Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 First World War
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Text Book Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Write the name of two powers before world War-I.
The name of two powers before World War-I were : United States of America and Japan.
Name the Allied powers.
Allied powers were : England, France, Russia, Serbia, Japan, Portugal, Italy, United States of America, Romania, Greece, Thailand, Siberia, Cuba, Panama, Brazil, Guetemala, etc.
Write the names of newly created states after World War-I.
The newly created states after the first World War were Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland, Poland, etc.
Mention the names of complied Countries.
France, Russia and England.
Write the names of chief persons included in peace conference.
The chief persons included in peace conference were : Woodrow Wilson, the president of America, prime minister of England Loyld George, prime minister of France Clemenc and prime minister of Italy Orlando.
Which Indian king participated as a respresentative of the princely states in the peace conference.
The Indian king who participated as a respresentative of the princely states in the peace conference was Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner state of India.
What is the meaning of Bolshevik?
In majority, Russian language is known as ‘Bolsinstno’. From this ‘Bolshevik’ word came into existence.
Who was Rasputin?
Rasputin was a Monk who interfered in Russian administration.
Write the full name of Lenin.
The full name of Lenin was Vladimir Ilich Olianof.
What was the opinion of the revolutionaries about Gampoo?
Revolutionaries considered Gampoo as the government detective.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Short Answer type Questions
What do you mean by Morrocco crisis?
Due to colonial rivalry, France and Germany were in conflict to capture Morocco in North Africa. In 1904 with the secret treaty between France and Britain, France got a chance to establish its colony in Morocco. Germany turned Morocco against France. This created the condition of war which is known as Morrocco crises.
Why was Russia taking interest in Balkan area?
Following were the causes of Russia taking interest in Balkan area :
- Most of the states were under the control of Turks.
- Slavs, who were orginally Russians, lived in the areas of Turks and Austria. Russia wanted to divide Turkish empire and established the great Slav state.
- The slavs started a nationalist movement with Russian support. The objective of this movement was to make the Slav majority state Serbia independent.
- Austria opposed this movement.
- Austria captured Slav states Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Thus Austria and Serbia became rivals.
- Russia had to interfere force in the politics of Balkan for the protection of Serbia.
Mention the immediate cause of the first world war.
The immediate cause of the first world war was the invasion of Austria on Serbia. The relations of Austria and Serbia kept deteriorating from 1908 which reached its peak by 1914. One of these organisations was ‘Black Hand’. This organisation together with another organisation ‘Organisation of death’, planned to assassinate the governor, petriach of Bosnia. But at this time, he came to know that the prince of Austria, Ferdinand was supposed to be on a government tour of Bosnia, then he conspired the murder. This murder was strongly condemned in Austria. Austria decided to inflict punishment on Serbia for the killing. The Austrian authorities thwarted the sovereignty demand for participation in the issue of Serbian cessesion. So they rejected the contention of Serbian plea as unsatisfactory and declared war against Serbia on July 28, 1914 CE.
Mention the major terms of the treaty of Versailles.
On 28 June 1919 CE the treaty of Versailles was made between Germany and allied powers. The main provisions of this treaty were as following :
- Germany to give its provinces of Aleace and Lorraine to France.
- For the 15 years for harnessing the ‘Sir Canyon’ for minearal wealth, Germany gave it to France.
- German occupied area Schelswig was given to Denmark.
- Germany had to leave the port of Danzig under the control of League of Nations.
- Germany had to give all its overseas colonies to allied powers.
Write the significance of overseas the ‘Murderer Sunday’ incident in the history of Russia.
In the war between Russia and Japan in the year 1904-05, Russia was defeated by Japan. One and only batch of workers performed in the honour of clergy, ‘Gappo’. But the soldiers of the Czar attacked 130 people on the invasion. In 1906, Gappo was also killed by revolutionaries. ‘Murderer Sunday’ has an important place in Russian history. When Duma’s disciplined team got less success, the Czar disintegrated it.
What do you think of the Pausation policy?
The ethnicity of Russia was composed by different castes. There were many ethnic groups like : Jews, Poles, Fin, Ujbeks, Tatar, Kazakhs, Armenians, etc. in which Russians became the ruler because of their greater influence. They were not liberal with minorities. Form the beginning Czar Alexender I adopted the policy of pausation against them. Under this following things were done :
- The slogan ‘One Czar one religion’ was given.
- People of other communities were suppresed.
- Ban was imposed on their language.
- Their property was exforted. Because of all this, dissatisfaction spread among the people and they became against Czarist regime.
Write Lenin’s contribution in the Bolshevik revolution.
Bolshevik revolution’s great hero Lenin was born on 22nd April 1870 in Russia’ Volga province near Simbrisk. His father’s name was Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov. He was greatly influenced by his elder brother and interested in history and literature. On 8th May 1887, when Lenin’s brother was hanged on a hanging rope for the murder of Czar Alexender III, Lenin decided to remove Czarist rule from the roots. In 1903, social democratic party was divided and a new Bolshevik party emerged under the leadership of Lenin. Lenin got his strong position in Bolshevik party by organizing its structure, sessions and programmes. Under the efficient leadership of Lenin, Bolshevik party became successful in capturing the regime of Russia on 25 October 1917 CE.
