. He was the supreme authority of the empire. He was the supreme commander, supreme judge and giver of laws. He was totally autocratic and absolute ruler. The supreme power of the state was centered in his hand. He was considered a representative of the sun god ‘Ray1. Generals, judges, ambassadors, provincial governors and other high officials were appointed by the ‘Pharaoh’. The full responsibility of the central government was on them.
The Egyptian governance was completely religious (Theocratic). The king was considered to . be God himself due to being a representative of Sun god. After death, they worshiped him in the temple opposite the pyramid.
Siru : For assistance in administrative work, a council named ‘Siru’ was appointed. But its advice was not mandatory for the Pharaoh. There was also a Prime Minister and other employees for the administration’s work.
Provincial System : Ancient Egyptian empire was divided into approximately 40 states for administrative convenience. The province was called ‘Nom’, provincial officer “Nomin” or “Nomarch”. His appointment was at the pleasure of the Pharaoh. The provincial governors used to work for implementation of laws, realisation of taxes, ensuring peace and justice. Often the head priest was appointed to this position.
Urban Arrangement: The rule of the great cities of the empire used to be carried out by different officers appointed by the Pharaoh and were directly responsible to the Pharaoh. Intelligence system : Detectives were appointed in the different parts of empire. These detectives used to change their dress and roaming around different places they conveyed different kinds of information to the king. Incidents occuring in different parts of the empire were also reported to the king.
Judicial system : There was no separate class of judges in ancient Egypt. Army officers and often civil (non-military) officers used to fulfil the duties of the judges. The Pharaoh could also be appealed in some cases. In the remaining cases, higher officers used to administer justice system.
The penal legistation was very harsh in the Egyptian society. There was a provision of death penalty for rape, physical torture and some more serious criminal offenses.
Explain the ancient Egyptian script and literature.
The description of the progress of literature and script in ancient Egyptian civilization is as follows :
Egyptian script: Ancient Egyptians needed the knowledge of writing as many such chants were used in their death rites and preservation of the future of the mantras was possible only by recording them in writing. They needed a script even in economic and administrative activities..
Hieroglyphic script : The pictographic script of ancient Egypt is called hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphic is the Greek word which means ‘sacred script’. There were 24 symbols. Each of which was a symbol of the consonant. There was no vowel in this script. Later, the Egyptian residents started using signals for ideas. Thus the number of symbols increased to 500 and the development of writing t> : ame an art form. Clerks had a prominent place in society. They used to write on the leaves of a plant named papyrus. After persistent efforts, French scholars such as Chanpier (1790 to 1932 AD) were able to read all the letters of script.
Egyptian literature : The Egyptians also made substantial progress in the field of literature. Most of their literature was religious, in which they praised the gods and the Pharaohs. The description of the great works of Egyptian Pharaohs is recorded in the book of dead. In the ‘Pyramid texts’, there is a mention of chants, worship, devotion and prayers related to death rites.
Describe the contribution of ancient Egyptian civilization in the development of art.
Contribution of Egyptian civilization in development of art : We can understand the contribution of Egyptian civilization in the field of art under the following headings :
Architecture : The ancient Egyptian contributed to the field of architecture by building the great pyramids. These people created the pyramids to reveal the pride of state and its symbol to express .ne Pharaoh’s glory. The Pyramid built in Gija by Khuf is the most famous one. According to historian Herodotus, this pyramid was built in 20 years by a million artisans. The temples of Egyptians also hold an important place in the field of Architecture. The temple of Qarnak is famous for its vastness and artistic beauty. Luxor’s temple is also world renowned for its artistic beauty.
The obelisk and rocky tombs are also excellent specimens of architecture. The obelisk were rows of stone from bottom to top which were famous for their construction style.
Sculpture : By making sculptures of Pharaohs and animals, ancient Egyptian art developed highly. Here, the stately stone sculptures of Ptolemy III and Rameses II appear to touch the sky. Statue of lions in the time of Amenhotap III and statue of surfrising in the temple of Simbal have a special place in the field of sculpture.
Painting : Egyptian artists used to paint their relief pictures with different colours. Excellent examples of ancient. Egyptian painting are found in different colours on the walls inside temples, pyramids and buildings. Egyptian artists painted scenes of natural beauty. Egyptian Queen Hepsapisut was proficient in painting.
Metal art: In the field of metal art ancient Egyptians had made a lot of progress. The metal makers introduced art sculptures in the form of statues of gold, silver, copper, bronze etc. They made weapons, chariots, crowns, royal jewellery, utensils and other things from metals. The idol made by copper plates on top of ‘Pepee first is world famous. Many gold items have been found from Tutenkhaman’s tomb, which is the symbol of the civilisation being in advanced stage at that time.
Writing art : The ancient Egyptian is called hieroglyphics. There were 24 symbols in this script. Later the numbers of these symbols increased to 500. They used to write upon papyrus leaves.
From all the above details it is clear that the understanding of the Egyptians was very good. The construction of huge buildings in the field of art is their important contribution. The pyramids are still considered as one of the seven wonders of the world. The present human civilization will be grateful to the Egyptian civilization for its contribution in the field of art.
Describe the progress in the field of knowledge and science in ancient Egypt.
The ancient Egyptians played an important role in creating many principles of modern science. They had made considerable progress in the field of mathematics, astrology and astronomy.
Mathematics: To mark the desired number, the digits from 1 to 9 were used repeatedly and there were different symbols for multiples of 10. For example, there were different indications for 1,10, 100. They had also knowledge ofunion, subtraction and division. But they were unfamiliar with multiplication.
Astrology and Solar Calendar contribution: The invention of solar calendar was an important contribution of Egyptians. Their year was 365 days, and 12 months and 30 days in the month. They had good knowledge of astronomy. They understood the movement of the planets and constellations and made a map of the sky by accurately plotting the planetary position. Egypt’s astrologers used to study the constellations and used to make predictions.
Chemistry : The Egyptians also made substantial progress in the field of chemistry. They have kept the dead body (Mummy) safe for thousands of years with the help of special type of chemicals. From this, it is known that in the field of chemistry they had made lot of advancement.
Medical Science : The Egyptians also made substantial progress in the field of medical science. They had knowledge of the composition of the human body. They had knowledge of different diseases of the body. The physicians of Egypt studied the functioning of heart, brain,
liver, kidney, etc. They knew to check the pulse and measure the temperature.
Describe the main features of the ancient Babylonian civilization.
