Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Liberals, Extremists and Revolutionaries of the National Movements
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Textual Questions
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Very Short Answer type Questions
Who were looked upon as arm – chair politicians ?
The liberal leaders in national movement were looked upon as arm-chair politicians.
Give a brief introduction of Gopal Krishna Gokhale’s life.
Liberal leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born in the Kolhapur district of the then Bombay state in 1866. Gandhiji regarded him as his political guru. He won a high regard and praise in India and abroad because of his high character, his unshaken faith in truth and his committed services towards his motherland.
Whom did Gandhiji regard as his Political Guru?
Gandhiji regarded Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his Political Guru.
By which name did Gandhiji call Gokhale ?
Gandhiji called him ‘pious – soul Gokhale’.
What did Lord Curzon say on the death of Gokhale in the House of Lords ?
Lord Curzon said that he never found in any nation any person who possessed more parliamentary talent than Gokhale.
Why did Gokhale believe in step-by-step reforms ?
Because the achievement of ‘Complete Swaraj’ was possible only through step-by-step reforms.
Why did Gokhale not favour ‘Boycott’?
According to him, boycott was a violent act and gave the message of revenge.
What according to Tilak is meaning of Political Self – rule (Swaraj)?
According to Tilak,political self – rule means that nation should have its political freedom. The nation should have it own government and its people should rule it. No foreign country has right to rule another country.
Which four means did Tilak suggest to attain ‘Swaraj’ ?
- Non – violent resistance
- national education were the four means suggested by him.
What according to Tilak is the meaning of Swadeshi ?
According to Tilak, Swadeshi is the symbol of that patriotism which aims at revolutionizing the Indian national life in every respect. So, it has become a movement to achieve that wholesome national life. This is the only effective movement which can free us from British rule.
What does Tilak mean by Spiritual Swaraj ?
By Spiritual Swaraj, Tilak means that swaraj which helps us in elevating ourselves Spiritually.
Who were the main heroes of the revolutionary movement in India ?
Sardar Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad and Subhash Chandra Bose and many more were the main heroes of the revolutionary movement.
What was the ideology of the revolutionaries regarding the objective and the means ?
They thought that if the objective is great, the means should not be considered. It means, that great objective justifies all means. They stressed more on the objective and not on the means.
What was the objective of the revolutionaries ?
To free India from the British rule.
Describe two programmes of the revolutionaries.
- To awaken the hearts of Indians creation of feelings of nationalism, freedom and patriotism
- Funding the revolutionary movement through organized looting.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Short Answer Type Questions
Explain the working – strategy of the liberals.
1. Movement for slow and gradual reforms:
The liberals wanted reforms in political field. They believed that development in India was possible through co-operation and help of the British government.
2. Belief in Constitutional reforms:
The liberals had complete faith in peaceful and constitutional means. They presented their demands before the British government through appeals, memorandums and delegations in a polite and civil language.
Liberals, Extremists and
3. Belief in the sense of justice of the British government:
The liberals had complete faith in British rule, British civilization and culture. They believed that British introduced India to the modern English education, transportation and means of mass communication. They also had complete faith in just nature of the British government.
What was the liberal’s view – point regarding the administrative system of the British government ?
They believed that British rule was a blessing for India. They believed that development of India was possible only through the co – operation and help of the British government. The liberals were nationalists, but they had feelings of gratitude for the British rule. This sort of conduct of the liberals was due to their better education. They thought that use of force against the British rule will incite the British authorities to use more cruelty in their conduct with Indians.
The liberals did not want to get rid of the British Empire completely. They wanted India a place within the British Empire as a respectable country. They favored all such institutional, political and economic reforms to get India ruled by the Indians and not by the foreign rulers. They were not in favor of complete Independence. They wanted India to be a self-ruled nation within the framework of British Empire.
Throw light on the salient features of Gokhale’s life.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was such a liberal leader who adopted politics with a feeling of duty. He was born at kolhapur in the then state of Bombay in 1866. At the age of 20, he was appointed as a teacher in English school. Later on, this school developed into a college. Gokhale retired as a Principal of this college. During his travels to England he played an important role in founding the British council of Indian National Congress and in activating the news-letter ‘INDIA’ published by the council.
In 1912, he brought about a successful compromise between the Indian satyagrah is and the government under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhiji in South Africa. Gandhi regarded him as his political guru. He refused to accept the title of knighthood conferred on him by the British government.
He looked upon the violent ideology and the unconstitutional ways and means as unfavorable for the Indians. He wanted self-rule for India. He opposed the centralization of power. He was a liberal politician and realistic and a true rationalist. He organized ‘Bharat Sewak Sangh’ to train the youth of the country in moral and spiritual duties.
Explain Gokhale’s concept of Swaraj.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was a liberal politician. He believed in phase – based development. The object of these reforms was to usher in self – rule for India. Gokhale believed that the corruption in the administration was due to English bureaucracy and can be eliminated through self – rule.
In 1905, in his presidential address in the session of the Indian National Congress at Varanasi, Gokhale said, “The main object of Indian National Congress is that India should be ruled keeping in view the benefits of the Indian masses, and within a definite time period such a government should be organised, just as we see other self-ruled governments within the framework of the British Empire.” His object was to get a dominion status for India within the British Empire.
Explain Gokhale’s view on decentralization of power.
Gokhale sternly opposed the centralization of power. He wanted decentralization of power. Gokhale believed that centralization of power enhances administrative hegemony and the woes of the people. So, Indians can get their rights only when the British government adopts the policy of decentralization. Gokhale gave the following suggestions for the decentralization of power:
- The way to state – decentralization should be smoothed by increasing the size and the power of the state-assemblies. The state assemblies should be given the right to discuss the state budget.
- At the district level, district boards should be formed to check the autonomy of the collector and to advise him on the administrative matters of district.
Gokhale placed the following suggestions before the Hobhouse Decentralization Commission:
- The best unit of the power is the panchayat. The gram – panchyat should be the root basis of power, which should be given sufficient right of ‘local rule’.
- At the intermediate level of the district administration, the formation of the district boards.
- At the apex there should be re-organized state assembly.
Explain Gokhale’s view on ‘Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale favoured constructive policies. To Gokhale, ‘Swadeshi’ was the symbol of Patriotism. To him, swadeshi was not a mere weapon of economy, but it also contained the economic independence of the masses and a high sense of self – respect. He believed that swadeshi alone could pave the way to India’s economic independence. It will also awaken among the Indians a feeling of solving economic problems of one another.
This fundamental feeling hidden in ‘Swadeshi’, is the transformed shape of economic independence. Gokhale agreed with the constructive aspect of ‘swadeshi’. But he still disagreed with its negative aspect, when he told the people not to boycott every thing or idea belonging to the British government.
Boycott to Gokhale was a violent idea which bespeaks of revenge. He believed that giving up the use of foreign goods would rouse people to embrace ‘Swadeshi’. However ‘boycott’ would not inspire people to embrace ‘Swadeshi’ as a negative approach. He also treated boycotting the government services such an unbecoming behaviour as economic boycott.
Explain the working of the extremists.
The Extremists believed that the constitutional means were not enough to get freedom for the country. Violent means were essential to win freedom, They demanded complete independence instead of reforms. They defined their policies after fixing the goal of complete self – rule (swarjaya). The extremists regarded freedom as their right. They incited the people for direct political action and used new slogans for this awakening.
They taught and trained the Indians to struggle against the tyranny and injustice of the British government. They believed that freedom cannot be gained as a charity, but it is won by power. They (the extremists) adopted the means of self – dependence, non – violent resistance, boycott, swadeshi and national education. The means used by them got unprecedented success.
Explain the programmes of the Extremists.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal were the chief extremist leaders. In the Indian national movement, the period from 1906 to l919 is called Liberals, Extremists and the extremist period. The extremists were totally against keeping the British rule in India. They wanted self – rule (swaraj) based on Indianism and to break away from the British at the earliest. The programmes of the extremist were boycott, swadeshi and national education.