How did the revolutionaries struggle against Czarist rule?
According to Lenin’s direction, the armed revolution decide to capture power on 10 October 1917 and a ‘Politburo’ was appointed. Posters pasted at all places in the capital Petrograd announced that ‘Temporary government’ had been abolished and in its place the committee of the proletariat revolutionaries of Petrograd took power. The Bolshevik revolution started suddenly at night and and was completed by the morning. There was no need for bloodsheed as the other side offered no resistance. The General public had to suffer the red terror of the revolutionaries and white terror of the Czarists. On November 7, 1917, Bolsheviks occupied power. The session of All Russian Soviet Union started in which 390 were Bolsheviks out of 649 representatives. On 8th November 1917 under the leadership of Lenin, new council of people ‘Kommisar’ was promoted which brought political, social and economic transformation and propagated proletariat revolution in the world.
How did Stalin demonstrate his power in Russia? Describe.
After the death of Lenin in January 1924, Stalin got success in power struggle between him and Trotsky. He was born in 1879 at Gori village in a Tannery family. He was interested in Marxism and later he joined Democratic party. In 1902-03 he was arrested 6 times but came back 5 times from there where he was sent to Siberia. He was General Secretary of the party.
He died on 6 March 1953. During the long tenure as the President of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union made a lot of progress and equalized the U.S. as a superpower.
Describe Petrograd’s Labour strike.
The poor labourers started robbing petrograd due to hunger and cold. The emperor ordered the bullets on them, but the soldiers refused to fire. On 8 March 1917, women factory labourers of Petrograd joined the strike because they did not get enough food to eat. Next day, men were also included in the strike. These people were sloganeering with ‘give us bread’ as well as demanding an end to tyranical rule. This struggle was carried out upto three days. As a result ‘revolutionaries Soviet’ was formed by workers and soldiers and Monarchy ruling system was ended.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Essay Type Questions
Describe the major reasons of the first World War.
The first World War was the most devastating war ever fought in human history. This war started in 1914 CE and lasted for four years three months and 11 days. The main reasons of this war are the following :
1. Fierce Nationality : The spirit of nationalism was the soul of the French Revolution. The integration of Germany and Italy was the result of nationalism. But at the end of the 19th Century, this feeling of nationalism took a radical look. France wanted to gain independence, so the Poles, Czechs, Serbs, Bulgarians, etc. inspired by the spirit of nationality, wanted to be independent from Austro-German Emperor. France was looking for opportunities to take revenge from Germany. The solution to this problem would have come out of war.
2. Imperialist Rivalry between England and Germany : Late 19th Century Germany made rapid economic and industrial progress and left England and France behind in industrial innovation. British made a big warship imperator. Germany also built a rail line linking Berlin to Baghdad by constructing the Nile canal. In this way, it was easier to send troops or goods from Germany in the region. This threatened British colonists.
3. Rivalry between Germany and France : Germany defeated France in the war of 1871. France had to give their two provinces and industrial areas to Germany. In the year 1904, France and Britain made a secret treaty, according to which France, Morocco and Britain got exemption from arbitrage in Egypt.
4. Creation of Groups : In 1882 set up in Germany, Austria and Italy established that if the war with the allied power is fought, then their military will help. England, Russia and France formed a three-nation treaty in 1907. The formation of the conflicting factions divided the world into two camps. Each group promoted war.
5. Serbo-Slav movement and Balkan Politics : Eastern region of Europe was known as the Balkans. Many states located in this area, such as Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and many other small states were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman began to be powerless in the early 20th Century. The slavs, living in Austria and Russia, launched a national movement in support of Russia which is called the All-Slavic movement, whose independence was to liberate the state of Serbia, the Slavic region. Austria protested this movement. In 1908 Austria and Serbia became enemies of one another.
6. Diplomatic Treaties : The integration of Italy in Europe and integration of Germany started an era which was the era of secret treaties. France also developed a ‘tri-nation’ friendship with Russia and England in relation to its security concerns. This alliance continued to strengthen until 1914.
7. Mercantile and Colonial Rivalry : Fast industrial development began in England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and America until the 19th Century. With this raw materials were supplied and new markets were needed for finished goods. England and France received the highest colonial territory in this rivalry. Germany was back in this after 1890 and started efforts to acquire Colonies. Whereby, England and France became their foes and Italy was also looking for new Colonies.
8. Role of Newspapers : When Britain’s newspapers criticized the policy of German Emperor, William-II in Britain, the people of Germany began to consider England as their enemy. In the same way German newspapers provoked the people of England. Serbian and Austrian newspapers published hard hitting articles against each other about the murder of Ferdinand. It was natural for it to foment anger in both the countries. The situation of war could have been handled only when there was no control over the freedom of press.