Main features of ancient Babylonian civilization :
(i) Law code of Hammurabi: The main contribution of Babylonian civilization is the law code of Hammurabi. Babylonian King Hummurabi created a code of conduct and punishment of code for his people, which is the oldest law code available at this time. There are 285 sections in this law code, which is written in Semitic language. The Hammurabi’s penal theory was that—As you sow, so shall you reap and blood for blood in revenge.
(ii) Social System: Babylonian society was divided into three classes. The members of high class were known as ‘Availam’. High officials, landlords, businessmen were included in this class. The middle class members were known as ‘Maskenum’. In this class traders, craftsmen, intellectuals, state employees, farmers and workers were included. The members of third class were known as ‘Ardu’. They were considered to be property of their master. Babylonia’s family life was patriarchal. Sons and daughters were given equal rights to family property.
(iii) Economic life: The main occupation of people of Babylonian civilization was agriculture. Here farmers used to cultivate the land with plough. A large number of animals were also reared here. Cow, bull, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, donkey, mules, etc. were the main domesticated animals. It was a commercial civilization. The industries prevalent were spinning, making clothes, pottery, sculptors, weapons of meals, jewellery, wooden items, etc. People used to import luxuries like timber, lead, copper, gold, silver bronze etc. and export arms and ammunitions, metal, tools, foodgrains, jewellery and sculptures.
(iv) Religious life : The inhabitants of Babylonia believed in many deities. Their main god and goddess were Ann (sky), Shamas (Sun), Sin (moon), Bale (earth), Ninang (wife of moon) etc.
Each city had its own guardian, it was called ‘Ziggurat’. Babylonia also had temples and statues. These were worshipped by people. Here people were also superstitios and they also believed in ghosts, magic and sorcery.
(v) Knowledge and Science : The achievements of the people of Babylon in the field of knowledge and science were important. They made a lot of progress in the field of astronomy. They knew the exact time of sunrise and sunset, moonrise and moonset. Calculating the time of day and night the whole day was divided into 24 hours. There were 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. Babylonians were the first to do this division. Their calculation was based on decimals and hexadecimal system. They also had interest in astrology.
(vi) Art: Babylonian civilization was far behind from its contemporary civilizations in the field of art. There was lack of stones. The houses were built with unbaked bricks. Wood was used in roofs, doors, windows. The typical sample of Babylonian art was the building named ‘Ziggurat’. Their statues were of mixed shape of animals and humans, which were famous for their huge size rather than for being artistic. Pictures were painted only in palaces and temples. Babylonians were music lovers.
(vii) Script and Literature: The Babylonians adopted the Sumerian alphabet. In this script, pictures, articles, symbols, signs and marks were used to record knowledge of objects. In the field of literature, the world’s first epic ‘Gilgamesh’ was composed by the poeple of Babylon.
Introducing the life of Hammurabi, describe his goverance, justice and punishment system.
The sixth ruler of Amorite dynasty was Hammurabi. He was a great warrior of his era. He ruled for 42 years. He was not only a warrior but a worthy ruler and law-maker also. His versatality is proved by his code of law. He was hard working, disciplined and just ruler. Most of his time was spent in doing good for the people. He paid special attention towards the development of trade, commerce and industry and made new rules in this regard. Interest in animal husbandry was his natural quality.
Adminstrative System : During the period of Hammurabi, the power of the king increased greatly and his autocracy and self-interest increased, but the king was not cruel and unjust. For the help of state, there was a council of ministers. Governance was divided into several departments and responsibility of those departments was held by different ministers. The emperor had the right to implement and abolish the monetary policy. The entire empire was divided into several provinces for the convenience of the administration, the territories of the provinces were governed by officials who were directly responsible to the king.
Justice and punishment system : Hammurabi made a new law code to deal with the new conditions. In the state courts, the judges were appointed by emperor himself and some elderly people of the city used to sit with them to prevent these judges from being biased. An order to appeal the high court against the decision of the lower courts was also started. The final appeal could be made to the king.
In the code of punishment, there was a provision of tit for tat principle. The culprit was punished after investigation. Most crimes were judged through trial by water or holy oaths.
What is the code of law of Hammurabi? Enlist its main features.
Code of Law of Hammurabi: Babylonia’s most important contribution is its code of law (conduct). Hammurabi collected the prevailing rules at that time and this made it convenient for him to make a code of law by making changes. He carved it in 36 rows on a stone column of 8 feet high, which was installed at a temple in Marduk, Babylonia. Later the king Susa of Alam copied it onto a scroll. This column was discovered by the French scholar N.D. Morgan.
The language of the code of Hammurabi is not Sumerian but semetic. There is a total of 285 sections, which are divided into scientific concepts of individual assets, trade and commerce, family, crime and labour. The greatest feature of this code is that its laws are completly secular.
Main features of law code of Hammurabi. The main features of Hammurabi’s law-code are the following:
- There are about 285 sections in the Hammurabi’s law-code, which are divided into several chapters under the title of personal property, trade and commerce, behaviour, family life, labour, wages, compensation etc.
- These laws are based on the spirit of retribution and the principle of ‘tit for tat’ prevalent.
- The liability of violation was clarified in this code.
- In this code of law, very strict punishment was arranged. For many crimes, death punishment was given.
- Some independent rights were given to women. There were substantial improvements in marriage and divorce laws.
- The laws were also made related to adoption in this law-code.
- At the time of the penalties, the social reputation of the plaintiff and defandent was taken in view. For the same type of crime different penalities were fixed for lower class, middle class and upper class people.
- In this code of law, detailed rules regarding the right of slaves were made.
Describe the social life of Babylonian civilization.
Class: Babylonian society was divided into three classes. The main classes were the following :
(i) High class: These members were known as ‘Avilam’. High officials, landlords, businessman were involved in this. This class was affluent and enjoyed luxury and comfort.
(ii) Middle class: The members of this class were known as ‘Maskeum’. They were free like the upper class. In this class traders, crafstmen, intellectuals, state employees, farmers and workers were included. This group was comparatively better than slaves.
(iii) Lower class: This class was known as ‘Aardu’. They were considered to be property of their master. They were branded and they had to wear a special type of costume. Yet, they got some protection of the law.
Family life : Babylonia’s family life was patriarchal. In the society, the mutual life of the family members was ordered by the law. Parents had equal rights in the family. Father was head of the family and he had strict control over all the members of the family. Boys and girls had equal right in family property.
Status of women: The status of women in the Babylonian society was respectful and they enjoyed great freedom. Thier family and other rights were preserved. It was considered necessary to give legal form to marriage. A contract letter was written before marriage. Decision was taken after considering the situation of women in relation to divorce, remarriage etc. In case of divorce, every woman had right to alimony. Women were also allowed to do business and service in government departments. Simultaneously, control over women was also exercised. They had to remain under control of men. Men could have more than one woman.