They wanted to proceed under a well – organized system by using specific means. The extremists stressed on national education, using goods made in their own country. This encouraged Indian industries. The extremists opposed British rule by adopting the means of self – dependence and self – elevation. They ended the illusions from Indian masses that the British were invincible and all powerful.
Throw light on the life of Tilak.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was a votary of extremist ideology in Indian national movement. He was born in the village Ratnagiri of the Konkan area in Maharashtra on 23rd July 1856. Right From his student life, he made the goal of his life to struggle for the freedom of his country. The subject of his political thinking was achievement of swaraj for his country. He gave to the country the slogan, “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.” He gave new meaning to swaraj and published the newspapers ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha.’
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was the sage Bhagirath of Indian national movement and he extended priceless contribution to Indian national movement. Tilak erected the Indian national movement on the pedastal of CULTURAL PRIDE of the nation. For this, he started Ganesh festival and Shivaji festival. To achieve swaraj, he prescribed the means like swadeshi, boycott, national education and non – violent resistance. Tilak was the first national leader of modern India to gain spotless popularity and influence. He founded a new age for the formulation and use of the means followed by the extremists to win swaraj for the country.
Explain Tilak’s views on the freedom of the individual.
Tilak considered the freedom of individual a means of development of individual. Like Locke, he considered freedom of individual to be his natural right. On this basis, he declared freedom as a birthright. According to Tilak, the syllable Swa means human soul – which is a part of God. When an individual regulates and controls his life according to this basic part of God, he succeeds in developing this fractional soul to its fullest. He attains divine bliss by following the dictates of this divine consciousness.
Such individual alone can be helpful in increasing the welfare of the self and the society. To Tilak, freedom of the country meant an emotional means of the welfare of the masses. According to him, freedom is a helpful factor in optimum moral development of individual and in the union of individual soul with the divine soul . So, we can say that Tilak’s view-point regarding freedom was basically spiritual and moral. Thus, he gave Indians a new concept and view-point regarding freedom.
Explain Tilak’s concept of Swaraj.
According to Bal Gangadhar Tilak, freedom helps man in his all-round development and progress. Every nation must be ruled by its own people and not by foreigners. This is the concept of freedom according to Bal Gangadhar Tilak. During British rule, human life was undergoing misery in all spheres of life. To get rid of this miserable state, the only remedy for Indians was to get freedom for their country.
So, Tilak expressed his unfaltering determination to the British government in a challenging mood-Freedom is my birthright and I must get it” We clearly see on Tilaks’ concept of freedom an impact of ‘Vedic Swarajya and Shivaji’s Hindu post ‘Hindu Padshai’. Tilak’s goal was to establish freedom in India for achieving which can return to India its lost prestige and pride. He had accepted the two forms of Swarajya – political and spiritiual. The spritual form was helpful in the spiritual elevation of the individual, while the political form was helpful in the earthly elevation.
Explains Tilak’s thought regarding the goal and the means.
Tilak, in his political philosophy, has stressed on the purity of the goal, but he has not laid much emphasis on the purity of the means. He believes that if the goal is pure, any means can be used to achieve it. In Tilaks view, achievement of Swarajya was a pure goal and he adopted violent means to get it according to the demands of the situations, which are known as open political means.
Tilak harshly criticized the liberal and constitutional means adopted by the liberals to get swaraj. He favoured the non – violent resistance pormotion of swadeshi, boycott and national education, etc. Tilak believed that through these means, the terror of the Britishers in Indian hearts can be abolished and they can be inspired to sacrifice their lives for freedom.
Give a brief account of Sardar Bhagat Singh’s life.
Sardar Bhagat Singh was born in Banga village of Layalpur district in Punjab on 27th September 1907. His father’s name was Sardar Kishan Singh. He was a revolutionary and had suffered British governments torture for the freedom of the country. Bhagat Singh’s uncle Sardar Ajit Singh and his grandfather Arjun Singh also were great revolutionaries and freedom fighters. Right from his childhood, Sardar Bhagat Singh gained inspiration of patriotism from his father, uncle and grandfather. With the passage of time, he came in contact with freedom fighters like. Lala Lajpat Rai, Nandkishore Mehta, etc.
In 1928, he assisted Sukhdev and Rajguru in the murder of police officer Saunders at Lahore. On 8 April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt exploded a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall. The result was that Rajguru, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were hanged to death on 23rd March 1931. Bhagat Singh was a popular journalist also.
He started writing articles in ‘Pratap’ newspaper under the pen name ‘Balwant’, and in the ‘Kirti’ newspaper published from Punjab under the pen name of Vidroh: Besides, in the magazine ‘Chand’ published from Allahabad, he wrote articles in ‘Phansi’edition. During his imprisonment, he wrote the books
- Door to Death
- The Revolutionary Movement in India.
Throw light on the personality of Chandra Shekhar Azad.
Chandra Shekhar Azad was born on 23rd July 1906 in Bahor village of district Jhabua, in Madhya Pradesh, in an ordinary Brahman family. At the age of 14 years, in 1921, he sat on a demonstrative dharna at Rajkiya Sanskrit College. He was arrested. During the hearing of the case, the Magistrate asked him., “What is your name?” Azad answered, “My name is Azad.” The second question of the Magistrate was, “What is your father’s name?” Azad answered, “My father’s name is Swatantra”, The third question was, “Where do you live ?” Azad answered, “ I live in Jail”. Angered at the patriotic answers of boy Chandra Shekhar, the Magistirate ordered that he must be given fifteen strokes of the cane as punishment.
As the police was cruelly caning the boy, on every stroke, he uttered the words ‘Vande Mataram. On 9th August 1925, Chandra Shekhar participated in the train dacoity incident at Kakori. On 17th December 1928, Chandra Shekhar, Raj guru and Bhagat Singh murdered police officer Saunders at Lahore. At last, on 11th February 1931, he was fatally wounded by the police bullets in Alfred Park, Allahabad. Azad himself ended his life instead of being killed by the coarse bullet of the British police.
Throw light on the programmes of the revolutionaries.
The programmes of the revolutionaries were:
- To create hatred in the minds of the educated Indians against the British slavery through writings, speeches and sending secret messages.
- To make unemployed and starving Indians fearless by inspiring the feelings of patriotism and freedom through stage – dramas literature and music meets.
- To attract the attention of the British Government towards the processions of Vande Mataram, Swadeshi conference and Boycotting activities, so that the activities regarding the attainment of national independence may be carried on without any hindrance.
- To make bombs and to make pistols, guns and other arms available from local and foreign resources.
- To make funds available through loots and dacoities, so that the activities could be easily carried out smoothly.
- To recruit young people, to train them in the use of arms, and to form them into small groups of freedom fighters.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Essay Type Questions
Explain Tilak’s political philosophy.
Tilak’s political philosophy can be explained under the following points:
1. Concept regarding freedom of individual:
Tilak talked about the freedom of individual in the Vedantic spirit. Tilak accepted freedom of individual as a means of spiritual development and as helpful in reuniting individual’s soul to God’s soul. According to Tilak, swaraj is helpful in all – around development of an individual and a helpful factor in spiritual elevation of an individual.
2. Morality the basis of the individual and the society:
According to Tilak, human being is not a national or social being on account of his radical nature; but basically, man is a spiritual or moral being. Tilak made his concept of ‘sarva dharma’ or eternal morality the basis of his political thinking.
3. Discord with western politics and materialism:
Tilak has shown disagreement with various physical principles of the west. He believed that these western principles are not in accordance with Indian spiritualism, its culture and polity (politics).
4. His thoughts regarding the means:
According to Tilak, achievement of Swaraj was a pious goal. Under the then situation, he adopted aggressive political means, often called ‘open political’ means. Tilak authorized four means for achieving Swaraj – swedeshi, boycott, national education and non-violent resistance. He believed that he could abolish British fear from the hearts of Indians while adopting these four means and they could be inspired to make sacrifices for motherland.