9.International Anarchy : Russian-Japanese war of 1904-05, conflict between France and Germany, Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria in 1908-09 CE and Balkan war, etc. promoted international anarchy. As a result the race of militarism and armament speeded up.
10. Immediate cause : The immediate cause of the first world war was the Austrian invasion on 28 July 1914 CE. Along with this the war started between the major European powers.
Describe the results of the Bolshevik Revolution,
As a result of Bolshevik revolution on 7 November 1917. (According to Russian calender)
Bolshevik party became successful on the basis of strong organization and efficient leadership
of Lenin. This revolution had far reaching effects which were as following :
(A) Political Results
- The success of Bolshevik party overthrew the Kerenski government.
- The ideals of Marxism in Bolshevik’s in Russia made it possible that the theory and practice sometimes succeed in harmony.
- According to their policy Bolshevik government made the treaty of Brest Litovsk on March 1918 CE without consultation with allied powers and separated Russia from the first World War.
- The allied states Great Britain, France etc. became angry with the Bolsheviks and provided military support to the situation in the civil war.
- In Moscow third international or ‘Komintum’ was established in 1919 CE.
- In Russia, the communist party was declared the only legal party.
- Russia’s new government had to struggle with anti-regine political parties, nobles and friendly states. Introduction of cruelty, terror and mercilessness from both the sides.
- As a result of revolution Russia emerged as a major power.
- The unfree states of Asia and Africa were inspired by Russian revolution.
- The Russian revolution established theoretical totalitarian state in 20th Century.
- The world was now divided into two camps-capitalists and communist.
(B) Social Results
- The Russian revolution brought an end to social inequality. The discrimination between the elite and the proletariat in Russia was erased by the revolution.
- The Russian revolution also destroyed gender based conventional discrimination. Women were given the equal right of men’s Franchise, educational rights and lifetime opportunities to earn.
- After the Russian revolution, a positive result was that church clutches were removed from education. Education became public, made available to the public.
- In 1925 the atheist union grew. Due to marginalisation of Church and the rise of optimism, the Church was completely isolated from 1918 CE.
(C) Economic Results
- After the Russian revolution, the government redeveloped the economy, confined private trade and gave importance to labour production.
- Huge infrastructure was built and efficiency of workers improved..
- The income and working condition of workers improved over time. Education, health management was systematized.
Give brief description of the leading causes of the Russian revolution of 1917.
The defeat of Russia in the war of 1904-05 by Japan ended the supremacy of Russia. On the
other hand dissatisfaction increased among the people due to different reasons. The
oppressive polices of the administration were the cause of this dissatisfaction. The result of this
dissatisfaction and autocracy occured as the Russian revolution. The main reasons of this
revolution were as follows :
1. Autocracy of the Czar : Russian citizens had no rights till the mid of 19th Century. Those who opposed the ruler got harsh punishment. Due to such oppressive administration the rule of Czar became unbearable and Public demanded for reforms.
2. 1905 : Attempt to Crush the Impact of the Revolution and Duma: The citizen’s right which were obtained by the revolution of 1905 CE, could not be implemented by the Duma. The Czar dissolved Duma and this further increased the dissatisfaction among the people.
3. Pathetic Condition of the Farmers : The situation of farmers in Russia was pathetic. In 19th Century, big landowners owned 1800 Lakh acre land, but more than 1 crore farmers had only 1900 lakh acre land, in which all had to pay tax of various types. Farmers did not even get two square meals to eat. The revolutionary socialist party took advantage of this and incited them against the rule.
4. Labour Dissatisfaction : Due to industrialization, lot of landless farmers went in industries for employment. Industrialists took full advantage of their position and exploited them to make their condition more miserable. They also took the maximum work from them on minimum wages. In 1902-03 labour strikes started. These labourers established the proletariat by eliminating the oppression of the capitalist system and autocratic rule.
5. Economic and Social inequality : Russian society was divided into three groups : Elite, Middle class and Proletariat. The people of proletariat were deprived of rights. In this category all farmers and workers were included. The people of proletariat had to bear the oppressive policies of administration as well as of the Elite group. This mass community became the important cause of Russian Revolution.
6. Intellectual Revolution : Educated class demanded political rights. Along with this socialist ideas of Karl Marx, Marim Gorky and Bakunin had an impact on the workers and intellectuals of the country. This gave rise to Nihilism in society and the people began to raise the demand of political rights.
7. Rise of Socialism in Russia : Influenced by the miserable condition of the farmers, intellectuals started an agitation in 1860, on the basis of socialist ideology. Hergen and Chemowski were the chief leaders of this movement. These supporters can be considered ‘populist’. After some time, socialist party divided into two parts :
1. Revolutionary socialist party, 2. Social democratic party.
The Revolutionary socialist party organised terrorrist programme and killed many people. Social democratic party was established in 1898. Social democratic party also divided into two parts in 1903 (i) Bolshevik and (ii) Menshevik.
8. Corrupt governance of Czar Nicholas-II : Russian ruler Czar Nicholas-II was an incapable ruler who did not have the foresight to understand the importance of events and characters of persons. By taking advantage of his inability, a saint, Rasputin, began to start interfering in administration. As a result a group formed in the court against Rasputin and murdered him in December 1916 CE.
