Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Unity in Diversity of India
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Text Book Questions
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Multiple Choice Type Questions
The oldest topographical form of our country is:
(a) Thar Desert
(b) Coastal Plains
(c) Southern Plateau
(c) Southern Plateau
The primary form of unique type of agriculture in India is:
(a) Shifting agriculture
(b) Plantation agriculture
(c) Commercial Agriculture
(d) Mixed farming
(a) Shifting agriculture
The winter monsoon winds blow in India in the direction:
(a) from land to water
(b) from water to land
(c) from west to east
(d) from south to north
(a) from land to water
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Very Answer Type Questions
Name a very prominent mountain range found in our country.
A very prominent mountain range found in our country is the Aravalli range.
Name the topographical regions in which latest deposits are found in India.
In India, latest deposits are found in the Ganga – Sutlej river plains, delta of rivers and in the plains formed by floods.
Which mountain range is related to newly – folded mountains in our country?
In India, the Himalayan mountain range is related to newly – folded mountains.
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Short Answer Type Questions
Why do the winds change their direction along with the change in the season?
In India, winds undergo seasonal reversal, based on the differential heating of oceans and continents by the sun. Winds blow from high pressure regions towards low pressure regions. Due to this, the direction of the winds also changes according to the season. During summer season, winds blow from the sea towards the surface, and during winter season, they blow from the surface towards the sea.
Why does minimum air pressure develop in the Thar Desert, during summer season?
Temperature is directly related to the air pressure. Where there is high temperature, low air pressure is found, and there is high air – pressure where low temperature is found. Thar Desert is made of sandy soil. It is situated in the western part of India. Very high temperature is found in this desert during the summer season due to lack of water sources and very low rainfall. During the day time, the sandy soil gets rapidly heated up. Due to this high atmospheric temperature, minimum air pressure develops in the Thar Desert.
Which are the diversities related to communication found in India?
India is a country of diversities, where, along with other diversities, diversity of communication is also found. In the backward tribal areas, people send their messages by beating the drums. They also produce specific sounds to communicate their messages. But in the developed areas, there are many modes of communication, which are used to express the ideas, thoughts and messages. Telephones, mobile phones, telegraph, fax, radio, television, and internet are speedy forms of communication in the developed parts of India. The diversity among these modes of communication is also seen in different parts of the country.
What do you understand by the diversity of water-necessity in India?
India is an agricultural country and there is monsoon type of climate here. But it does not have enough water supply for agricultural purposes and other agricultural – based industries. That is why, there is a diversity found in water necessities. The water necessity depends on the dissimilarity of rainfall in the country. Where there is enough rainfall, the demand of water is less, but in the areas where rainfall is very less, the necessity of water and its demand both increase at large. The rainfall in India is uneven in mountains, plains, plateaus and desert parts, so diversity of water-necessity is seen everywhere.
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Essay Type Questions
Write an essay on natural diversities found in India.
India is the largest democracy of the world. It is a country with a large geographical area. It is a country that is united in spite of its diversified culture. In the entire geographical region, diversity is seen everywhere, and the occurrence of this diversity is simply natural.
The natural diversities which are found in India are as given below:
1. Topographical Diversity:
The topographies found in India show different land forms. In India, there are high ice – capped mountain – peaks, and on the other hand, fertile plains have been formed by rivers. There are narrow valleys and residual mountains, deserted regions and islands also in India. All of these show the diversity in topography.
2. Structural Diversity:
The land structure of India shows the formation of rocks of different ages. The southern plateau of India is one of the oldest plateaus of the world, and on the other hand, Aravalli counted among in the world’s oldest mountain – ranges. The Himalayas show the newly – folded mountain range, and the plains formed by rivers and the deltas show the newly – formed deposits.
3. Climatic Diversity:
The changes in seasons, temperature, air pressure, direction of wind or monsoon winds, uneven distribution of rainfall etc. are included in the climatic diversity.