5. Nationalism influenced by the pride of ancient India:
Tilak is given the credit of providing Indian nationalism a definite and concrete concept. Tilak wanted to develop Indian nationalism according to Indian traditions, feelings and the situations. Tilak was a votary of “Swadeshi Swaraj.”
6. Thoughts regarding nationality, unity, and communal harmony:
Tilak favoured Hindu – Muslim unity and communal harmony. He wanted to develop Indian nationalism. With this goal in view, Tilak tried to develop the sentiments of national unity among the groups of different religions, cultures and languages, and tried to make national unity unbreakable.
7. Ideology of Swaraj:
According to Tilak, Swaraj is a helping factor in all – round development and the spiritual elevation of human being. Tilak has chiefly mentioned two forms of Swaraj – the spiritual Swaraj and the political Swaraj. The spiritual Swaraj helps a human being in his spiritual elevation, while the political swaraj helps human being to elevate him in the earthly world.
During the British rule, there was a continuous fall of Indians in all walks of life. To get rid of this decline, the only remedy for Indians was to obtain both, political and spiritual Swaraj. So, Tilak asserted his unfaltering determination. He said to the British government in a challenging tone,“Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it”.
Throw light on Gokhale’s viewpoints.
Mahatma Gandhi consider Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his political guru. Gokhale founded the ‘Bharat Sewak Samaj’ to train the young people in moral and spiritual sence for the objectives of national duties. Following are the main thoughts of Gopal Krishna Gokhale:
1. Belief in liberalism and just – mindedness of the British rule:
Gokhale considered the British rule as a blessing for India. He believed that an era of democratic thinking and national awakening has begun in India on account of the British rule. According to Gokhale, the British rule gave India a political unity. It gave the same law to the entire India and similar law and order everywhere in India. Not only their English language educational system, but also the means of communication have been provided by the British rulers.
2. Firm faith in Constitutional means:
From the practical view point, Gokhale thought it impossible to face the organised power of the British rulers. He had firm faith in constitutional means. Gokhale’s constitutional means were liberal and peaceful, viz appeal, memorandum, applications, delegation of representation, session meetings, newspapers, mutual dialogue and constructive criticism.
3. Decentralization of power:
Gokhale had no faith in the centralization of powers. According to him, centralization of powers encourages administrative autonomy and increases miseries of masses. He believed that Indians could get their rights only if the British government adopted the policy of decentralization of power.
4. Concept of self – rule:
Gokhale believed that the policy of gradual reforms should be adopted. Through this policy, it was possible for Indians to attain self – rule. He believed that the economic drain and other faults that had crept in due to the administration of British bureaucracy could be removed through self-rule.
5. Gradual Reforms:
According to Gokhale, the goal of Swaraj could be achieved through gradual reforms. Gradual reforms were the strong foundation of modern and future nationalism of India, Gokhale was an ideal realistic politician. His political realism assured him that India can attain Swaraj only through gradual reforms and progress, and not by hollow slogans and resolutions.
6. Faith in liberal thinking:
Gokhale had unshaken faith in liberalism. He had deep faith in the freedom of the people in respect of the individual, rule of the law, efficient government, equality and justice.
7. Votary of Indian nationalism and its protection:
Gokhale was a true nationalist, liberal and a political realist. He was a true votary and spokesman of Indian people’s pride and their cause. He establisihed Bharat Sewak Sangh on 12th June 1905 to give a realistic shape to his nationalist thought. To spread the conscienceness of nationalism among the people, he combined nationalism with renunciation, self – control and fulfilment of one’s duties.
8. Votary of Swadeshi:
Gokhale considered swadeshi a symbol of patriotism and pious thought. He believed that swadeshi will open the way to economic prosperity of India. Swadeshi will create a feeling of mutual economic help and co-operation amongst Indians.
9. Opposition of Boycott:
Gokhale did not agree with the negative approach of boycott. According to him, idea of boycott was an aggressive thinking, which indicated a feeling of revenge. He thought that renunciation of the use of foreign goods could make the Indians adopt swadeshi easily, but boycott would never guarantee full replacement of the foreign goods by swadeshi goods. According to Gokhale, boycott of government was a negative view-point.
Gokhale considered boycott of government services equally unrealistic like economic boycott and said that boycott could in no way safeguard Indian cause. Boycott would definitely create a feeling of indignation in the hearts of the opponents. A true well – wisher of the country would not take to such an option of inciting such an anger, unless it was very necessary.
Throw light on the goal, policy and programmes of the revolutionaries.
The goals of the revolutionaries:
The main goal of the revolutionaries was to end British rule from the Indian soil. They wanted to bring true democracy in India. Their goal was not to establish a rule of terror in Indian society, but they wanted to terrorize British administration for their tyrannical rule. The revolutionaries murdered those British officers who persecuted Indian patriots.
The revolutionaries wanted to inspire the freedom fighters to fight for freedom and to terrorize the British officers. Sacrifice for the country was a source of inspiration for revolutionaries. The goals of the revolutionaries were to free India from the chains of slavery, revive the lost pride of their motherland, and to let the Indians feel that they could freely move about in the atmosphere of their free country
The Programmes of the Revolutionaries:
Following were the programmes of the revolutionaries:
- To create hatred for British slavery in the minds of educated Indians through ‘writings, speeches and secret publicity.
- To remove fear from the minds of the people suffering from unemployment, starvation and suppression and to inspire them for freedom and patriotism through plays, music conferences and literature.
- To attract the attention British government in ‘Vande Mataram’ processions, swadeshi meetings and boycott activities so that the progress for freedom-struggle could be carried on without any hindrance.
- To make bombs, to make pistols and arrange guns available secretly and to arrange arms from foreign countries.
- To collect money for revolutionaries through loot and dacoities to carry on the movement of the revolutionaries.
- To recruit youths of the country and to train them in the use of arms, so that they may become respectful, loyal and powerful freedom fighters.
- To train the young freedom fighters to obey the rules and regulations strictly so that they may pick up the qualities of leadership in future.
- To awaken among the public a feeling of nationality. To present before the people the heroic deeds of Indian heroes through plays and music conferences. To exhibit the sacrifices made by them for the attainment of freedom for their country.
- The Policies of the Revolutionaries:
The revolutionaries had a clear policy. They wanted to free India from the British rule at any cost. They stressed on the necessary means to protect mother India’s honor and pride and to maintain it with sacrifices. They believed that if their goals could not be achieved by moral means, they would not hesitate to use violence and force to achieve these goals.
The revolutionaries used arms to answer the British rulers in the language and means which the British officers used and understood. Their message was hold the sword in hand and wipe out the British government”. The revolutionaries did not hesitate to use arms against the British. They wanted to bring in true revolution in India.
Defining the meaning of revolution, they said, “The present state of affairs in British ruled India that stands on injustice and tyranny must be changed without much delay. The revolution is to end the exploitation of Indians and to get the complete right of self – decision making by Indians and for self – rule.”
Throw light on the personality and deeds of Subhash Chandra Bose.
The Personality of Subhash Chandra Bose:
Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as Netaji, was born on 23th January 1897 in an upper – middle class Bengali family in Cuttack. He got his early education in an English school at Cuttack. Here, he experienced discrimination with Indian students in matters of educational activities and in relation with granting scholarships to the students.
In 1919, he got B.A. degree from Calcutta University. He passed the Indian Civil Service Examination in 1920. In May 1921, he resigned from the Indian Civil Service. Then, at the age of 24, young Subhash Chandra renounced the ICS- full of worldly luxuries, and joined Indian National Congerss to serve the country and to live a purposeful life.