Food and lifestyle : The main food for the Babylonian people were foodgrains, fruit, milk, meat and fish. The date palm was drunk like a wine. Men wore large clothes under the waist. Women also covered upper limbs. The elite used to wear Zari work cloth. The men kept the hair on their heads and the beards were kept. Women used to have many types of hairstyles. Women liked ornaments. People used to play musical instruments like flute, trumpet, harp, drum, etc.
Describe the economic life of Babylonian civilization.
The main occupation of Babylonian civilization was agriculture. The and here was very fertile. According to Herodotus, the fertile kingdom was not separate from the Babylonians in ancient times. Agricultural work was done with plough and bullocks. Dams were constructed to protect the fields from the flood. Repair of old canals and construction of new canals was also done. We place where the surface of the canals was lower than the surface of the field, the “water-wheels’ were used to raise the water. Natives of Babylon gave importance to palm trees, olives and grapes in addition to foodgrains. The land was mostly in the possession of the king, the temple, the feduals and the wealthy merchants and collectively the tribes. The land was taxed for yield. The farmers had to pay 1/3 to 1/2 of the total production of the crops in the form of tax.
Hammurabi made strict rules for selling the land. He encouraged the people to cultivate new land. There was a provision of punishment to those who harmed the agriculture. Taxes were exempted in event of famine and natural calamity. The state also compensated for encouraging agriculture.
Animal husbandry: The second major source of national income for the Babylonians was animal husbandry. A large number of animals were brought up and cattle heads were taxed. Cows, bulls, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, donkey, mules, etc. were more common. The ruling classes and emperors also used to own large number of animals. For the care of state animals, royal herdsmen were employed in districts and cities.
Dishonest farmers and shepherds were given strict punishment according to the law-code.
Industry : The Babylonians obtained wool, hair and leather in abundance from their livestock industry. The popular industries were spinning, making clothes, pottery, sculpture, weapons of metal, jewellery, wooden items, etc.
Trade and commerce: Babylonians mostly used to import luxuries, timber, lead, copper, gold, silver, bronze, etc. and foodgrains. Arms and ammunitions, metal, tools, jewellery and sculpture were exported. Business relations were forged with distant (far) Indus region (India) since ancient times. The business of foreign trade was done by business convoys. The cargo was carried by camels and donkeys. Boats were used where water supply was available. Currency system was not in force in Babylon till then. Merchandise deals were documented. The circulation of bill, receipt, etc. were also introduced. Trade associations were also developed in the society.
Highlight the religious life of the people in Babylonian civilization.
Religious life in Babylonian civilization : The inhabitants of Babylonia believed in many deities. Their main god-goddess were Ann (sky), Shamus (sun), Sin (moon), Bale (earth), Nin angel (wife of moon) etc. Marduk were prominent in the new gods. Gods of fields and rivers were separate. Goddess worship was also popular. Esther was the chief goddess. Initially she was a creator, but later she was considered the goddess of love. Tamus was considered to be the god of vegetation. Marduk was the god of argiculture first but later he was considered to be the god of storm.
Priest : Babylonia had many temples and sculptures. People worshipped them and used to sacrifice various kinds of offerings. The priests were in the upper class of the society. They did not lead simple life and lived a life of pleasure and enjoyment. There were large number of female devotees in temples.
Faith and Beliefs (Prophets) : The people believed in ghosts, magic and sorcery. They were also supertitious. They also believed in predictions which the priesmo by studying planets and constellations. Babylonians had faith in birth after death. That is why they kept edibles (food) and other daily need items with dead bodies. Fire rites were performed in addition to purifying the dead.
Highlight the development of art in the Babylonian civilization.
Development of art in Babylonian civilization.
Architecture: Babylonian society was far behind from its contemporary civilizations in the field of art, because there was lack of stone here. Hence, the houses of unbaked bricks were built here which would collapse in 50-60 years. The buildings constructed by Hammurabi have so far been completely destroyed. Baked bricks were used in the royal buildings. Wood was used in roof, doors, windows. Colored tiles were used for decoration in the homes of the rich persons.
The typical samples of Babylonian art work are buildings named Ziggurut. There were several stories in the Ziggurats of Babylonia, which would have been smaller towards the top. Ziggurats were conceived as memorials and were painted with diverse colors and made beautiful. The concept of Ziggurats is the contribution of Sumerians.
Sculpture: Babylonian artists could not achieve special success in expressing the beauty of humans. Their idols lack beauty and expression. Their idols are more famous for the large size, not for artistry. Their statues were of mixed shape of animals and humans.
Painting : The Babylonian artists were unable to develop their painting altogether. Pictures were painted only in the royal buildings and the temples. The main themes of the pictures were wild animal and birds.
Music and dance : Babylonians were music lovers. There were organized music concerts in large banquets. Female devotees used to perform dancing and singing in the temples. Many types of musical instruments were also used.
Highlight the literature and script of the Babylonian civilization.
Babylonian script: 1 ne people of Babylonia adopted the Sumerian alphabet. In this script, articles, symbols, signs, and pictures were used to record and obtain knowledge. When it was confirmed that such a sign or an image was realized in an object, it became easier to identify the objects. But when it came to expressing ideas, the script was not working. In this script, there were 300 sign symbols in the form of a clause. It was hard to remember. The art of calligraphy was given great respect. They used to write on plaques. The people here used to speak the Semetic language. The religious teachers used to perform the work of educating people.
Babylonian literature: The Babylonians created the world’s first classic by the name ‘Gilgamesh’. Its narrative is very interesting. Gilgamesh was the fifth ruler of the first dynasty of the state. The Babylonian people gave a new look to the stories of his courageous deeds, uniting them in one book. This epic is divided into 12 chapters, which is a symbol of 12 months. In the entire epic, the struggles of human life have been described lucidly.
Apart from the epic, religious and political literature was also created. The main topics of religious literature describe the prayers and praise of goddesses.
Comment about the progress of knowledge and science in the Babylonian civilization.
Babylonian knowledge and science: Babylonian people also progressed in the field of knowledge and science. Their descriptions are as follows :
Mathematics: Due to being merchants, Babylonians were interested in more practical science than art. Their calculation was based on decimals and hexadecimal systems. Only three digit marks were used in their numbers. One was for symbol 1, so that the numbers from one to 9 were written. For example : to write 4,1 was written four times. The second sign was for 10 to which 10 A20. A30 was written. The third mark was written for 60, in which 60 A 120A 180 A 240 was written.