9. Entrance of Russia in the first World War : In August 1914, Russia participated in the first World War at the side of allied nations. In the first 3 years, 1 crore 50 lakh soldiers were sent to the battlefield. Due to lack of working in the fields by workers and decline in agricultural production, the productivity of grain, fuel and clothes were reduced.
Mention the political consequences of the first World War.
The first World War was fought from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918 CE. This was a disasterous war which had far-reaching results. The political consequences of the first World War were as follows :
- End of Autocracy : The war ended the autocracy in Germany, Russia, Austria and Turkey. Along with this nobility and the feudal class also came to end.
- Development of Democracy : After the first World War, democracy was established in Hungary, Poland, Czhechoslovakia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, etc. Turkey’s ruler Mustafa Kamal Pasha also established a republican government.
- The spirit of Nationalism and the rise of new states : New states arose, such as Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland and Poland.
- (iv) The Rise of new opinions : Bolshevik Revolution took place in Russia in 1917, leading to communism. Fascism in Italy, Nazism in Germany and militarism in Japan was born. The world had become a tinderbox of tension again.
- Increase in the influence of United States of America : America became supreme among European nations. Its commerce quadrupled every day. At this time Germany’s trade and commerce had declined and America’s control of European trade was absolute.
- The Firms Race : The modern weapons and the equipment began to be built and the arms race sparked the second World War.
Mention Lenin’s role in the success of the Bolshevik party.
The credit of establishing the first communist government in the world goes to Lenin. Bolshevik Revolution’s great hero was born on 22nd April 1870 in Russia’s Volga province near Simbirask. On 8th May 1887 Lenin’s brother was hanged till death for the murder of Czar Alexander-Ill. Tormented by this event Lenin decided to remove Czarist rule from its roots. For this he did the following :
- As a result of division of Social democratic party in 1903, Lenin formed Bolshevik party.
- Lenin got strong position in Bolshevik party by organising the structure, programmes and sessions of the party and defeated his enemies.
- From 1900 CE to 1917 Lenin spent most of his time in foreign countries. In this time Lenin developed the network of Bolsheviks.
- On 23 October 1917 CE under the leadership of Lenin the Bolshevik party decided to take control of the reigne by an armed uprising and a ‘Politburo’ was appointed for implementation of the plan.
- The head of Petrograd Trotasky formed the ‘Soldier Revolutionary Committee’ of Soviet. Inspite of this, on 7 November 1917 CE under the efficient leadership and strong organisation of Lenin, Bolsheviks became successful in taking control of the country.
- On 8th November 1917 under the leadersip of Lenin, the first cabinet of new government (Council of People Kommisar) was formed which brought political, social and economic transformation and propagated proletariat revolution in the world.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Objective Type Questions
‘I will not see the World War but you will see and it will begin from the East’. Who said it?
For how many years did the first world war carry on?
How many nations participated in the first world war?
Between whom was the treaty of St. Germain made?
(a) Austria-Allied nations
(a) Austria-Allied nations
When did the first World War come to an end?
(a) 28 July 1918
(b) 11 November 1918
(c) 3 November 1919
(d) 7 November 1917
(b) 11 November 1918
How much part of the world was covered by Russia?
On which place in 1905 CE, the conference of Farmers’ representatives’ held in which decision of forming Russian farmers organization was taken?
(a) In St. Petersberg
(b) In Leningrad
(c) In Petrograd
(d) In Moscow
(d) In Moscow
Which post was Trotsky given in Bolshevik government?
(a) Foreign minister
(b) Home minister
(c) Minister of ethnic groups
(d) Prime minister
(a) Foreign minister
Who was the president of Cheka organization?
(a) Felisk Kerzinski
(a) Felisk Kerzinski
When was Stalin born?
(a) 1789 CE
(b) 1890 CE
(c) 1979 CE
(d) 1890 CE
(c) 1979 CE
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which was the largest state of Eurpoe in term of area?
In terms of area Russia was the largest state of Europe.
Which areas had to be provided by France to Germany due after its defeat in the war of 1871 CE?
Due to defeat in the war of 1871 CE France had to give two fertile and industrial areas : Alsace and Lorraine to Germany.
Which countries formed the trinary group in 1882 CE?
In 1882 CE Germany, Austria and Italy formed trinary group.
Who was the father of secret treaties?
Bismark was the father of secret treaties.
Why was Bulgaria unsatisfied in Balkan region?
In Balkan region Bulgaria was unsatisfied because a large part of its territory was snatched by Serbia, Greece, etc.
Which were the main secret revolutionary institutions of Serbia?
The main secret revolutionary institutions of Serbia were : ‘Black Hand’ and ‘Organization of Death’. ‘
When did Germany invade Russia during the first World War?
During the first World War Germany invaded Russia on 1 August 1914 CE.
Mention the names of Axis nations involved the first World War.
Axis nations, included in the first World War were : Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.
After which event did America enter the first World War?