4. Drainage diversity:
Due to monsoon rainfall, land slope and mountains also show the drainage – related diversity. There are rivers with sustainable flow and seasonal rivers also in India. In some rivers, there is water due to rainfall, and in others, due to the melting of snow on the hills. The diversity in lakes is also seen. Some lakes are of fresh water and others are saline water lakes.
5. Diversity in water – necessity:
Due to uneven rainfall in different parts of India, diversity of water-necessity is seen here. On one hand, there is drought in some parts, and on the other hand, in other parts, there is flood.
6. Soil – based Diversity:
Different types of soils are found in different parts of India. The soil with different colours and elements – black, red, yellow, alluvial, brown, sandy, clayey, late – rite etc. show the soil diversity in India. The soil is also classified as fertile soil and barren soil.
7. Vegetation – based Diversity:
The forests found in India are evergreen forests, deciduous forests, mountain forests and grasslands, which show the vegetation based diversity in India.
Explain the unity in the economic diversity of India.
The economic condition of a country is a major factor for its development or backwardness. The performance of the economic activities is the basis of economic development. The economic diversity in India can be classified as given below:
1. Agricultural diversity:
Many agricultural forms are found in India. Among these, shifting agriculture, plantation agriculture, commercial agriculture, subsistence farming and mixed farming are mainly practiced in India. Crops of different types, such as wheat, cotton, rice, maize, tea, coffee, jute, etc. are also grown here. There are different methods of agriculture practiced in India.
2. Irrigation – sources based Diversity:
The different means and methods of irrigation are practiced in India. The means of irrigation in India include – wells, tube wells, ponds, canals, etc. The process of irrigation depends on the availability of water and rainfall.
3. Energy resources based Diversity:
Different types of energy resources are found in different parts of India. Energy resources in the country include – coal, hydro – electricity, petroleum, natural gas, atomic energy, solar energy, that show diversity.
4. Mineral based Diversity:
The diversity in the distribution of resources and their use can be seen everywhere in India. In the production of some minerals like mica and gypsum, India enjoys monopoly, and on the other hand, it lags behind in the production of several other minerals. Metallic, non-metallic and power (energy) minerals are found in India, that show diversity.
5. Industrial Diversity:
In our country, many types of industries are found and these are classified into small scale and cottage industry, large scale industry, agro – based industry, livestock based industry, which show the diversity in the industries.
6. Means of Transport based Diversity:
The diversity in the transportation modes in India can be seen in different means of transport, like bicycle, rickshaw, tonga, bullock – carts, bus, car, railway, aircraft, camel carts, etc.
7. Means of communication based diversity:
Ancient as well as the modem means of communication are found in India. While in some backward tribal parts of India, a very common means of communication is beating the drum and some other tribes also send their messages through the beating of drum or by producing different types of sounds through the mouth. On the other hand, in the developed parts of India, modern and latest means of communication like mobile, radio, television, fax and internet are used.
Form of economic unity:
The economic progress of India is mainly on account of the spirit of unity or oneness among every Indian. Today, India has emerged as a major economic power and has secured its position among the top 10 largest economies in the world, both in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) and national GDP.
To satisfy the basic needs, every Indian is engaged in different types of economic activities. Most of the people are engaged in primary economic activities, but other trades and businesses are also developing rapidly. It is due to the feeling of oneness or unity, which is deeply imbibed in the heart of every Indian.
Map Based Questions
Show the water – necessity based diversities on the outline map of India.
Show the areas of shifting agriculture, Sorghum and Millet on the outline map of India.
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Multiple Choice Type Questions
The highest topographical form of India is found on its:
(a) Northern border
(b) Southern border
(c) Eastern border
(d) Western border
(a) Northern border
Where is the highest air pressure found in summer?