Astrology : The people of Babylon were most interested in astrology. They considered Jupiter to be Marduk, Mercury as Nebu. Mars as Negerle, Siam as Sin, Sun as Shaan, Saturn and Venus were considered God. But knowing the secrets of the planets or deites was not an easy task. This knowledge was only for the priests. They used to earn much money by this. Astronomy : The people of Babylonia had made amazing progress in astronomy. They could calculate the exact duration of day and night. They could tell the exact time of sunrise and sunset. They divided the year into 12 months. Their six months were of 30 days each and six months were of 29 days each. Thus their year was of 354 days. Every fourth year an uninterrupted month was added to match the sun and moon. The clock cycle was of 12 hours. 60 minutes in hours and 60 seconds in minutes, which is now practiced all over the world. Map art (Cartography): The people of Babylonia made maps of the provinces and cities for the first time. In one of the records from Babylonia dated 1600 B.C., a map of Shasta-Ajla province was found in a square inch.
Medical Science: By the time of Hammurabi, the doctors came into existence as a special class. Surgery had also come into existence. But because of the people’s superstitions, they had much faith in magic and spirits.
Mention the political history of ancient China.
Political history of ancient China : We can understand the political history of ancient China, by dividing it into the following four categories :
(a) Shang dynasty : This is the oldest Chinese dynasty which ruled China from 1766 BC to 1122 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that in the 14th century BC, Shang dynasty people had developed a high level of culture. It seems that Shang were lagging behind in the development of culture of the people. So the main task of the Shang dynasty’s king was to protect their subjects from the more cultured people of neighbouring areas. There were 28 kings in the Shang dynasty but the neighbouring Chau dynasty defeated the Shang dynasty.
(b) Chau-dynasty: The rulers of this dynasty ruled China from 1122 to 225 BC. This period is called the golden age of China’s history. Thinkers such as Laotse and Confucius lived in this era. During this dynasty’s reign many such works came into existance, due to which this lineage became immortal in history, like metals, circulation of coins, development of banking system, land reform, paper printing and invention of gun powder, art skills and knowledge, etc.
(c) Chin dynasty : The progress and prosperity of China began in the reign of this dynasty. Roads were constructed in every direction during the reign of this dynasty, so that the army could be sent anywhere, whenever needed. The huge Chinese wall was built to stop the invasion of the Hunas by the rulers of this dynasty. This wall is considered as one of the seven wonders of the world due to its vastness and artistry. Huang was the ruler of this dynasty who was an accomplished administrator and a great warrior.
(d) Han dynasty : The rulers of Han dynasty in China strengthened the regime and ended the feudal system for the first time in the world. Competitive exmaminations for appointment in administrative services were also held during this period. The trade route famously known as “Silk route was developed in the time of the ruler of this lineage to promote trade relations betwen China and Europe.
The rich political history of ancient China revolves around these four dynasties. After this chaos spread across China. Although, in 618 CE, Kaotse established the Tang dynasty and in 690 CE Chao Rung Ching laid the foundation of the Shung dynasty.
Describe the main features of ancient Chinese civilization.
The main features of ancient Chinese civilization are the following :
1. Administrative system: The belief of divinity in the king prevailed in ancient China. The king was considered as son and representative of god. There was the Prime minister and a grand council of four ministers for the help and advice of the emperor, whose president was the heir prince. Chinese empire was divided in several parts.
There was a public service commission for selection of administrative officers in China.
2. Social life: The ancient Chinese society was divided in mandarin, farmer, businessman, craftman, intellectuals, slaves and soldier class. People could achieve high status through education. Combined family system was in practice.
3. Economic life: The main occupation of Chinese was agriculture. Major crops included millets, wheat, rice, soyabeen, tea, green vegetables and fruits. Irrigation was done by canals. Sheep, pigs, cows, dogs were their pet animals. The people used to make paper. They used to import gold, silver, ivory, opium, yam, etc. and export of iron products, silk, pottery and other handicrafts.
4. Religious life: The ancient Chinese worshipped nature. They worshipped sun, sky, earth and rain. In China, the king was considered to be the son of god. They believed in magic tantra, sacrifice, etc. Later, the religious beliefs of the Chinese people were influenced by Confucius’ monotheism and Taoism of Laotse and later by Buddhism.
5. Language and literature: The ancient Chinese rulers finalised the script : Chinese script was one in the whole country but there was a lot of diference in regional languages (dialects) The Chinese script made significant contribution in bringing unity throughout China. After the Chinese script was coded and development of the language and invention of paper, high class literature was written in China.
6. Knowledge and Science : There was remarkable progress in the field of knowledge and science in ancient China. The invention of paper, printing press, ink, gunpowder, silk, compass, water clock, water mill, earthquake instrument and kite were first made in China. In mathematics, Chinese people knew the use of decimals, but they did not have knowledge of zero. Earthquake science was also developed here.
7. Art: China’s wall is a world famous specimen of ancient Chinese architecture. The palaces and pagodas were built in the cities of ancient China. In China, painting was considered as part of calligraphy (ornamental writing). The painters here liked making pictures of natural scenes rather than human figures. The famous painter was Kani-Chi.
Describe the administrative-system of ancient Chinese civilization.
1. Emperor: The idea of divinity in the king was prevalent in China. The king was considered as son and representive of god. He was the supreme authority of religion, rule, justice and law. He used to appoint all kinds of administrative officers. Although the king was supreme, he used to act according to the tradition of the country and the feelings of the people. In addition to this there was an officer called ‘Sensor’ who was the president of the administrative council.
2. Council of ministers: There was a prime minister and a grand council of four ministers for the help and advice of the emperor. Its president was the crown Prince. In addition, there was another committee with six members who were relatively less powerful. They used to handle different departments such as education, law, religion, justice, communication, supply of essential commodities, festivals, war, defense, punishment, public works, etc.
3. Provincial system: China’s empire was divided into many provinces. The boundary of
all the provinces was not the same. The governors of the provinces were princes or powerful feudals who were appointed by the emperor. The main work of these officers was security, revenue recovery, justice, correspondence, etc. The Chinese provinces were called ‘Seng’. .
4. Local arrangement: ‘Village’ was the smallest unit of local bodies. The heads of the village’s families chose the leader of the village, who was responsible for the rule. The group of villages were called ‘inferior’. Under each inferior there was a magistrate and a revenue officer. The bigger unit was ‘Fu’, in which two or three ‘inferiors’ were included.
5. Public Serivce Commission: There was a public service commision for selection of administrative officers in China, which organized competitive examinations. This method was initiated by rulers of Han dynasty. The questions were asked on topics like logic, phiolosophy, ethics, justice, health, poetry, etc. This method was an important achievement of China. On the basis of merit, any person could get an official rank by passing this examination.