After the event of sinking of an American ship by Germany on 6th April 1917 CE, America entered the World War-I.
How many countries were invited to the Paris Peace Conference?
32 countries were invited to the Paris Peace Conference.
Who was the president of America during the first World War?
Woodrow Wilson was the president of America during the first world war.
The council of which four major nations was formed in Paris Peace Conference?
In Paris Peace Conference the council of four major nations. America, England, France and Italy was formed.
Between whom was the treaty of Sabre performed?
The treaty of Sabre was performed betwen Turkey and Allied powers.
What was the great contribution of the first World War in International scenerio?
In International scenerio, the great contribution of the first World War was the establishment of ‘League of Nations’.
Which three categories was the Russian society divided into?
The Russian society was divided into three categories : Elite group, Middle class and proletariat.
Who said it that “In the world Czar is not responsible to anybody.”
Peter the great said “In the world Czar is not responsible to anybody.”
With which event did the Russian revolution begin on March 1917 CE?
With the worker’s strike of Petrograd Russian Revolution began on March 1917 CE.
Who is the writer of ‘Das Capital’?
Karl Marx is the writer of ‘Das capital’.
When was Social democratic party formed in Russia?
In Russia social democratic party was formed in 1898 CE.
When was social democratic party divided? As a result of this division which new parties were formed?
Social democratic party was divided in 1903 CE. As a result two parties were formed : Bolshevik and Menshevik.
Who organized ‘Cheka organisation’?
Lenin organised ‘Cheka organisation’.
When did Lenin die?
Lenin died in 1924.
What was the full name of Stalin?
The full name of Stalin was Joseph Visarionovich Jugswili Stalin.
By whose co-operation did Stalin defeat Trotsky and get the highest post?
Stalin defeated Trotsky and got the highest post by the co-operation of Kemnev and Zinonev.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Short Answer Type Questions
Which countries of Europe established their colonies in Asia and Africa before the first World War?
Before the first World War the following countries of Europe established their colonies in Asia and Africa.
- In Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Malaya were the colonies of England and Persia, Afghanistan, Tibet, Nepal and Middle East were also influenced by England.
- Indo-China and Indonesia was under the control of France. ‘
- In Africa England, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain etc. established their colonies.
Write a short note on All Slavic movement.
Eastern region of Europe was known as the Balkans. Many states were located in this area, such as Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and many other small states were under the control of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman began to lose power in the early 20th Century. The Slavic living in Austria and Serbia launched a national movement in support of Russia which is called the All Slavic movement, whose aim was to liberate the state of Serbia, the Slavic region. Austria protested this movement. In 1908 Austria and Serbia became the adversaries of one another and this became the cause of World War-I.
How did colonial rivalry create the situation for the first World War?
Fast industrial development began in England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and America by the 19 th Century. With this raw materials were required and new markets were needed for finished goods. Increasing population and Military requirements etc. inspired the European countries for establishing colonies. In this competition England and France got most of the regions. After 1890 CE Germany also began to try to establish overseas colonies. Russia and Austria started to increase influence over Balkan region. Italy also entered this competition. This colonial rivalry created the feelings of hatred among the nations. As a result, these nations confronted each other in the first World War.
When was the Paris peace conference held? Describe the treaties made in it among Allied and defeated nations.
In 1919 a peace conference was organised in Paris to establish permanent peace at the end of World War-I. In this conference many treaties were performed among allied powers and defeated nations which are as follows :
- The treaty of Saint Germain with Austria was dissolved by the dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire. By this, Italy received South Tirol, Trento, Istria and Dalmatia from Austria.
- The treaty of Triyano was made with Hungary in which Hungary had to forgo its right on the ‘Magyar’ people. Hungary’s army was reduced to 35 thousand and its navy was also dissolved.
- Nely treaty was performed with Bulgaria in which it had to return all the regions it had won in the Balkan wars.
- The treaty of Sabre was made with Turkey according to which Dardanelles island and Rhodes region had to be given to Italy.
- In all the treaties in Peace conference, the treaty of Versailles with Germany was the most important. On 28 June 1919 CE, Germany had to sign an offensive treaty in which Germany had to give up its most important industrial regions to France.
What was Rowlatt act? How did Indians oppose it?
To suppress the revolutionary activities against British government, British parliament passed Rowlatt act in 1919 CE. By this law England wanted to take away the fundamental rights of Indians. By this law British government got the right to keep anyone in the prison for two years without any trial. Indians gave it the name of Black Law and opposed it by processions and strikes.
What diplomatic policy was adopted by the British in exchange of support of Indians in first World War?
Answer: During the first World War British government gave the promise of constitutional reforms for India in exchange of Indian support in the World War. But after the war British started to suppress Indians and adopted oppressive policies. British adopted the following diplomatic policies againt Indians :
- By Rowlatt Act England suppressed the fundamental rights of Indians.
- Harsh laws were imposed on Indian Press.
- There was no provision of self rule to Indians in Indian government act of 1919 CE.