(a) In the Thar Desert
(b) In the oceanic areas
(c) In the mountainous parts
(d) In the Southern Plateau
(b) In the oceanic areas
In the summer season, the winds blow:
(a) from surface to sea
(b) from sea to surface
(c) from north to south
(d) from west to east
(b) from sea to surface
Where does the maximum rainfall take place in India?
(a) In Ladakh
(b) In Rajasthan
(c) In Mawsynram
(d) In Chennai
(c) In Mawsynram
If the average rainfall in a certain region is 10 cm, and if it actually rains 15 cm in the region, then diversity of rainfall in that area will be:
(a) 40 per cent
(b) 50 per cent
(c) 60 per cent
(d) 80 per cent
(b) 50 per cent
Which of the following soil types is the most fertile?
(a) Laterite soil
(b) Clayey soil
(c) Sandy soil
(d) Alluvial and black soil
(d) Alluvial and black soil
Where are tropical evergreen forests found in India?
(a) In the northern mountainous parts
(b) On the western slope of Western Ghats
(c) In the arid deserted areas
(d) On the Eastern Ghats
(b) On the western slope of Western Ghats
The other name of shifting agriculture in India is:
(a) Plantation agriculture
(b) Mixed agriculture
(c) Jhooming agriculture
(d) Terrace Farming
(c) Jhooming agriculture
Which of the following crops is a tropical climate crop?
Matching Type Questions
Match Column A with Column B:
|Column A||Column B|
|(i) Estuary||(a) Major Festival of Christians|
|(ii) Sambhar||(b) Arid zone crops|
|(iii) Kal Baisakhi||(c) Saline water lake|
|(iv) Sorghum||(d) Narmada and Tapti rivers|
|(v) Christmas||(e) West Bengal|
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is an excellent quality of India?
An excellent quality of India is unity in diversity.
Into how many categories is diversity divided in India?
The diversity in India is divided into three categories:
- natural diversity
- economic diversity
- demographic diversity
What is the expanse of Great River Plains in India?
The great river plains in India spread between the foothill areas of the northern mountainous region and the southern plateau.
Name the residual mountain ranges found in India.
The major residual mountain ranges found in India are – Aravalli, Vindhyachal and Satpura mountain range.
What do you mean by seasonal rivers?
The rivers which flow only during rainy season due to the water obtained from rainfall are called seasonal rivers.
What are Perennial (evergreen) rivers?
What is meant by the term ‘Barahmasi’ or ‘Nityawahi’ rivers?
The rivers, which flow down from the Himalayas, and get water from the melting ice are called Perennial (evergreen), Barahamasi or Nityawahi rivers, as there is enough water in these rivers throughout the year.
Name the major saline (salt) water Lakes of Rajasthan.
The names of major saline (salt) water lakes of Rajasthan are Sambhar, Didwana, Lunkaransar, Pachpadra, Degana, Phalodi, and Parbatsar.
What is the relation between temperature and air pressure?
Air pressure of a certain region is inverse to its temperature. If the temperature goes high, the air pressure comes dowB, and if the temperature comes down, the air – pressure goes high.
How much quantity of rainfall is received by summer time monsoon in India?
Approximately, 90 per cent of rainfall takes place due to the summer time monsoon in India.
What do you understand by rainfall diversity?
In India, there is different amount of rainfall in different parts of the country. This variation is called the rainfall diversity.
Where is there a high requirement of water?
The high requirement of water is in those areas where there is a very low rate of rainfall and lack of sources of water.
Which are the main soils found in our country?
There are many types of soils found in India and the major ones are-alluvial soil, black soil, red soil, yellow soil, brown soil, loamy soil.
Explain the average annual rainfall.
The amount of water falling in the form of rain, snow, etc. within a given year and area, usually expressed as a hypothetical depth of coverage.
Define Kal Baisakhi.
Violent thunderstorms in Gangetic plains of India are locally known as Kal Baisakhi or Nor’westers. These localised events are generally associated with thunderstorms, accompained by strong squally winds and torrential rainfall.
What are mango showers?