Highlight the social life of ancient Chinese civilization.
Social life of ancient Chinese civilization :
(i) Social classification: In ancient times, China’s society was divided into many classes. There was no class division based on birth. The importance and level of a person was determined on his ability. In China, the class of the emperors and the governors of provinces was considered the highest. There were five main classes below the ruling class. These were classes of intellectuals, businessmen, artisans, farmers and slaves.
The position of warriors in the contemporary society of China was low. The position of artisans and traders was like that of the middle class. The position of farmers and labourers was pathetic. They had to do forced labour also. Selling and purchasing of slaves were done, but they were not ill-treated.
There was a separate class of scholars in China called ‘Mandarin’. The people of this class had great respect. Eligible youth had to pass tough exams after reading literary subjects for public service in this class. Thus only scholars could enter the Mandarin class.
(ii) Family: In the family of the Chinese society, the elderly had the most important place for both men and women. Being separated from the family was considered anti-social. The family was patriarchal, but the mothers also attained high status. It was necessary to respect the elders in the family. There was a sense of collective responsibility in the family. The Chinese had unwavering belief in the principles or traditions of their ancestors.
(iii) Women’s status: The situation of women in ancient China was quite respectable. But situation of women in the long run (later) became weak. The ‘viel system’ was also widely practiced, yet they were respected within the family.
The women of Chinese society were divided into two classes-one elite and the second general. The elite women got proper education, music, dance and participation in governance, and ordinary women had to work in the fields.
(iv) Food and Lifestyle: In fact, eating and living was also divided on the basis of classes. The financially rich people lived in magnificant buildings with amenities, used to eat good food, while the common people lived simply and wore ordinary clothes.
Festivals, fairs and rituals had special significance in the lives of the Chinese people.
Describe the economic life of ancient Chinese civilization.
Economic life of ancient Chinese civilization.
(i) Agriculture: Like India, agriculture was the basis of the economic life of the Chinese. The Chinese used to sow crops after a lot of worship, because they always feared floods and droughts, which caused heavy damage to agriculture. Main crops included millets, wheat, rice, tea, greens and vegetables. Soyabean cultivation was also popular. A type of plant was jute which was used to make cloth from the cords. Mulberry farming was prevalent, on the basis of which the silkworms were kept. Land was tilled by ploughs and efforts were made to control floods and improve the irrigation system. Removal of silt after flood and cleaning of canals were also the function of the government. As result of the government’s efforts, fertile land and the best system of irrigation, the Chinese farmers used to produce two or three crops in a year.
Chinese people also used to practise animal husbandry. Domesticated animals were cow, bull, buffalo, goat, sheep, dog, pig, deer etc.
(ii) Industry and Trade: The Chinese people were famous for spinning, weaving, making pottery and making sculptures, making weapons of ivory and metal, jewellery, idols and toys and silk fabric. First of all the credit for the invention of silk is given to China. The detection of earthquake also became a distinct art form of China. It was also a Chinese specialty to engage in social activities. The Chinese people called pearls as music stones because when they were properly laid and struck there generate a melodious music from it.
The Chinese people had another famous industry of making paper. The invention of paper was also done by China. They used to make paper from barks of trees, walnuts and silk made of small pieces of paper. Chinese people were also skilled in making mirrors. The bronze mirror is the highest form of polishing art.
When China was in contact with the rest of the world, the trade of China was progressing. Chinese cities were the centers of trade. Business was done by both water and land. Crossing China’s wall, two main roads were constructed for trade from the western countries. The Chinese people had trade with East Islands, Lanka, India, Persia and Rome, Central Asia and Mongolia. The Chinese used to export iron items, silk, pottery and other handicrafts and used to import gold, silver, ivory, opium, yarn etc.
Initially, the business transaction was based on barter but later the coins were used.
Highlight the progress of art in ancient Chinese civilization.
Art in ancient Chinese civilization :
(i) Architecture: The palaces and pagodas (Buddhist temples) were built in the cities of ancient China. The huge wall of China is a wonderful specimen of the construction skills of ancient China. On the vastness of this wall, Valenewar had said, “In front of its magnificence, the wonderful pyramids of Egypt look like anthouses”. The wall is so wide that a car can be run on it. After every 200 meters, minarets have been made for warriors in this wall so that they can be guarded. Apart from this, the settlement of cities and the architecture of houses are also notable.
(ii) Painting : In China, painting was considered as part of calligaphy. Chinese painters preferred to make pictures of natural scenes rather than human beings. Their paintings had the primacy of philosophical sense and personal perception. The art of painting during Han dyasty was quite advanced. A make-up box and a lid have been found from that period on which a bird’s picture is painted. This is an excellent example of painting.
(iii) Sculpture Art: The display of human beauty through statues in China was considered to be against the ethics. Before the spread of Buddhism, only idols of animals are found here. After the spread of Buddhism, statues of Buddhist saints began to be made. In a temple near Peking, there is an idol of the reclining Buddha, which can be called an excellent example of metal of sculpting.
Chinese artists were especially proficient in making bronze objects. At that time the shapes of various types of animals and bowls, cups, sunflower, etc. are found in abundance. The work of adornment and ornamentation was also highly appreciated.
Describe the development of the following in ancient Chinese civilization.
(a) language and literature
(b) Science and technology
(a) Language and Literature: The Chinese rulers standardized the script. After accepting 3300 letters and symbols and becoming a cultural entity, this script became famous in every part of the country. The Chinese script made significant contribution in bringing unity throughout China. Scripts of Japan, Korea and Vietnam were also influenced by the Chinese script.
Paper was invented in the first century AD and this revolutionized the art of writing. After the development of Chinese script and language and the invention of paper, high quality literature was created in China and it became possible to secure it for the future. In addition to literature, Chinese philosophers expressed their views in prose in the language of ordinary people.
The practice of writing history was prevalent from the ancient times. It is said that Confucius wrote a history in which Lu’s state was desribed between 722 to 481 BC. The practice of writing the history of dynasties in China became very strong. At present, the history of 26 dynasties is available. The earliest history of this type was written by Sway-Maa Thayaan. He is respected as the first historian of China.
(b) Science and Technology: China is world famous for gun powder, compass, silk, paper and printing. The invention of water mill and water clock was also done by Chinese. In the field of engineering, they made canals which were 100 miles long. They made lists of stars and constellations group so that they could determine the dates of the eclipses. With the invention of water clocks, the Chinese tried to deal with the floods.