- In Turkey the Khalifa was deposed and Indian Muslims started Khilafat movement against it.
- British government tricked the Indians and contrary to their assurances they pursued policies which resulted in famines, epidemics and other economic exploitation.
What were objectives of foreign policy of Russian Empire?
The Russian Empire was spread out on 1/6 part of the world’s land area. Along with the expansion in Asia and Europe the borders of North America also touched Russian Empire. Due to its vastness Russia had relations with many countries of Asia and Europe. The main objectives of Russian foreign policy were as follows :
- The security of borders.
- Uninterrupted traffic in the Black Sea.
- To get a reasonable territory of states which were removed from the map.
- To control the ambitions of Britain in Middle East.
- To set up its own domination by stopping expansion of Japanese Empire in East Asia.
What challenges were faced by Bolshevik government after establishing its rule.
With the efficient leadership and strong organisation of Lenin, Bolshevik party became successful in taking control of Russia on 7 November 1917 CE. On 8 November 1917 CE under the leadership of Lenin, a new government was formed. This new Bolshevik government had to face many types of challenges along with the opposition of political parties which are the following :
- The people who lost their lands, became unsatisfied with the Bolshevik government.
- After the treaty between Bolshevik government and Germany, Allied powers favoured Russian revolutionaries and created a crisis for Lenin’s government.
- Allied powers formed white government in different fields with the co-operation of opponents of Bolsheviks.
- Russian people had to face the terror of Red Army formed by Bolsheviks and white army by hostile commanders. But at last Lenin conquered all the challenges by his Bolshevik policy.
How did Russian Revolution reduce the ecconomic inequality?
Before the Russian Revolution there was economic inequality in Russia. Elite group was too much prosperous while the proletariat had no rights and their economic condition was also miserable. As a result of revolution many economic reforms were done in Russia which reduced economic inequality. The reforms were as follows :
- Land was acquired from the feudals and redistributed to the people by the government.
- Industries were nationalized.
- Private business became limited and importance was given to collective enterprise, and production.
- Control was established on odd distribution of income.
- Efforts were made for the betterment in working condition and living conditions of workers and farmers.
Who was Trotsky? What role did he play in Bolshevik government?
Trotsky was the head of Petrograd revolutionary Soviet council. Later on he became the foreign minister of Bolshevik government. He led Red Army while facing foreign armies. As a result Bolshavik government got victory. In 1924 after the death of Lenin, conflict was created between Trotsky and Stalin to get the highest position in the government in which Stalin got success. Trotsky was driven out from the party in 1927 CE. Then Trotsky settled in Constantinople where he wrote his autobiography in which he presented accounts of Bolshevik Revolution and criticised Stalinism.
Write a short note on :
(i) Red Army,
(ii) White Army,
(iii) Cheka Answer:
- Red Army : Bolshevik party organised a strong army to face foreign armies and chieftains of Czar Nicholas-II which was known as Red Army. Later on this army became stronger under the leadership of Trotosky and played an important role to defeat White army and to force changes in the policies of allied powers.
- White Army : The army against the Bolsheviks in Russia was known as White Army. These white armies were organised to remove the Bolshevik government by the chieftains of Czar Nicholas-II with the cooperation of Allied powers.
- Cheka : In Russia-Bolsheviks established a secret court to suppress the revolutionaries, which was known as Cheka. Feliks Kerensky was the president of this court. In his leadership thousands of revolutionaries were killed. Cheka destroyed their opponents completely with terror and merciless acts.
Briefly highlight the life of Stalin.
Stalin was born in 1879 at Gori village in a Tannery family. His father wanted him to become a priest of Church but he was interested in Marxism. And later, he joined Democratic party. In 1902-03 century, he was arrested 6 times in, but escapes 5 times from there where he was sent to Siberia. He was General secretary of the party. After the death of Lenin in January 1924, Stalin got success in power struggle betwen him and Trotsky.
He died on 6th March 1953 CE. During his long tenure as the leader of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union made a lot of progress and equalled the US, in the era of two superpowers.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 5 Essay Type Questions
Describe the events after 1900 CE which became the cause of International anarchy and the first World War.
The world politics came to a turning point. Many countries of Europe became engaged in the competition of colonialism and industrialization. Powerful countries divided the small states and began to fulfil their interests. This policy of nations created unrest and anarchy in Europe. After 1900 CE the major events were as following :
- Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 CE : In Russo-Japanese war of 1904-5, Russia was defeated. This war badly affected the foreign policy and economic politics of Russia. Due to the defeat of Russia, Germany challenged France in Morocco and created a serious situation in the international region.
- Suppression of the revolt of Phage : To supress the revolt of Phage in the year 1911, France sent its troops to protect the life of the European people. So Germany opposed it and sent its warship to Agadir fort. Due to this the situation of international conflict was created.
- Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria : In 1908-09 Austria brought Bosnia and Herzeygovina into the Empire and this created a serious crisis. As a result of this Austria’s relations with Russia and Italy worsened.|
- Balkan wars : The Balkan wars of the year 1912-13 also made the international environment extremely stressful. The race of militarism and armanent due to these wars speaded up.