Rainfall which takes place in South India during the summer season is called Mango rain or Mango showers. This rainfall is beneficial for mango crop.
What is the time of arrival and departure of monsoon in India?
Monsoon usually arrives in India by the first week of June and its departure takes place by 1st-15th December.
Which type of vegetation is found in the high mountainous regions in northern India?
In the mountainous regions in northern India, forests with trees having pointed leaves are found at heights, while forests with trees having broad leaves are found at lower slopes.
Which part of India completely lacks in vegetation?
The Sandy area called ‘Sam’ in Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan situated in the western part of India completely lacks in vegetation.
What is Jhuming agriculture?
The shifting agriculture is called as Jhuming agriculture in Assam, India. It is largely practiced in the north – eastern part of India.
Name the tropical climatic crops produced in India.
The tropical climatic crops produced in India are rice, tea, coffee, jute, sugarcane etc.
Name any three energy – resources that have immense possibility of development in India.
There is immense possibility for the development of energy – resources like atomic energy, solar energy, bio – gas energy and wind energy.
Which matchless gift has the nature provided to India?
The matchless gift which nature has provided to India is “Unity in Diversity.”
In what is our national power inherent?
Our national power is inherent in our national unity.
What benefit does national unity provide us?
The national unity provides us strength, power, political freedom, economic prosperity, social and economic safety and national pride.
Why is it necessary to maintain this matchless unity for us?
If we want to be prosperous, and to live with pride and glory, and if we want to make our country strong and developed, then it is necessary to maintain this matchless unity.
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Short Answer Type Questions (SA-I)
Why does India have a unique position in the world?
India is a great country in which various social and cultural diversities like people’s lifestyle, their dressings, languages, music and songs, customs and trends, fooding, social behavior, religious faiths, praying methods are seen everywhere. The manifestation and pronunciation of the people in the different parts of India are also different. All these diversities in India create a coloured and matchless national form, which provides it a unique position in the world.
The topographical diversities have been very important for India since the very beginning. How? Discuss.
Why does the mountainous part of India play an important role? Explain.
The topographical diversities are very important for India since the very beginning due tc the reasons given below:
- Being an isolated place, Himalayan mountains have been a place of adoration for the saints and the monks.
- The rivers that flow out from the Himalayas are the main source of water supply.
- The high snow – capped beautiful Himalayan mountain peaks attract tourism and provide the people marvelous sights to watch again and again.
- The snow – covered part of the Himalayas provides the people peace and calm and enjoyment in the bitter summer.
What are the factors responsible for the diversity of drainage in India?
The factors responsible for the diversity of drainage in India are:
- The monsoon climate of India.
- The short period of rainy season.
- The irregular distribution of rainfall.
- The typical position of land slope.
- Obstruction made by the nature as well as by the human beings.
- The uncertain nature of water sources.
Explain the temperature distribution during the summer as well the winter season.
The distribution of temperature during summer and winter is uneven. In the Thar Desert, temperature in the day time is the highest in the country. Many times, it reaches up to 45°C. In summer, temperature keeps on decreasing towards the southern part and the eastern regions. It is recorded from 28°C to 30°C. On the other hand, temperature in northern part of India falls down well below 0°C, and in the coastal parts, it remains between 25°C to 30°C.
What is the difference between drought affected area and flood affected area?
The difference between drought – affected and flood – affected area is given below:
|Drought – affected Area||Flood – affected Area|
|1. These areas show lack or absence of rainfall.||1. These areas show excess of rainfall.|
|2. These areas become vegetation less due to high temperature and scarcity of water.||2. These areas also become vegetation less due to excess of water.|
|3. These types of zones are found mainly in arid areas of Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.||3. These types of zones are found mostly in Bihar, West Bengal and Assam.|
What types of agricultural methods are practiced in India?