The Deeds of Subhash Chandra Bose:
We can study the deeds of Subhash Chandra Bose on the basis of the following points:
1. Membership of Indian National Congress and active role in Non – cooperation movement:
After resigning from Indian Civil Service, Subhash Chandra Bose became a member of Indian National Congress to play an active role in Indian politics. During the non – co – operation movement, he inspired the youths of the country to participate in national movement.
2. An active role in organizing Swarajya Dal:
Subhash Chandra became a votary of the Swarajya Dal established by Desh Bandhu Chittaranjan Das and took active part in its programmes. He believed that the British rule should be opposed within the boards and the corporations.
3. Effective role as Chief Executive Officer of the Calcutta Corporation:
When, in 1924, the swarajya dal gained majority in the provincial legislative council, Chittaranjan Das became the mayor, and he appointed Subhash Chandra Bose as the chief executive officer of the Calcutta Corporation. The working system of Subhash Chandra Bose indicated that he was Indianising the administrative system. Consequently, the Bengal government arrested him and exiled him to Mandlay (Burma ) for three years.
4. Worked as the President of the Indian National Congress:
Subhash Chandra Bose was a staunch opponent of liberal members of the Indian National Congress. His goal was to attain complete and perfect independence for Mother India. He was twice elected as the President of Indian National Congress.
5. Establishment of Forward Bloc within Indian National Congress:
Due to some differences with Mahatma Gandhi, Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from the President – ship of Indian National Congress in April 1939. In May 1939, he founded the Forward Bloc within Indian National Congress. Its purpose was to organised the leftists active and strong within Indian National Congress.
6. Put in to house arrest and departure from India:
The Second world war broke out in September 1939. He thought it as the golden opportunity to free India with the help of foreign countries. He was imprisoned in his own house, but a strict eye was kept on him regarding his routine. But Subhash Chandra Bose tricked the police vigilance, and on 17th January 1941, he escaped from his house in disguise. He reached Russia via Peshawar. He broadcast from the Radio a speech foundering India and against the British. He proposed to his countrymen to rise against the British rule to free their country from the British slavery.
7. Establishment of Azad Hind Fauj:
Subhash Chandra Bose organised Azad Hindi Fauj. In the army, he recruited those Indian soldiers and army officers who had been made prisoners of war by Japan when the English army escaped from Singapore and Malaysia. The Indian solider in Malaysia had agreed to help him to get rid of the British slavery. Bose declared that he did not get a single example from the history of the world, wherein a country freed itself from slavery without foreign help.
8. Establishment of Interim government of free India:
Netaji established interim government of Azad Bharat at Singapore on 21st October 1943. After a few days, countries like Japan, Germany, Italy, Burma, Manchuria, Nationalist China, Thailand, and Philippines etc. extended recognition to the government of Azad Bharat. Its head offices were at Rangoon and Singapore. In November 1943, the government of Japan handed over the newly – won islands of Andaman and Nicobar to the interim government of Azad Bharat.
9. March of the Indian National Army towards India under Subhash Chandra Bose leadership:
Subhash Chandra Bose gave the Indian National Army the war slogan “Delhi Challo.” In March 1944, Indian National Army invaded India, and in May 1944, unfurled the tricolor flag on independent Indian land at Kohima. But fortune did not favour Japan in the war and it had to retreat, which stopped the Indian National Army to marching forward.
10. Death in Aircrash:
Subhash Chandra’s revolutionary life ended in an air crash. It is . said, that while going from Singapore to Japan, he died in an air crash on 18th August 1945. However, there is still a mark of interrogation on his death episode. Subhash Chandra Bose was an efficient politician, a high order army leader and great patriot. He sacrificed his life for the freedom of the country. Even to this day, his slogan of ‘Jai Hind’ echoes in our ears.
Explain Sardar Bhagat Singh’s contribution to the national movement.
Sardar Bhagat Singh’s contribution to the national movement:
Sardar Bhagat’s Singh’s contribution to the national movement is described in the following points:
1. Role in non – co – operation movement:
In 1920, Gandhiji started the non – co – operation movement. At that time, Bhagat Singh,who was a student of class IX actively participated in the movement. When Gandhiji suddenly postponed the movement in 1922, Bhagat Singh was greatly shocked. He then took admission in National College, affiliated to Kashi University. Lala Lajpat Rai delivered many lectures on patriotism in the college. He was greatly influenced by the revolutionary thoughts and historical evidences given by Jai Chand Vidhyalankar.
2. Contribution to the national movement as a journalist:
Sardar Bhagat Singh learnt journalism from the Editor of ‘Pratap’ Shri Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi at Kanpur. After this, Bhagat Singh started writing for PRATAP published from Kanpur by the pen name ‘Balwant’. He also wrote for KIRTI published from Punjab by the pen name ‘Vidrohi’. Besides these, his articles appeared in special ‘phansi’ edition of the CHAND magazine published from Allahabad. Bhagat Singh wrote some books during his imprisonment, viz –
- Door to Death
- The Revolutionary Movement in India.
- All these had general impact on the national movements.
3. Establishment of Indian Socialist Republican Army:
After the Kakori incident, Bhagat Singh came in contact with Chandra Shekhar Azad. He established the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army to uproot the British rule from the Indian soil. He started collecting money to buy arms for the revolution. Bhagat Singh was secretly named Balwant Singh in this secret revolutionary wing.
4. Saunder’s Murder:
Lala Lajpat Rai led the procession which boycotted the Simon Commission on 20th October 1928. During the lathi charge by the police superintendent Saunders, Lala Lajpat Rai was badly injured. Consequently, Lala Lajpat Rai died due to his injuries on 17th November 1928. This fatal attack on Lala Lajpat Rai was like crushing the national movement.
To avenge this disgraceful act, Bhagat Singh, along with his fellow revolutionaries, attacked the police station at Lahore. While coming out of the police station, in place of police superintendent Scott,he killed Asst. Police Superintendent Saunders by the bullets of his pistol. Bhagat Singh wanted to kill Scott, but Saunders was killed by mistake.
5. Bomb explosion in the Central Assembly Hall:
Challenging the British administration, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt, on April 1929, threw a bomb on the empty benches in the Central Assembly Hall at a time when the President Vitthal Bhai Patel was speaking on the Public Safey Bill. Terror was let loose in the Assembly Hall.
Both the heroes of the revolutionary path did not escape, their they raised the slogan in the Assembly Hall, ‘Inquilab Zindabad’, and, May the Imperialism perish forever’. They distributed some red pamphlets on behalf of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Party, which read, ‘To reach our voice to the deaf ears”. Their purpose of throwing bomb in the Assembly Hall was not to murder anyone, but to shake the cruel British rulers from the slumber of ignorance.
6. Awarded death / capital punishment:
The police, besides Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt, involved other revolutionaries in the Bomb explosion incident of Centrial Assembly Hall of Delhi. Justice Hilton announced the death sentence conferred to Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru in connection with the bomb explosion case. In spite of demonstration and opposition everywhere, Bhagat Singh and his fellow revolutionaries were hanged to death on 23rd march 1931 in Lahore jail A wave of deep sorrow spread throughout the country.
On the basis of above mentioned description, it can be said that Sardar Bhagat Singh showed exemplary courage as a revolutionary and played a historic role as a socialist thinker and patriot. His heroic deeds sowed the seeds of public consciousness against the British rule in India.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Objective Type Questions
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born in:
The thoughts of Gopal Krishna Gokhale are:
(d) None of these
It is not means of Tilaks’s political system:
(c) Non – violent resistance
(d) Exemplary politeness
(d) Exemplary politeness
It was not a goal of the revolutionaries:
(a) To end the British rule
(b) To retain the British rule
(c) To awaken the India public
(d) None of these
(b) To retain the British rule
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Objective Type Questions
The initial phase of Indian national movement was conducted by the thinkers known as:
The arm – chair politicians were:
(a) The Liberals
(b) The Extremists
(c) The Gandhians
(d) All these
(a) The Liberals
“At a small age, he fully dedicated himself to the service of the country and served the country through miscellaneous acts of patriotism.” About whom did Bal Gangadhar Tilak say so ?