- Invasion on Serbia by Austria : On 28 July 1914 CE Austria invaded Serbia and along with it the first World War started which had far reaching results.
Thus the above events created an atmosphere of anarchy and tension in the whole world which emerged in the form of the first World War.
Why was the treaty of Versailles offensive for Germany?
In 1919 Paris peace conference, many treaties were made between allied nations and defeated nations in which the treaty of Versailles was very important. This treaty was made between Germany and allied nations. Germany became economically weak and militarily decimated by this treaty. The harsh provisions of this treaty hit the existence of Germany hard in the following ways :
- Germany had to give Alsace and Lorraine provinces to France.
- After 15 years of harnessing the ‘Sir Canyon’, Germany gave this mineral-rich region to France.
- Referendum was taken in German territory ‘Schelswig’. According to that Schelswig was given to Denmark.
- Germany had to leave Danzig harbour under League of Nations’ control and also gave its all the rights to allied nations.
- Compulsory military service in Germany ended and it was prohibited from doing fortification. Its air force was grounded.
- Germany’s powers were greatly limited and they were ordered to pay an additional sum of 5 billion dollars to be given as compensation in 1921.
- Germany had to take the responsibility of the destruction in first World War.
Thus the treaty of Versailles was very insulting in which Germany lost its all honour and dignity. After taking over its economic resources Germany was bound to repay the amount of indemenity which was inappropriate. But it cannot be denied that Germany was itself responsible for this situation.
What changes occurred in the political atmosphere of India after the first world war?
During the first world war India was a vast and very important colony of England. India did not have direct relation with the first World War but England included India when it started. For India, this war was only for the support of England. From the declaration of the first World War in 1914 CE, a great change occurred in the political atmosphere of the country. In the contemporary period there were two groups-radicals and moderates in the political institution Congress of India. Both groups had different ideology regarding the policies of British government.
- When England’s prime minister described Germany’s defeat in the war as essential for the protection of democracy and sought help from India, the members of moderate group decided to help England mentally, physically and financially.
- Gandhiji emerged as an ally of the British Government in Indian politics. They felt that the British were fighting to protect the higher principles in this World War.
- Tilak and Annie Besant and revolutionaries assessed that the Britishers were currently seeking help from Indians only because of their need. After the war, they would continue their oppressive policies again. India’s good will not happen without any violent movement.
- A large number of soldiers were recruited in India during World War-I. In addition to weapons, ammunitions and war materials, large quantities of wheat rice, tea, cotton, jute, rubber, coal, iron and steel were sent. India spent 10 crore pounds per year for this war and also spent 30 crore of pounds on its army.
The British government expressed the hope that Indians will be given more facilities after this war. But after the war, it was evident from the activities of the British that Tilak’s assessment was correct. The British tricked the Indians and contrary to expectations famine, epidemic, economic exploitation, press and other oppressive policies continued.
Describe the condition of European countries before the first World War.
Answer: The condition of European countries before the first world war was the following :
1. England : At this time England was the most prosperous nation in Europe. Its navy was very strong and powerful. England’s colonial empire had been established in most parts of the world. At this time England was taking interest in increasing its economic and imperialistic interests. In the East, England had established its colonial Empire in India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Malaya and Africa. Persia, Afganistan, Tibet, Neptal and Middle east were also influenced by England.
2. Germany : Before the World War-I Germany had the most powerful land forces in Europe. It had become an economically prosperous nation but it had less colonies. So it considered England as its great rival. In the leadership of Emperior Willian-II Germany which was situated in centre of Europe, wanted to become the supreme power of Europe.
3. Russia : In terms of area Russia was the largest country in the world. It was under the rule of Czar. At this time Russia was taking interest in Balkan region where a great number of Slav people lived. Russia wanted to destroy the Ottoman Empire and establish a great Slav state there. In this Austria was its greatest opponent.
4. France : By getting Alsace and Lorraine areas from Germany, France wanted to get the dignity of the past. France has established its colony in Indo-China, Indonesia and Africa.
5. Austria : In Europe, Austria was engaged in conflict in Balkan region with Russia and Serbia. In 1908-09 CE, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina into its Empire. Due to this its relation with Russia, Serbia and Italy became worse.
Describe all the treaties which were made in Paris Peace Conference in 1919 CE.
The treaties performed in Paris Peace Conference were as follows :
1. St Germain treaty : By disintegrating the Empire of Austo-Hungary, Allied nations made the treaty of St. German with Austria. By this Italy got South Tirol, Trento, Istria and Dalmatia (coastal areas) from Austria.
2. Treaty of Triyano : Allied nations made the treaty of Triyano with Hungary. Hungary left its right on the ‘Magyar’ people. Hungary’s army was reduced to 35 thousand and its navy was also dissolved.
3. Treaty of Neuli : Allied nations performed the ‘treaty of Neuli’ with Bulgaria. Bulgaria had to return all the conqured area in World War-I and Balkan wars. Its army was reduced to 33 thousand and the amount of 5 Lakh dollars should be paid as compensation.