Due to different zones, variation in climate and uneven distribution of rainfall in India, different types of agricultural methods are practised here. Jhumming agriculture is popular in the north – eastern part of India. On the mountainous slopes, plantation agriculture is practiced. Mixed – agriculture is practiced by small farmers all over the country. In Punjab and Haryana, commercial agriculture is done. In the coastal zones, where enough irrigation facilities are available, rice is cultivated. Besides this, intensive-agriculture, traditional and dry agricultural methods are also practiced in India.
Explain the season – based cultivation pattern in India.
The crops grown in India are different in different seasons and the cultivation methods used are also different. In the form of tropical climatic crops, rice, tea, coffee, jute and sugarcane are produced, while in the form of temperate climatic crops, millets, sorghum etc. are cultivated. Moreover, many types of pulses and oil seeds are grown, and plantation agriculture is also done.
Why it is necessary to perform a deep study of social and cultural aspects?
There are various cultural, social and demographic diversities in our country and it is difficult to identify them at a single point. All of these diversities are directly related to cultural and social aspects of the country. So, it is necessary to perform a deep study of social and cultural aspects.
Why did the foreign powers try to decentralize the diversities found in India?
All the foreign powers wanted to gain advantage from the diversities found in our country as they were selfish. Seeing the rapid development and increasing strength of our country, they were jealous, therefore they wanted to make our country divided and economically backward. Adopting the Divide and Rule policy, they wanted to disintegrate the unity of India so that they could destroy our country.
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Short Answer Type Questions (SA-II)
The distribution of air pressure is found to be uneven in India? Why? Explain.
The atmospheric pressure changes continuously due to several factors. The most important factors among them are changes in temperature, water vapor content and rotational movement the earth. Hot air expands and exerts low pressure. Cold air contracts and exerts high pressure. In the months of January and June, there is significant difference in these conditions, and therefore there is difference in air pressure also in both these conditions.
In the month of January, center of low air pressure develops in the south – western coastal region and near Andaman – Nicobar islands group in India. While in northern India, condition of high air pressure is seen in mountainous parts and in north – western Rajasthan. The situation is absolutely opposite in the month of July. Due to high temperature, center of low pressure develops in north – western Rajasthan, western Haryana and Punjab, while in the south, the coastal parts and Andaman – Nicobar region show the condition of high air pressure as they become less heated up due to the effect of the ocean.
Describe the pattern of temperature and atmosphere pressure found in India during the months of April and October.
Summer starts in the month of April in India, so the temperature starts rising and atmospheric pressure starts falling in the regions of Northern India during this period. During this period, the plains of Upper Ganga, West Rajasthan, West Punjab and West Kashmir become the centers of low atmospheric pressure.
On the other hand, due to low temperature, high atmospheric pressure is found in Lakshadweep islands group, Arabian Sea and Andaman Nicobar islands group. In the month of October, atmospheric conditions are inversed, as the sun starts to move to southern direction, and due to low temperature, high atmospheric pressure is found in northern India, Rajasthan, west Punjab and Haryana, while in the southern central part, there is low pressure due to high temperature.
How do the physiographic regions of India effect the types of soil?
The form of soils in India appear to be following the physiographic regions. How? Explain.
Physiographic regions extend a major contribution in the formation of the soils. In India, different soils are found according to the respective physiographic regions. The mountain soil with larger particles is found in the nearby zones of northern mountainous regions which has lesser organic substances and is less fertile. The sandy soil is found in the deserts. It is arid and has very low capacity of absorbing water.
In the central part of India, alluvial clayey soil, deposited by the rivers is found, which has a good quantity of humus and so it is very good for crop cultivation. In the southern plateau region of India, black soil, which has no humus, is found. Alkaline and saline soils containing salt are found in the coastal regions of India. In this way, Indian soils have formed according to their physiographic regions.
Describe the characteristics of Indian drainage system.
The main characteristics of Indian drainage system have been given below:
- The nature of Indian drainage system follows its physio – graphic regions.
- The north Indian drainage system takes its form due to melting of the snow.