(a) Subhash Chandra Bose
(b) Bhagat Singh
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(d) Chandra Shekar Azad
(c) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Which liberal leader refused to accept the title of knighthood from the British government?
(a) Lala Lajpat Rai
(b) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(c) DadaBhai Naoroji
(d) Bipin Chandra Pal
(b) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Who had faith in liberal and just nature of the British community?
(a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(b) Subhash Chandra Bose
(c) Bhagat Singh
(d) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Gandhiji’s political Guru was:
(a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(d) Chandra Shekhar Azad
(a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
The main goal of the extremists was:
(d) All these
(d) All these
Who has the credit of giving Indian nationalism a definite and concrete shape?
(a) Swami Vivekananda
(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(c) Bipin Chandra Pal
(d) DadaBhai Naoroji
(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Which freedom fighter during the Swadeshi movement opened schools in the name of samarth Guru Ram Dass?
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(b) Bhagat Singh
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
The chief revolutionary of the national movement was:
(a) Sardar Bhagat Singh
(b) Chandra Shekhar Azad
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) All these
(d) All these
Who collected money by loot and dacoity?
(a) The liberals
(b) The extremists
(c) The revolutionaries
(d) All these
(c) The revolutionaries
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What was the view – point of the liberal leaders towards the British government ?
The liberals believed that only through the co – operation and help of the British government, the step – by – step development of India was possible.
When and where was Gopal Krishna Gokhale born?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born in the Kolhapur district in the then Bombay state in 1866.
What praiseworthy work did Gokhale do during his travels to England ?
During his travels to England, Gokhale performed the commendable act of making the British council of Indian National Congress more active and putting a new life into the publication of its newspaper – India.
When and on whose invitation did Gopal Krishna Gokhale go to South Africa?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale went to South Africa in 1912 on the invitation of Mahatma Gandhi.
What important work did Gokhale do in South Africa ?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale brought about a compromise between the Indian Satyagrahis and the South African Government.
Which Indian liberal leader refused to accept the membership, of the Bhartiya Mantri Parishad ?
Gopal Krishna Gokhale refused the membership of the Bhartiya Mantri Parishad.
Write two important points of Gokhale’s political philosophy.
- Faith in liberalism of the British community and its judicious nature.
- Votary and protector of nationalism.
When and who founded the Bharat Sewak Sangh ?
Gokhale founded the Bharat Sewak Sangh on 12th June, 1905.
What does the word Swarajya mean according to Gokhale?
“According to Gokhale,Swarajya means replace the British administrative system, by Indian administrative system to increase the size of the legislative council to reform them and let the people themselves look after their problems and other matters.”
What were Gokhale’s views regarding centralization of power ?
According to Gokhale, centralization of power encourages administrative autonomy and results in the miseries of the public.
What suggestion did Gokhale place before the Hobhouse Decentralization Commission for decentralization of power ?
Gokhale gave the following suggestions for decentralisation of power:
- There should be Gram Panchayat at the lowest level of the administrtation and it should be provided enough rights from the government.
- At the middle level of the administration, the District Boards should be set up.
- At the Apex level, the legislative council of state should be re-organized.
What was main goal of Gokhale’s political philosophy ?
Main goal of Gokhale’s political philosophy was to make reforms m Indian governance system, administrative system and political system.
Which organisation did Gokhale found to give a practical shape to nationalist views ?
He founded the Bharat Sewak Sangh.
What was the ultimate goal of Gokhale’s gradual reforms ?
Gokhle’s ultimate goal of gradual reforms was to establish self – rule for India within the framework of British empire.
What were Gokhale’s view regarding Swadeshi ?
According to Gokhale, Swadeshi was a symbol of patriotism and a pious thought. He did not look upon Swadeshi only as an economic weapon, but according to him, it was also a positive expression of the citizens will of self-dependence and self – respect.
Why did Gokhale disagree with Swadeshi’s negative approach of boycott?
According to Gokhale, boycott was a violent thought which indicated the feeling of revenge.
Write down the names of the two cultural events initiated by Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
‘Ganpati Festural’ and Shivaji Festival.
Which means did the extremist leaders favour for the attainment of freedom ?
They favoured the use of violent means.
Name two extremist leaders of Indian National movement.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- Lala Lajpat Rai
Point out one difference between the view – points of liberal ideology and extremist ideology.
The liberals looked upon the British rule as a blessing for Indians, while the extremists considered it as a curse.
Which point has Tilak stressed in his political thought ?
He has stressed on the purity of goal in his political thought.
Which means had Tilak favoured for the attainment of his goal?
For the attainment of his goal Swaraj, Tilak followed the means of:
- Non – violent resistance
- Publicity of Swadeshi
- National education.
To whom goes the credit of giving the idea of swaraj for the first time ?
Swami Dayanand Saraswati gave the idea of Swaraj for the first time.
Who was the votary of Swadeshi nationalism ?
Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
What was the central point of Tilak’s political thought ?
Attainment of Swaraj for India was the central point of Tilak’s political thought.
By which name is Tilak’s nationalism known as ?
Hindu Restoration Nationalism.
Write two causes of the revolutionary movement in India.
- Suppression of liberals and aggressive movement by the British government
- The British policy of racial discrimination.
Name the two goals included in the programme of the revolutionaries for the attainment of freedom.
- To awaken patriotism, nationalism and the sense of freedom in the hearts of Indians.
- To collect money for the revolutionary movement through looting and dacoity.
Name two books written by Sardar Bhagat Singh.
- Door to Death.
Who wrote the book named ‘Jail note book’ ?
Sardar Bhagat Singh.
Who raised the slogans ‘Inqalab Zindabad’ and ‘Samrajayawad ka Nash Ho’ after throwing a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall?
Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
Who gave the slogan ‘Inqalab Zindabad’?
Sardar Bhagat Singh.
In which train dacoity did Chandra Shekhar Azad take part?
In Kakori train dacoity.
Which revolutionaries were involved in the murder of police officer Saunders?
Sardar Bhagat Singh, Raj guru and Chandra Shekhar Azad.
Which revolutionary leader is known as Netaji?
Subhash Chandra Bose is known as Netaji.
Where and when was Subhash Chandra Bose bom?
23rd January, 1897 at Cuttack.
From which designation did Subhash Chandra Bose resign to join the national movement?
He resigned from Indian Civil Service (ICS).
Which session of Indian National Congress did Subhash preside over ?
He presided over the Haripura and Tripura sessions of Indian National Congress.
Who founded the Forward Bloc and when ?
Subhash Chandra Bose founded the Forward Bloc in May, 1939.
Who organized Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj)?
Subhash Chandra Bose.
Where was the interim government of Azad Bharat established?
When and who established the interim government of Azad Bharat?
On 21st October, 1943 the interim government of Azad Bharat was established by Subhash Chandra Bose.
Which slogan did Subhash Chandra Bose give to the Indian National Army?
He gave the war slogan “Dilli Challo”.
How many countries recognized the interim government of Azad Bharat?
Who gave the slogan of ‘Jai Hind’ ?
Subhash Chandra Bose.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Short Answers Questions
Gopal Krishna Gokhale had faith in the liberal and just nature of the British race. Elaborate this statement.
Gopal Krishna Gokhale had faith in liberalism and just – mindedness of the British race. Gokhale had unshaken faith in the goodness of human nature. His education and training in England had filled his heart towards British liberalism. Gokhale considered the British rule as a divine blessing. According to him, modern national awakening and the democratic ideology had come to the Indians on account of the British rule.
According to Gokhale, the goal of British rule in India was not to benefit to England in any way, rather its purpose was to improve life of Indian people. They had come to India not to rule over its people, rather they wanted to uplift the life style of Indians. British rule had provided India a united political entity and equality as regards the enforcement of one law throughout India.