In mathematics, the Chinese people knew the use of decimals, but they did not have knowledge of zero. The Chinese also developed earthquake science and invented a seismic writing machine. By this device they used to detect the starting point of the earthquake. The invention of kite is also attributed to China. China also invented the umbrella.
Explain the main features of city planning of Indus-Saraswati Civilization.
Main features of Indus-Saraswati Civilization: The features of Indus-Saraswati Civilization are the following :
(i) Planned Roads and Streets: The roads and connecting streets of the cities of Indus-Saraswati Civilization were constructed according to well-laid plan. The roads of cities were straight and intersect each other at right angles, and as a result of this the entire city was divided into square or rectangular segments. The width of these roads is 9 to 34 feet. Garbage bins were kept on intersections and by the roadside to collect trash. Streets were 1 to 2.2 meters wide. A public well was found in each street of Mohanjodaro. The streets and roads were constructed in a proportional way.
(ii) Systematic residential buildings: This civilization’s people took full care of the well organized home architecture in Sindhu-Saraswati’s architectural residential planning. Residence were built according to the specific plan. Each house used to have a bathroom, courtyard and there were rooms around the courtyard. There was also proper arrangement for toilets, kitchens, doors, windows, drains for water extraction, etc.
(iii) Planned drainage system: The system of drainage was ideal in the Indus-Saraswati Civilization. There were drains for carrying the waste water in each house. Road drains were built on both sides of roads. Drains were made from clay, mudclime and gypsum etc. Drains were covered with bricks and stones. After cleaning drains were covered again. The water of the drains would fall further into a larger drain which took the water out of the city.
(iv) Large common hall: Several large buildings have been found in Indus-Saraswati civilization, such as the Great Bath of Mohanjodaro, Harappan’s fortress, Meeting Hall, Harappa’s granary. The most attractive is the Great Bath of Mohanjodaro. This bathhouse is 39 feet long, 233 feet wide and 8 feet deep. Stairs towards south and north direction are made for this pool. There is also a drainage system in this pool. This bathhouse was used on religious festivals and celebrations. Remains of a huge bathhouse have been found in Harappa’s fort area. In addition to Harappa, we have found remains of granaries from Mohanjodaro and Rakhigarhi. In the Harappan settlements, there were fortifications to protect the city and there were large Public Halls inside the fort.
Highlight the social life of the Indus-Saraswati Civilization.
Social life of Indus-Saraswati Civilization :
(i) Social Classification: There were many classes in society. There were professional people who included goldsmiths, astrologers, wevers, bakers and bead makers, craftstmen. According to some scholars, there must have been a specific class of priests and officials and royalty in that period. From the point of view of prosperity, the people of Fortress area may have been prosperous and common people lived in the lower city.
(ii) Family and status of women: From the buildings found in excavation, it is clear that the Indus-Saraswati civilization has a plan to accommodate separate families. Therefore, there should be single family system in this period. A large number of female idols have been fotind in this civilization. Possibly the women were worship here.
Maternal society was found in Crete and other Mediterranean civilizations. Hence it can be estimated from this that even in the Indus-Saraswati civilization, the tradition of maternal families would have been prevalent. In such a situation, women would have had a significant place in society.
(iii) Food and Lifestyle: The Indus-Saraswati civilization consumed wheat, barley, rice, milk, fruits, meat etc in their diet. In fruits they were familiar with pomegranate, coconut, lemon, melon, watermelon etc. The discovery of their being meat-eaters is found in the collection of bitten bones of animal and birds. The meat of sheep, goat, pig, cock, duck, turtle etc. was eaten. Mortar and Peste was used to grind grains and spices.
The information of women are found in their costumes. In these idols, the upper part of their body is unclothed and a garment is wpm down from the waist. Some idols have shown women wearing a special type of fan on top of the head. Most of the men’s torsos are without clothes. However, men wear a garment on the waist. Men have been shown to wear shawl in some places.
(iv) Amusement: In men, some people kept beards and moustaches and used to shave. Women took special care of their hairstyle. To decorate the hair, the mirror was used to see comb the hair and see the face. In the excavation, bronze mirror and ivory combs have been obtained. Both men and women used to wear ornaments. They mainly used to wear headgear, wristbands, amulets, necklaces, anklets, etc.
Many toys of clay have been found in the excavation of the Sindhu Saraswati civilization. Prevalence of dance and music are known from the statue of the dancer. There is also a marking of Sarangi and Veena on some seals.
What do you know about agriculture and animal husbandry in the Indus-
(i) Agriculture: The emergence of big cities with an adequate population of the Indus- Saraswati civilization was possible only due to a very fertile land. Most of the cities were located on the banks of the fertile rivers with the facility of irrigation. Cultivation was done at different places in accordance with climate adaptability, land fertility and irrigation facilities.
There is enough evidence of the production of wheat. Barley has also been found in • Harappa and Mohanjodaro. It seems that wheat and barley were the main foodgrains of 9 this civilization. Apart from this, people were also familiar with dates, mustard, sesame seeds, peas, rye and rice. Cotton was cultivated and there would be significant business of textiles production. In the Indus-Saraswati civilization, the world got first evidence of cotton cultivation. Due to the yield in the Sindhu region, the Greeks used the term “syndrome” for cotton. Here the main reason for fertility was the floods in the Indus and Saraswati rivers, which left enough aquifers to bring water into the plains. Perhaps the use of plough was made to till the fields. Kalibanga gives the evidence of farming in the fields.
(ii) Animal husbandry: Cows, bulls, buffaloes, sheep were the main animals to be domesticated. Goats and pigs were also reare. Dogs, cats and other animals were also kept. Elephants and camels were also kept to a lesser extent but their markings on the seals were exuberant. The inhabitants of Sindhu civilization were also familiar with the horse. Three carved statues of a horse and a jaw have been found from Lothal, which is of a horse.
Highlight the development of the following in the Indus-Saraswati Civilization:
(a) Industry and Crafts
(b) Trade and Commerce
(a) Industry and Crafts: The Indus-Saraswati Civilization is a bronze-age civilization.
Bronze was made by mixing tin with copper. Beautiful pots of copper and bronze are the best examples of Harappan metal art.
The tools made from copper are found in saws, chisels, hammers, axes, knives and swords. The statue of the dancer is a fine example of bronze sculpting. Gold and silver were also used in the Indus Civilization, and the people were also proficient in the art of making metal utensils. Making beads was a developed industry. There is complete workshop for making beads in Chunnarh and Lothal. Beaded gold and silver were made from shell oyster and metal.
Evidence of oyster industry has been found from Lothal and Balakot have been found. The spinning of cotton yarn and weaving of cotton textiles would also be highly developed.