- The north – Indian drainage system shows the pattern of perennial flow.
- The south Indian drainage system usually shows its seasonal nature.
- The mountain ranges found in the central part of India divide the Indian drainage system into several parts.
- In the northern drainage system, the quantity of water is much as well as the drainage the area is also large, but in the southern drainage system, amount of water is relatively less and the drainage area is also less.
Explain the distribution of rainfall in India.
Explain the uneven conditions of distribution of rainfall in India.
India is a country with a huge geographical area. So, there is uneven distribution of rainfall. On the basis of rainfall zones in India, the distribution of rainfall in India is classified as given below:
- Areas of extreme rainfall (average rainfall more than 2000 mm)
- Areas of heavy rainfall (average rainfall from 1000 mm to 2000 mm)
- Areas of normal rainfall (average rainfall from 250 mm to 1000 mm)
- Areas of low rainfall (average rainfall less than 250 mm)
1. The areas of extreme rainfall:
The western part of Western Ghats, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram etc. are the prominent zones of extreme rainfall in India.
2. Areas of heavy rainfall:
Bihar, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and Uttar Pradesh are included in the areas of heavy rainfall.
3. Areas of Normal rainfall:
Southern part of Jammu – Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, most parts of Rajashtan, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat are included in the areas of normal rainfall.
4. Areas of low rainfall:
Western part of Rajasthan, northern part of Jammu – Kashmir, arid Plateau part of Karnataka are included in the areas of low rainfall.
The distribution of rainfall in India is shown in the following map:
Explain the changes taking place in the flow of winds in India.
The blowing of winds in India shows diversities. Explain.
Indian winds change on seasonal basis. Explain.
Blowing of winds in India is a process of the change in seasons. As soon as the conditions of atmospheric temperature and pressure change, the direction of winds also changes. In both conditions, whether it is summer or winter, the wind flow shows a significant change in it. Due to temperature and atmospheric pressure, Indian winds blow from the surface to the sea during the months of winter, while in the summer season, the conditions are totally reversed.
In this season, winds blow towards surface from the sea. The factor responsible for this change in the direction of winds is atmospheric pressure, because the winds always blow from high atmospheric pressure areas towards low atmospheric pressure areas.
The changes in the direction of wind flow in India is shown in the following maps:
Explain the vegetative diversity found in India.
The formation of vegetation in a particular area depends on topography, temperature, quantity of rainfall and structure of soil. All these natural conditions in India show variations on regional basis. That is why, significant diversities are found in the vegetation found in different parts of India. Normally, following types of vegetation is found in the country:
1. Evergreen Forest:
In the Western Ghats and north – eastern states of India.
2. Mountain Vegetation:
In the northern mountain range.
3. Arid and Dry Vegetation:
In the western desert part of Rajasthan and dry plateaus of Karnataka.
4. Semi – arid Vegetation:
In the semi – arid desert region of Rajasthan, South Haryana, South-western Punjab and Northern Gujarat.
5. Tidal Vegetation:
In the deltas of rivers and estuaries.
6. Autumn Vegetation:
Most of the states of central India.
What are the factors responsible for the different forms of agriculture in India?
Indian agriculture is a form of combination of different types of agricultural methods. How ?
Agriculture has been the backbone of Indian economy since the very beginning. It has largely facilitated the livelihood of Indian people. But the form of agriculture is uneven on regional basis and the responsible factors for this are:
1. Topographical structure:
In the entire India, the topographical structure has controlled the form of agriculture, i.e. in the mountains, terrace farming, in the plains, subsistence agriculture, and in the deserts, pastoral farming is practiced.
2. Availability of water:
Water is the most important factor for all types of agriculture. Different types of agriculture such as plantation, commercial, shifting, horticulture, etc. fully depend on the availability of water.
3. Fertility of soil:
The fertility of soil is the most important factor for the diversity of agriculture. Due to availability of alluvial and muddy soil, the form of intensive cultivation has developed in the plains of Ganga and Yamuna.