English language, planned education system and communication system were all on account of the British administration. According to his thoughts, he inspired the public to be loyal to the rulers, while on the other hand, he reminded the British ruling class to be responsible for their political, physical and moral responsibilities.
“The nationalism of Bal Gangadhar was influenced by the pride of ancient India”. Elaborate this statement.
The credit of giving Indian nationalism a definite and concrete shape goes to Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Unlike Gokhale, Tilak wanted to develop nationalism according to Indian traditions, feelings and situations. Tilak favoured Swadeshi nationalism. Tilak believed. “We do not want to anglicise our institutions. He did not agree with those liberals who thought that political unity of India was on account of the kind attitude of the British rule. Tilak put forward the concept of the rule of Hindu Nation.
To consolidate and to organize the Hindus, he started Ganesh Festival and Shivaji Festival, and soon, he stressed on the need of Hindu-Muslim unity and demanded Swaraj for all the Indians. Tilak called nationalism as a national religion. Tilak’s nationalism had many phases. It was religious, social, economic and political, all in one. He wanted a revolutionary change in every sphere of India. Tilak was the first politician who represented nationalism in its totality. So, Tilak’s nationalism is also called aggregated nationalism.
Elaborate the specific phases of the extremist movement for the achievement of freedom.
- The extremists believed that the British rule did not work for the welfare of the Indians. So, they did not co-operate with the British administration.
- They did not believe that the British race was just – minded and had strength of character.
- They believed that rights can be attained by the strength of self-dependence self respect and self-pride and not by appealing for the mercy of the British rulers.
- They used new slogans to inspire the people for direct political activities and for the public awakening.
- The extremists considered the constitutional means as unimportant and insufficient for attaining freedom. They declared that freedom can only be attained by the capability of the freedom fighters and not by the mercy of the masters. (The British masters).
- The extremists promoted the feelings of self pride and love of Indian culture in the freedom fighters.
Elaborate upon the ideology of ‘Swadeshi’ according to Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Tilak made ‘Swadeshi’ a symbol of patriotism. Explaining its political importance, he says, “This alone is the most effective means which can free us from slavery.” To Tilak, the efficacy of Swadeshi was not only confined to the economic self – dependence of India. He considered, Swadeshi as the bed – rock of spiritual elevation and attainment of political freedom.
His Swadeshi movement became the movement for the renaissance and re – elevation of the entire Indian national life. Expressing the political significance of swadeshi, Tilak said, “If we do not want to live under the slavery of the British, we shall have to carry on the swadeshi movement with full force. This alone is such an effective means that can free us from slavery.”
Bal Gangadhar Tilak considered non – violent resistance as the most effective means to attain ‘Swaraj’. Why? Elaborate.
The basis of Tilak’s philosophy of non – violent resistance was that to resist unjust law was the duty of an individual. He thought that non – violent resistance was a constitutional means to him. This means of resistance was basically lawful, just, moral and had the approval of the public. There was no place for violent means in Tilak’s means of resistance. In fact, non – violent resistance was a willing policy of non-co-operation of the masses. Tilak wanted mass non – co – operation against the British bureaucracy.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak accepted education as the basic means to attain political Swaraj. Elaborate this statement.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak gave a lot of importance to education as the basic means for the uplift of the nation. He accepted education as the basic means for attainment of his political swaraj. He founded New English School, South Educational Society and Fergusson College.
Later on, during the swadeshi movement, he opened many samarth schools in the name of Samarth Guru Ramdas. He wanted to educate the youth of the country in such a way which may infuse in them a zeal for attaining swaraj. He favored the use of native language as a medium of education. Students from the national schools took active part in the national movement and awakened the feeling of nationalism among the masses.
What were the goals of the revolutionaries and what were the causes of this movement coming into existence?
The liberals and the extremists did their best to make the national movement a success, but they could not succeed up to their expectations. The British government paid no attention to it. Instead, the government began to follow the policy of suppression. They passed many bills regarding the suppression of the national movement and put its leaders in jails.
Processions and meetings were banned and thousands of people were sent to jail for conducting movements against the partition of Bengal. They were tortured in the jails. As a result of the suppressible policy of the British government, a new thinking was born in India, which was called the revolutionary movement. The votaries of the revolutionary movement wanted to attain freedom by demolishing the British Government by violent means.
Write down the main policies of the revolutionaries.
They wanted to make India free from the British rule at any cost. They adopted all means to protect and maintain the prestige and pride of mother India. They believed that if the moral means failed to achieve a goal, it should be achieved by violent means. They answered the British government in their language and used arms whenever they could. Their message was, “Hold the sword in hand and wipe out the British government.”
The revolutionaries wanted to use arms against the British rule and wanted to bring in a true revolution in the country. Explaining the meaning of revolution, they said, “We want revolutionary change in the political and social affairs of the country which are based on tyranny and injustice. Revolution is to end the exploitation and to get back the right to reconstruct our country India according to our own vision.”
Briefly describe the main goals of the revolutionaries.
The main goals of the revolutionaries:
The main aim of the revolutionaries was to completely uproot the British rule from Indian soil. The revolutionaries wanted to strike terror in the hearts of the British officers for the atrocities they had inflicted on the unarmed Indians. Sacrifice for freedom was the main source of inspiration for the revolutionaries.
They murdered only those British officers who insulted and tortured the Indians. To free mother India from the chains of slavery, to re-establish the lost pride of their mother India, to ensure that their Indian brothers move about in the free atmosphere of freedom were included in the chief goals of the revolutionaries.
Write about the chief revolutionary leaders of the national movement.
The contribution of the revolutionary leaders in the national movement is matchless. Sardar Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Sukhdev, Rajguru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Ajeet Singh, Ram Prasad Bismil, Khudiram Bose, Rash Behari Bose, Batukeshwar Dutt, Arvind Ghosh Shyamji Krishna Verma, Veer Savarkar, Lala Hardayal, Rajendra Laheri, Roshan Singh, Ashfaqulla Khan, Madam Bhikaji Kama, Avadh Behari, Ravindranath Sanyal, Madan Lai Dhingra, Chapekar Brothers, Damodar, Bal Krishna, Satish Chandra Bose, Hem Chandra Kanoon and Praful Chaki, etc. were the chief revolutionary leaders.
Briefly describe the means adopted by the revolutionaries to attain their goals.
The chief goal of the revolutionaries was to end the British rule. For this, they adopted several means like loot, murder and violence. They believed that the goal which cannot be attained by moral means can be achieved by force and violence. Their goal was not to loot and murder. They wanted to give birth to a true revolution. By the word revolution (Kranti), they meant to change social order based on injustice.
They wanted to uproot the foreign rule by conducting a countrywide revolution. To take revenge upon the foreign rulers, they threw bombs at them, shot them dead and uprooted the railway lines. The English officers who suppressed the movement were put to death by revolutionaries and the British rulers were terrorized in other ways, so that they may stop torturing the Indian freedom fighters.
Describe the bomb throwing incident conducted by Bhagat Singh.
Challenging the British power, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb on the vacant government benches in the Central Assembly Hall in Delhi on 8th April 1929, when Vithalbhai Patel was speaking on the ‘Public Safety Bill,’ on the election day. Terror spread in the Assembly Hall due to bomb – explosion. After this incident, both the revolutionaries stood in the assembly hall and raised the slogans ‘Inqalab Zindabad’ and imperialism should be demolished’.
They distributed some pamphlets on behalf of the ‘Hindustan Socialist Republican Army’. These pamphlets read, “To carry our voice to the deaf ears.” Their purpose of throwing the bomb was not intended to harm anyone but they wanted to rouse up the cruel British rule. After this, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt surrendered themselves to the British Police.
Explain the political philosophy of Sardar Bhagat Singh.
In the freedom struggle, Sardar Bhagat Singh played a historic role. He showed matchless courage as a socialist thinker. His deeds brought about an awakening throughout India against the British rule. He was an opponent of British imperialism. He was a forerunner of revolutionary philosophy, of socialism and an awakening messenger of the Dalits. He wrote ‘Jail Notebook’ book during his imprisonment, which bespeaks his political, economical, social, constitutional, literary and philosophical thoughts.