4. Treaty of Sebre and Lusan : Turkey also fought in support of Germany. So allied nations performed the treaty of Sebre with Turkey. Turkey had to give Dodekniz island and Rodes region to Italy. Turkey army was reduced upto 50 thousand. But due to the Tarun Turk movement in Turkey in 1923, there was the treaty of Lusan performed and according to it Turkey received its lost landscape.
5. Treaty of Versailles : Allied nations made the treaty of Versailles with Germany. According to it:
- Germany had to give Alsace and Lorraine region to France.
- For 15 years the harnessing of the ‘Sir Canyon’ of Germany filled with minerals was given to France.
- On the basis of referendum German controlled Schleswig was given to Denmark.
- Independent Poland was formed by joining the Polish regions of Germany, Austria and Russia.
- Now allied nations took away the rights over all colonies of Germany.
- Compulsory military service in Germany was ended.
- The number of German soldiers and officers of Germany was limited to one Lakh and its air force was grounded.
- (h) The fortification of East part of Rhine river by Germany was prohibited.
- Many of Germany’s powers were also limited and an additional sum of 5 billion dollars was to be given by Germany as compensation in 1921.
- Germany had to take responsibility of World War-I.
Mention the economic results of the first World War.
Answer: The economic results of the first world war were as follows :
1.Economic Destruction : This war ended on 11 November 1918. In this war, 1,00,000 crore pounds were spent directly and the indirect loss was uncountable.
2. Mass Destruction : In this 4 years war, 80 Lakh people died and 2 crore people were wounded. It proved that this war was a devastating war. Seven thousand people died every day in this period due to massacre, hunger, disease and France was largely destroyed.
3. War Loan : In 1914, the public debt of both parties was 8 thousand crores and in 1918 it increased by 5 times to 40 thousand crores. Overall property worth 13 thousand 200 crore was destroyed in the war. With the increase in the rate of labour, production decreased. The price of the currency started decreasing and the risk in the trade business grew manifold.
4. The Destruction of Trade : Now every nation was trying to buy the least goods from other countries and sell more goods to them. After the war, the United States, Japan and Latin countries entered those markets which were previously in the hands of Britain and Germany. America became the world’s leading lender.
5. Inflation of Money : All states issued huge amount of paper currency to repay loans to meet their increased expenditure. This inflation wiped away savings and resulted in an economic crisis.
Describe the Social results of the first World War.
The social results of the first world war were as follows :
1. The solution to solve the problem of Minorities : In the Paris conference, the problem arose how to protect the interests of permanent minorities in foreign countries. Mainly this problem arose in Poland, Czechoslovakia as well as in Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. Paris peace conference forced Poland and Czechoslovakia to give guarantee to protect the minorities’ language and culture. But Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Greece, Jugoslavia and Turkey were against this type of guarantee.
2. Reform in the condition of women : Women’s welfare was sidelined during the 4th year of war. In addition to the traditional roles of women, society started neglecting them. Women started working in factories, shops and they were also doing what men used to do.
3.Equality of the breeds : The Europeans had strong sense of superiority and racism in Europe. These people considered black, grey, yellow people of Asia and Africa as inferior to themselves. But when the soldiers of India, Japan and Africa were sent to Europe due to the wars, they showed as much courage as the white soldiers.
4. Development of world Organization : Many world organizations were established for dismantling the social, political and economical problems due to the first world war. International labour and National Unions were established to solve the welfare and political problems of the workers. This led to the development of international feeling. This war had serious consequences which could not be compensated.
Describe the condition of farmers and workers before the Russian Revolution.
Condition of farmers before Russian Revolution :
- In spite of being an agricultural country the condition of Russian farmers was miserable.
- Big landlords had 1800 lac acres of land while more than one million farmers had only 1900 lac acres land.
- One third of the farmer were landless. These landless farmers worked on the fields of landlords.
- Farmers had to pay many types of taxes due to which their financial condition became more miserable.
- No changes occurred in the miserable condition of farmers by the law made for peasants.
- Farmers demanded for land tax reduction and facilities which was rejected.
- A conference of farmers’ representatives was held in Moscow in 1905. Then Russian Farmer’s Union was established.
- Farmers had to be given right to separate his land from ‘Commune’ by the law of 1906.
- But landless farmers did not get any profit by this law. As a result farmers became opponents of the administration.
Condition of Workers before Russian revolution :
- Due to industrilization industries developed in Russia.
- Landless farmers reached to get employment at the urban centres.
- Capitalists and Industrialists exploited these farmers greatly.
- Due to Harsh survival conditions and low wages the condition of workers became worse.
- After 1885, some laws were made for workers but the workers did not get any profit.
- The policies of administration were also in favour of industrialists.
- By taking advantage of this situation Socialist party propagated socialist principles among workers.
- From 1902-03 the strikes of workers began.
- Workers wanted to establish the rule of proletariat class and remove capitalism and Czarist rule.
- From here Russian revolution began to gain momentum and Czar’s rule came to end.