4. The awareness of Farmers:
The awareness of farmers also decides the form of agriculture, i.e. some illiterate farmers who have only the basic knowledge of agriculture, practice shifting agriculture even today and use the ancient tools and equipments for farming. But the literate farmers, who have abundant knowledge, practice plantation, commercial or horticulture or terrace farming.
Why is India called a Museum of Minerals?
Distribution of minerals in India exhibits diversity. How?
Due to structural diversities, the distribution of minerals in India is also uneven. Some regions of India have large deposits of minerals, but there are some other parts, where no minerals are found. In India, the structure and formation of minerals is also found to be different. Metallic, non – metallic, energy and power minerals are found in India in liquid, solid and gaseous forms. In some minerals, India enjoys monopoly, but there are some other minerals which are not found here.
In the present conditions, variety of minerals has increased at large due to non – traditional resources. Ideal condition of solar energy is found at some places, while thermal energy is found at other places, at some places, ideal conditions for tidal energy are found, while at other places, ideal conditions for wind energy are there. All these diversities have granted India the status of a Museum of Minerals.
Describe the religious diversity of India.
India is a land of different religions. Explain this statement.
There is a large population in India, where people belonging to different religions reside. India is not only a place of different religions, but it is also the birth place of many faiths and religions. That is why, no religion could get a special place for itself. Even today, India is a secular country, where equal value and importance is given to all religions. Mainly, Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains and Buddhists live in the country.
The followers of Hindu religion mainly live in Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Orissa, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Tamil Nadu etc. The followers of Islam religion mainly live in Lakshadweep, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Kerala, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, and Uttarakhand, in scattered form, and Christians are mainly found in Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and Kerala, and Buddhists are mainly found in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Maharashtra. The Sikhs are found in scattered form in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and North Rajasthan. In this way, religious diversity is found in India.
RBSE Class 11 Indian Geography Chapter 2 Essay Type Questions
According to Trewartha, describe the different climatic regions of India.
Based on Trewartha’s method, India can be divided into the following climatic regions:
1. Desert climate area:
This type of climate is found in the western part of Rajasthan and northern part of Gujarat.
2. Mountain climate area:
This climatic area found in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, eastern part of Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
3. Semi – arid or Steppe climate area:
South – West Punjab, Gujarat, western Madhya Pradesh, central Maharashtra and arid area of Karnataka pleateau are included in this climatic area.
4. Sub – tropical Humid climate area:
This type of climate is found mostly in northen Great plains of India.
5. Tropical Sawanna climate area:
This type of climate is mostly found in Western Ghats, Mizoram and Nagaland.
6. Tropical wet climate area:
This type of climate is in the Western Ghats, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland states.
7. Tropical Sawanna (dry winter) climate area:
This climate type is found mostly in plateau region of Indian Peninsula.
Explain the language based diversities in India.
Many languages are spoken in India. Explain this statement.
“India is a multi – lingual country.” How? Explain this.
Indian multi – lingual – ism dates back historically to ancient times when ethnic groups and races came in contact with one another through migration from one region to another region. Although, political compulsions and social re-structuring might have contributed a little to its growth, yet multilingualism in India was largely a product of close contact between four language familes from the earliest recorded history.
India is one of the major hot – spots of linguistic diversity on the globe. It is high in language diversity (350 languages) and low in phylogenetic (5 families) diversity. India is a home not only to several dominant world languages, but also to many small languages facing extinction. The languages spoken in India are Sanskrit, Hindi, English, Gujarati, Punjabi, Bengali, Assamese, Dogri, Urdu, Oriya, Marathi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Sindhi, Konkani, Manipuri, Khasi, Mijo, English.
The regional distribution of the above languages have been described as given below:
- Hindi – Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh etc.