On the basis of the books written by Sardar Bhagat Singh and the speeches he made, we can say that he was a nationalist and a staunch opponent of British imperialism. At times, he appears to be an anarchist because he wanted to end the then British rule in India.
He also Liberals, Extremists and expresses signs of socialism while he speaks and acts for the poor peasants, the labourers and other weaker sections of the society. The philosophy of Bhagat Singh is basically humanitarian, which includes many other philosophies. Bhagat Singh was a multi-faceted figure. No single philosophy can be concluded from his multi-faceted writings, and deeds etc.
How did Chandra Shekhar Azad meet the end of his revolutionary life?
On 27th February 1931, Chandra Shekhar,Azad Yash Pal and Surendra Pandey met at Allahabad to finalize their departure to Russia in the morning. The same day, Chandra Shekhar Azad reached Alfred Park at Allahabad to meet revolutionary SukhDev. When he was talking to SukhDev under a tree in the park, the British police reached there on the tip of some informer. Police commander asked them to surrender.
Chandra Shekhar Azad helped SukhDev to escape. Chandra Shekhar Azad continued to return the police firing, but when he realized that his pistol was getting rapidly exhausted of the bullets and only one bullet was left, he preferred to end his life rather than to be killed by the enemy’s bullet. Then he himself ended his life with his own bullet. Chandra Shekhar Azad had vowed, “We will face the enemy’s bullets. We have lived free and shall always live free”. Thus, Azad stuck to his vow up to the last breath of his life.
Briefly describe the life of Subhash Chandra Bose.
Subhash Chandra Bose, popularly known as Netaji, was born in an upper middle class Bengali family at Cuttack on 23rd January 1897. Boy Subhash received his early education in an English school at Cuttack. Here, he experienced the social discrimination related to scholarship and co – curricular activities. He obtained his B.A. degree from Calcutta (Kolkata) University in 1919. In 1920, he passed the Indian Civil Service, but in May 1921, he resigned from the ICS.
Thus, at the age of twenty four, he resigned from the life of an ICS Officer which is full of worldly luxuries and decided to lead a purposeful life. He was a fearless votary of Indian’s complete independence. In 1928, in the Calcutta session of the Congress, he opposed the dominion status of the freedom of the country and placed the resolution of complete independence.
In January 1941, Subhash Chandra Bose worked with the Intelligence Department of Calcutta and reached Berlin via Kabul in March 1941. On 4th July 1943, he became the chief – commander of Azad Hind Fauj and on 21st October 1943, he founded the interim government of Azad Hind at Singapore.
Throw light on the role played by Subhash Chandra Bose in the Indian National Congress.
In May 1921, after resigning from Indian Civil Service, Subhash Chandra Bose joined the Indian National Congress to take an active part in Indian politics. During the non – co – operation movement, he encouraged the youth of the country to take part in the movement of the Indian National Congress. He was a staunch opponent of the liberals in the Congress party.
In 1928, during the session of the Indian National Congress at Calcutta, he vehemently opposed Nehru’s resolution of the subject committee regarding provincial dominion self – rule. He was a votary of complete independence. In February 1938, Subhash Chandra Bose was elected the President of the Congress session at Haripur. Again in January 1939, he was elected the President of the Congress session at Tripura in spite of Gandhiji’s opposition.
Probably.it was the biggest defeat of Mahatma Gandhi. But majority of the Congress workers were under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi, so he resigned from the post of President in April 1939. He established Forward Bloc group in Indian National Congress in May 1939. Its purpose was to strengthen and organise the leftists in Indian National Congress.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 14 Essay Type Questions
Give a biographical sketch of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and evaluate his thoughts.
Introduction to Tilak’s life:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak was an extremist in the Indian National Movement. He was born in Ratnagiri village of Konkan district in Maharashtra on 25th July 1856. He made the goal of his political thinking ‘Swarajya for India’. He gave the slogan,“Swarajya is my birth right and I shall have it.” Bal Gangadhar Tilak gave swarajya a new target. He published the newspapers ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha’ and was known by the name of Sage Bhagirath’ of Indian nationalism.
His contribution to Indian national movement is matchless. He raised the Indian nationalism on the pedestal of Indian cultural pride. For this, he started Ganesh festival and Shivaji festival He gave the people the means like ‘Swadeshi, boycott’, ‘national education’ and ‘non – violent resistance the goal of Swaraj’. Tilak was the first most influential and popular leader of modern India. He brought about qualitative changes in Indian National Congress.
Evaluation of Tilak’s thoughts:
1. Father of the extremist era in national movement:
Tilak started a new era of extremist thought in the national movement. He favoured realistic and practicable viewpoint in Indian politics. So, he is called modern Kautilya.
2. Brought an awakening among – st Indians regarding their rights:
Tilak told the Indians that ‘Swaraj’ is their ‘birthright’ and he made them conscious of their rights. He infused a new energy among – st Indians and presented before them a new and great goal.
3. Propounded modern nationalism:
Like Swami Dayanand, Tilak took inspiration from ancient Vedic philosophy and propounded modern nationalism based on purely Indian culture. So, Nehru called him the Father of Indian nationalism. He started a new era regarding the use of political means.
4. Brought Qualitative Change in the Character of Congress:
Tilak brought in qualitative change in the character of the Indian National Congress. He transformed a British patriotic institution into an institution resisting the unjust rule of the British Government. He achieved this success through spiritual thoughts and deeds. Gandhiji took the tradition of Indian national movement to its goal – the tradition which Tilak had started. He was the first most influential and popular leader of modern India.
5. Similar feelings towards all the communities:
Tilak’s critics brought a charge of encouraging Hinduism in Indian politics keeping in view the launching of ‘Ganesh festival’ and ‘Shivaji festival’. But he never showed hatred against any community or ‘Panth’. He started the festivals to organize the disorganized and scattered people of India and he got the expected results.
6. Did not take the help of violence to attain ‘Swaraj’:
Inspite of being hot minded, Tilak never took the help of violence to attain ‘Swaraj’. He was a great leader.
7. He was a great man of action (Mahakarmyogi):
Tilak was a great ‘man of action’ who struggled for ‘Swaraj’ up to the last breath of his life. Though the British government kept him in jail to destroy him, yet he went on marching towards his goal with double fervour and energy.
Which open political means did Bal Gangadhar Tilak adopt to resist the tyranny of the British government ? Elaborate.
Describe Tilak’s political policy and programme in detail.
Political means adopted by Bal Gangadhar Tilak to resist the tyranny of the British government:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak framed his political policy and programmes according to the demands of the suppressive and exploitative policies of the British government. Tilak framed his political policy and programmes to resist the tyranny of the British government and to attain ‘Swaraj’ and did not hesitate to adopt the open political means which are also called aggressive means and ‘hot minded means’ as follows:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak made Swadeshi the symbol of patriotism. Explaining its political importance he says, “This alone is such an effective means which can free us from British slavery. To Tilak, the idea of Swadeshi was not limited to the economic independence of India. He regarded it as a means of spiritual elevation and the basis of attaining political Swaraj”.
His Swadeshi movement became the movement of revitalizing the entire national life. Explaining the political significance of Swaraj, Tilak said, “If we do not want to remain in the slavery of the British, we will have to carry forward this movement with full force. This alone is such an effective means which can free us from slavery.”
Bal Gangadhar Tilak favoured boycott at the Benaras session of Indian National Congress in 1905. In spite of the opposition of the liberals, the Congress put economic pressure on the British Government to withdraw the bill of the partition of Bengal known as ‘Bang ‘Bhang.’ Tilak,’ through this resolution, inspired Indians to boycott British goods. To Tilak, boycott was such a means through which the unarmed Indians, without any violent deed, could get rid of British rule.