(b) Trade and Commerce: Internal and foreign trade in the Indus-Sarawati civilization were in a very developed state. Raw materials for industries were sources from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Sindh, South India, Afghanistan, Iran and Mesopotamia. The copper and gold came from Mysore.
There is clear evidence of the business relationship with the people of Mesopotamia. Several dozen seals of the Indus-Saraswati civilization have been found from Mesopotamia.
Describe the religious life of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
The following features of religious life are remarkable in the Indus-Saraswati civilization :
(i) Worship of Mother Goddess: Harappa, Mohanjodaro and Chhunadho have found female clay statues in abundance, which are believed to be idols of Mother goddess built for worship. In India, the origin of the ancient worship of Goddess worship or Shakti worship can be seen in the Indus-Saraswati civilization.
Some pictures of seals obtained from the Indus-Saraswati civilization also indicate the worship of Mother Goddess. In Rakhigarhi, we have got many altars (probably sacrificial altars). Religious rituals would have been prevalent in these areas.
(ii) Worship of the male deity (Shiva): John Marshal, considered Pashupati Shiva on a seal of the Mohanjodaro as a major deity of that period, which is shown. In this seal, the deity has been shown sitting in the Trimukh and Padmasan (lotus posture). The vision seems to be centered on the nostrils of the deity, around it an elephant, a cheetah, a buffalo and a rhinoceros and a pen are placed under the stem. In this notation, three forms of Shiva can be seen, which is as follows Trimukh Roop of Shiva. Pashupati Roop and Yogeshwar Roop.
(iii) Fireplaces: We got many fireplaces from the excavations at Kalibanga, Lothal, Banawali and Rakhigarhi. At some places, they have also found evidence that seems likely to be used for their religious purposes. Circular fireplaces have been found in Khandeshwar and Rakhigarhi, which have been assembled in the temples or periphery of the main structures.
(iv) Animal worship, tree worship and snake worship: On many seals, a mark of a one-horned bull has been found, in front of which the ‘incense holder’ is kept.
Painting of trees on many small seals is a proof of tree worship. On many small seals, a small wall or vedika is built around a tree, which signifies its purity and worship. On some seals, a number of religious symbols, such as Swastika, Chakra and Cross, are also inscribed.
The remains of the Indus-Saraswati civilization also indicate the sanctity of water and tradition of religious bath.
(v) Tradition of Yoga and Sadhna: Indus civilization also indicates the tradition of Yoga and Sadhana (meditation). There are two evidences of this :
- Making Shiva sitting in Padmasana posture in Pashupati’s seal,
- The idol of the yogi found from Mohanjodaro whose vision is centred on the nose.
(vi) Faith in death rites and rebirth: According to Marshall, people of this civilization used to perform the funeral of the dead bodies in three ways :
- Burial: under which the whole body was buried under the ground.
- Partial Burial : After feeding animals and birds, the remaining parts of the dead bodies were buried (3)
- Cremation : The body was sometimes burnt. Along with the corpse, sometimes a variety of jewellery, other articles can be found. It seems that they also believed in rebirth.
Highlight the rise of city kingdoms in ancient Greek civilization.
The rise of city kingdoms began in the ancient Greek civilization, when about a few Greek villages in 800 BC combined together, and took the form of city states. Acropolis or fortification was built at the highest place in a city state, so that the city could remain safe. In the order of the rise of city states, many towns were established in whole of Greece and nearby Islands such as Sparta, Athens, Macedonia, Corinth and Thibes.
The kings ruled first in the city states and in the later period the landlords ended the monarchy. On the mainland of Greece there were two city states. Athens and Sparta, Gradually due to growth of population and trade midle class developed in cities. To reduce the power of landlords, middle and poor classes mixed up. Dictatorship emerged due to struggle between them. The Greek people called them Tyrant. Later dictatorship also ended and the plutocracy run by rich people came into existence. We can understand the characteristics of two city states on the mainland of Greece, in the following way.
State of Sparta: State of Sparta was different from other states of Greece. The main reason for this was the geographical situation here. The mountain ranges used to separate it from other states. Residents of Sparta were interested in militarism and wars. Therefore, boys were trained hard in warfare from the age of seven years.
State of Athens: Located on the mainland of Greece, the state of Athens had large land extent and precious minerals. The Businessmen of Athens achieved glorious success in trade. As a result of this advanced civilization was developed here. Unlike Sparta, militarism was not developed here.
It is clear from the above description that the rise of city kingdoms in ancient Greek civilization was the result of the solutions sought for existing problems before the residents. This was the reason that the military system developed in the Sparta state, while the business system developed in Athens. The position of both the states was also different from the point of view of security. While Sparta’s residents did not leave their barracks without arms, independent citizens were living in Athens.
In conclusion, we can say that city kingdoms of Greek civilization were the ‘foundation brick’ for modern human civilization.
In the Greek civilization, comment on the establishment of monetary system and the reforms of Solon.
With the establishment of rich plutocracy in the 7th century BC, the monopoly of the money was established in place of the monarchy, so that most of land went into the hands of the rich from the hands of the farmers.
Many farmers first kept the land as heritage (mortgage, livelihood) and kept the members of the family involved in farming, eventually they all became slaves. In Athens, there were some free citizens other than the elite and slaves, they were called Demos. They were farmers, labourers, artisans and businessmen. These people were dissatisfied with the hypocritical rule. The teachings of Solon resulted in their struggle.
Reforms of Solon: Solon was appointed as a new magistrate in 594 BC. Solon abolished the mortgage system and freed all citizens of Athens from slavery and also made the rule that in future, no resident of Athens will be allowed to be enslaved for a non-repayable loan. His reforms benefited both the poor and the middle class. Election of Chief Justices of the Courts also came under the hands of the citizens. In 469 to 429 BC in Athens led by Pericles, the democracy reached the stage of progress. There was a rule similar to that of the modem cabinet. In the democracy of Athens citizens had political rights and freedom. In pericles’ time, only a small part of the total population came under the civil category.
Make a brief comment on the Marathon and Peloponician wars.
Marathon War: Fifth century BC in Athens, the democracy was challenged in two wars, yhich led to its greatness. Athens had the first war to fight against the powerful Persian empire and its emperor Darius. Darius had already occupied territories from the Indus river to Asia Minor, and now he crossed the Aaegean Sea and attacked Greece. His large army came to a place called Marathon near Athens with the help of a fleet. For the first time in the history of Greece, all the states together fought against an enemy. The Greek armies were very fewer in number than is 490 BC. In the battle of Marathon, they fought so bravely that the Persian forces were pushed back.