- Telugu – Andhra Pradesh, Telangana
- Punjabi – Punjab
- Gujarati – Gujarat
- Marathi – Maharashtra
- Tamil – Tamil Nadu
- Kannada – Karnataka
- Oriya – Orissa
- Assamesse – Assam
- Bengali – West Bengal and Tripura
- Hindi and Assamesse/English – Arunachal Pradesh
- Angami and English – Nagaland
- Manipuri – Manipur
- Mijo – Mizoram
- Khasi and Garo – Meghalaya
- Lapcha – Sikkim
- Konkani – Goa
- Urdu and Dogri(Kashmiri) – Jammu and Kashmir
- Malayalam – Kerala
The diversity of languages in India is shown in the following map :
Explain the demographic diversities in India.
The Indian population exhibits demographic diversities. How?
Unity is visible in demographic diversity in India. Explain.
India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly one-fifth of the world’s population. Almost 125 crore people live here. It is natural to find several diversities in such a large country. In this context, it is a unique country. No country of the world has so many demographic diversities as found in India.
Here, not only the people from different castes, tribes, races, religions, communities are tied in a unique bond, but also a unique diversity is visible in their languages, festivals, art and crafts, music-songs and dances, dressing, traditions and costumes, etc. With all this, diversity is also seen in sex-ratio, age-group, occupation, education level, economic activities, rural-urban organisation, festivals and fairs, cultural programmes, pronunciation, etc.
In spite of all these diversities, people from different cultures and religions live together in India with peace, cooperation, cordiality and geniality. Different types of fairs, festivals, group dances, and music organised in different regions are the symbol of cultural prosperity of India. A feeling of amity and neighborhood is seen in India during the festivals like Holi, Diwali, Eid, Lohri, Christmas, etc.
There are many demographic diversities found in India and they cannot be bound in the limit of the pen and paper. And it is not possible to describe them briefly. These diversities are directly related to the social and cultural aspects of the country. In spite of so many demographic diversities, a fundamental unity and the feeling of oneness is seen in India in all the Indians, which has become a unique identity of the country.
How does unity appear in diversity in India?
Why is India called a country of unity in diversity?
An important characteristic of India is unity in diversity. How? Explain.
India is a country of various cultures, races, languages and religions. It is a land of unity in diversity, where people of different lifestyles and manners live together. These people belong to different religions, beliefs, and faiths. In spite of all these diversities, they live together with the bond of humanity and brotherhood. Unity in diversity is the distinct feature of India, which makes it famous all around the world.
Generally, people in India follow the great ancient culture of being tolerant and living with solidarity which makes them assimilating in nature. Unity in diversity visible in almost all the aspects of the society has become a source of strength and power to the entire country. People of all religions worship in different ways by following their own rituals and beliefs, which represents the existence of underlying uniformity. Unity in diversity promotes the spirit of harmony and brotherhood among people beyond their consideration of various diversities.
India is famous for its rich cultural heritage which is because of the presence of people from various religions. People belonging to various cultures give rise to the various lifestyles on the basis of their interests and beliefs. This again gives rise to the growth of various professional spheres, like music, fine arts, drama, dance, theater, sculpture, etc.
Spiritual traditions of the people bring them closer to each other. Various religious Indian scriptures are a great source of spiritual inspiration to the people. There are Rishis, Maharishis, Yogis, Priests, purohits etc. in almost all the Religions, following their own spiritual traditions according to their religious scriptures. Hindi is the mother tongue of India.
However, many other dialects and languages are also spoken by people of different religions, and languages such as English, Urdu, Sanskrit, Bhojpuri, Bihari, Punjabi, Marathi, Bengali, Oriya, Gujarati, Kashmiri etc. are spoken. However, we feel proud to be the citizens of great India.
Unity in diversity of India is a unique characteristic for which it is well – known all over the world. This also attracts tourism in India significantly. As Indians, we all should realize our responsibilities and try to retain its unique features at any cost. Unity in diversity present here is the real wealth of India and the path to progress in the present and the future.