Peloponician War: Between Athens and Sparta, in 431 BC to 404 BC, there was a Peloponician war. Due to this war, Athens collapsed. At the time of the Persian Wars, Athens formed a union with other Greek kingdoms. After that war, with the help of this union, the power of its navy was greatly increased for its self-suficiency. With this Sparta residents became frightened and animosity grew between Sparta and Athens. In this war some states gave to support Athens and some to Sparta. Athens was defeated in this war. With this democracy was ended from this state.
Describe the main features of Roman civilization.
Main features of Roman civilization are the following :
- Social life: The society of Rome was divided into two classes (a) Patrician and (b) Plebian. The Patrician were considered to be the upper class in which rich people and landlords were included. They had the full power of the Senate in their hand. The members of the Plebian community included small farmers, artisans, small traders and warriors.
- Code of laws: The code of laws was prepared and these laws were written on wooden planks. They were called the laws of twelve tablets. This made most of the people aware of their legal rights and it became difficult for government employees to break the law. Later the Roman law was developed in three branches : (a) Civil Law (b) Public Law (c) Natural Law.
- Economic life: People of Roman civilization engaged in agriculture. Different kinds of crops were cultivated. Irrigation was done by canals. Besides agriculture, animal husbandry was also practised. Bullocks and cows were mainly kept. People used to make their clothes from flax and wool and used clay and wooden utensils.
- Religious life: Every Roman family worshipped the goddess of hearth ‘Vesta’, because the Romans believed that it protected the house. Like the inhabitants of Greece, the inhabitants of Rome also used to worship gods-goddesses. According to them Jupiter brings rains for their crops, Mars helps them in war, Juno protects their women and Mercury protects them from diseases.
- Language, philosophy and literature : People of Roman civilization developed their alphabet and adopted Latin language. The Latin language became the language of all educated people of western Europe. The Romans accepted Greek philosophy.
Literature also flourished (developed) in Rome’s civilization. There was a lot of progress in the field of poetry. In the poems of Horace, the combined philosophy of epicureanism and stoic ideology is found.
- Art: There was considerable progress in the field of art in Roman civilization. Residents of Rome were skilled craftsmen. They made two important improvements in architecture by creating dots and dome. Dots were used in the making of gates, bridges, large buildings and monuments of the city. The roof of the building was similar to a reverse bowl of a dome. Sculpture also flourished in this civilization. Residents of Rome also developed the art of making wall painting.
- Knowledge and Science: In the public services in Rome it was arranged to supply free medicines to the poor patients first. They created the ephemerisa (calendar) which is still followed in all the countries with a slight change.
Highlight the language, philosophy and literature of the Roman civilization.
The description of the progress made in language, philosophy and literature in the Roman
civilization is the following :
1. Language : Romans learned the alphabet from the Greeks and on the basis of this they developed their alphabet and the Latin language became the language of all educated people in Western Europe. Many Latin words are still used in science. Many European languages like French, Spanish, Italian are based on Latin.
2. Philosophy : The Romans also accepted Greek philosophy. Epicurean and Stoic view were very popular in Rome. Lucretius, who wrote the poem “On the Nature of Things” (on the nature of objects) did not believe in the existence of the soul, but was a supporter of peace and holy heart.
Cicero was a famous speaker. He considered the peace of mind as the best state like the followers of Stoic philosophy. His biggest contribution was his concept of political and natural law. According to the laws, the natural law was the law which can be known by reason and by which the natural rights of all human beings can be protected. The good style of his speech given in the Senate is still followed.
Marcus Arribius was also supposed to observe Stotic philosophy. He wrote a book called Meditation. He expressed his thoughts on how to live life in this book. His intention was that the purpose of life was not happiness but the stability of the mind. He used to act on all those things which he preached. Although his powers were immense, he never lived a
life of pleasure and luxury. Another scholar who supported the Stotic philosophy was Seneca.
3. Literature : Literature also flourished in Rome’s civilization and there was considerable advancement in the field of poetry. In the poetry of Horace, an integrated philosophical form of epicurean and stotic ideology is found. Virgil was a great poet. He wrote ‘Indeed’ the famous text. In this text Troy’s legendary hero named Enis travelled abroad and it describes his courageous deeds.
The most famous historian of Rome was Tacitus. He described the chaos and corruption of his time in his famous books ‘Annals’ and ‘Histories’.
What do you know about the advancement of the art and science in the Roman civilization? –
Advancement of the art and science in the Roman civilization :
1. Architecture : Residents of Rome were skilled artisans. They first started using concrete and they could be able to connect pieces of bricks and stones firmly. They made two important improvements in architecture by creating the dots and dome. There were two or three floors of buildings in Rome and in them there was a circular courtyard. These were used in the making of gates, bridges, large buildings and monuments of the city. Dots were also used in making colloseum. The roof of the building was similar to a bowl of a dome. This type of dome can be seen in the famous Temple of Rome in the Roman Peninsula.
2. Engineering Art: The best examples of Rome’s engineering art are its waterways, baths and roads. Water pipes were used to give water to residents of Rome and other cities. These pipes were 70 kilometers long.
3. Sculpture : Roman residents developed their sculpture according to the style of the Greeks, but there was a difference between them. The Greeks used to make statues to express their ideals, but the inhabitants of Rome used this art for the pleasure of men. Residents of Rome also developed the art of making graffiti by which the entire wall of the halls was painted.
4. Science : Rome took the initiative in public services. It was the first to arrange free medicines for poor patients. The second contribution of the Romans was their calendar which is followed in all the countries today in a slightly changed form. Their fundamental contribution in the calendar was insignificant since India, China and Egypt had already rendered the basic principles.
What are the contributions of Romans in the field of law and government to the world? Elucidate.
The biggest contribution of Romans to the world are codes of law and governance. It was introduced in Rome by law of plaques (Tablets). Later the law of Rome developed in three branches:
- Civil law : These were used for the lawsuits of the citizens of Rome.
- Law of people : These were used for all the people of the empire.
- Natural law : These were mostly related with the philosophy and justice of law.
The ruler of Rome could mostly establish union governance in their large wide empire because of their law and governance, while Greeks could not offord to do so. Due to law promoting travel and business, goods started to be exported to India and China. The place named Ariknedu near Madras (Chennai) in South India was the business post of ancient Rome. The arrangement of the Roman roads that connected all parts of the empire was so good that the English joined a proverb “all the roads lead to Rome”. Residents of Rome developed the spirit of the Republic. But the ruler here used to make the conquered people slaves, and thus, no real democracy developed.
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