(3) Non – violent Resistance:
Bal Gangadhar Tilak considered non – violent resistance as the most effective means to attain ‘Swaraj’. His philosophy of non – violent resistance was based on the idea that to resist an unjust law was the spiritual duty of everybody. He considered the policy of non – violent resistance basically constitutional. According to him, this policy was in accordance with law, justice, morality and public consent. There was no room for violence in Tilak’s policy of non – violent resistance.
(4) National education:
Tilak gave a lot of importance to education in the elevation of a nation. He considered education as the bedrock of ‘Swaraj’. He founded and established New English School, South Educational Society and Fergusson College. Later, on, during the Swaraj movement, he opened many Samarth schools in the name of Samarth Guru Ramdas. He wanted to educate Indian youths in such a way, so that a desire for establishing ‘Swaraj’ should spring from their hearts.
What do you understand by revolutionary movement ? Throw light on the chief programmes of the revolutionaries.
Meaning of Revolutionary Movement:
In spite of the untiring efforts of the liberals and the extremists, they could not achieve much success in attaining freedom for the country. In place of paying any attention to the demand of Swaraj, the British began to suppress and torture Indians more vigorously. They made more suppressible laws. They began to put the great leaders demanding freedom, into jails. They put a ban on processions and meetings.
They put into jails thousands of Indians who were opposing the partition of Bengal. They were brutally tortured in jail. As a result of the policy of suppression of the British Government, the national movement saw a new line of thinking. This was called the revolutionary movement.
The votaries of this movement wanted to destroy the British government through violent means and wanted freedom for the country. Sardar Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad, Subhash Chandra Bose, Raj guru, SukhDev, Ramprasad Bismil, veer Savarkar, etc. were the chief votaries of the revolutionary movement.
The Programmes and the policies of the Revolutionaries:
The leadership of the revolutionaries against the British administration decided upon the following programmes and activities to get success in a definite measure:
1. They focused on forceful publicity through the newspapers to foster public hatred against British administration.
2. They tried to expel fear of unemployment and starvation from Indian minds.
3. They tried to foster the feeling nationalism, freedom and patriotism amongst Indians.
4. To attract the attention of the British government in Vande Mataram procession, meetings regarding Swadeshi and Boycott, so that the activities and programmes regarding freedom may be smoothly carried out without any hindrance.
5. Heart – touching plays and music conferences were organized to awaken feelings of nationalism and patriotism among the public. The heroic acts’and sacrifices made by the great national heroes should be narrated in the public meetings, so that more and more people should know about them and are inspired to follow the same way.
6. The youth of the country should be trained to wield arms, so that in case of emergency, they may be used as well – btrained freedom soldiers.
7. The arms should be made and purchased from the foreign countries and may be secretly brought to India, so that they might be more available to the well – trained youth proficient in wielding arms.
8. The militarily trained youths should understand military commands and should be taught in obeying their commands in mind and spirit.
9. Money should be made available to the revolution through loot and dacoities, so that the activities of the revolutionaries might be conducted unhindered.
The revolutionaries wanted prompt results, so they made secret agencies to keep their activities covert, where the revolutionaries were taught to make bombs and to wield arms. They threw bombs, fired bullets, uprooted the railway lines and murdered the police officers who used force.
They also terrorized the British administration to prevent them from, torturing Indian public. Frightened by the violent activities of the revolutionaries, the British administration became a bit lenient in its behaviour. Though the revolutionaries sowed the seeds of nationalism among the public, yet they could not be wholly successful in getting their goal.
Elaborate Chandra Shekhar Azad’s role in the national movement.
Contribution of Chandra Shekhar Azad in national movement:
1. Joined the Bhartiya Kranti Dal:
Non – cooperation movement was postponed after one year which resulted into great disappointment. At such a time, the youth of the country were joining the Kranti Dal in large numbers. Chandra Shekhar Azad also joined the Kranti Dal and secretly began to conduct his revolutionary activities. Sardar Bhagat Singh also joined the Kranti Dal. Ramprasad Bismil was the leader of this Kranti Dal.
2. Role in the train Dacoily at Kakori:
The workers of the Hindustani Republican Army needed money to buy arms and weapons, so that they could face the tyranny of the British administration. So they stopped the train carrying British government cash at Kakori, and looted it under a well – planned scheme. Although the dacoity had been very wisely planned and intelligently executed, yet the British government had its knowledge.
All the revolutionaries involved in the dacoity were arrested and tried. Some of them were hanged to death and the remaining ones underwent long terms of imprisonment. Chandra Shekhar Azad and Ram Prasad Bismil had participated in this dacoity, but the British government could not arrest them in spite of their best efforts.
3. Murder of Saunders:
Lala Lajpat Rai was leading the procession which was boycotting the Simon Commission, on 20th October 1928. Lala Lajpat Rai was fatally injured in the lathi charge by the police superintendent Scott. Consequently, Lala died on 17th November 1928. The fatal lathi change on Lala Lajpat Rai was like crushing the national movement.
So, to avenge the insult done to the national movement, Chandra Shekhar Azad, in the company of Sardar Bhagat Singh and Raj guru, planned to assassinate Scott, but assistant police superintendent Saunders was killed in place of Scott, while he was coming out of the police station at Lahore on 17th December 1928. All the three revolutionaries tricked the British Police and escaped elsewhere from Lahore.
4. Conducted the struggle of Freedom while staying outside the jail:
When Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly Hall at Delhi, both of them were the members of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army. By the mid of 1929, the British government had arrested and jailed most of the main leaders of this army. However, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were not included among them. On 23rd March 1931, Rajguru, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were hanged to death. In spite of it, Chandra Shekhar Azad carried on the national movement with the help and co – operation of his fellow revolutionaries.
5. To continue the national struggle upto the last:
On 27th February 1931,Chandra Shekhar Azad, Yash Pal and Surendra Pandey met at Allahabad to finalize the programme of going to Russia. The same day, Chandra Shekhar Azad reached Alfred Park, Allahabad, to meet SukhDev. While Azad was talking to him under a tree, the British police reached there on the information of some traitor. The police commander asked them to surrender.
Chandra Shekhar Azad helped his fellow revolutionary to escape from there. Azad went on answering the police firing. But when he came to know that there was only one bullet left in his pistol, he killed himself with the last bullet because he did not want to be killed by the enemy’s bullet. Chandra Shekhar Azad had vowed, “We will face the enemy’s bullet, we have lived free and will die free”. Thus, Azad remained unshaken from his vow till the end.
Describe the role played by Subhash Chandra Bose and his Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) in the national struggle of India.
Role played by Subhash Chandra Bose and his Azad Hind Faun in the national struggle for Freedom:
The non – co – operation movement inspired Subhash Chandra Bose to resign from the Indian Civil Service. He then joined the Indian National Congress party and whole – heatedly participated in the national freedom movement. He started his political career under the leadership of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das. At the age of 33, he was elected the Mayor of Calcutta and the president of the Indian National Congress.
Again in 1939, he was elected the president of the Indian National in 1938. Congress in spite of Gandhiji’s opposition. But after some time, due to the difference of opinion, he separated himself from the Congress and established Forward Bloc within the Congress party. Subhash Chandra had a firm determinition that the Britishers would not quit India without being defeated in war.
He won the hearts of all – the Hindus, the Muslims, the Sikhs and the Christians, and gave the slogan “Dilli Challo” to free his country. His basic principle was, “Give me blood and I shall give you freedom”. He organized the Indian women into an army battalion in the name of Jhansi ki Rani Laxmi Bai. In May 1944, the Bharat Azad Hind Fauj reached up till Kohima. in India Unfortunately, the Japanese Army began to retreat from the conquered countries.
The result was that Indian National Army fell short of arms, ammunition and food. On 3rd May 1945, Azad Hind Faun was forced to surrender. It is said that on August 18th , 1945, Subhash Chandra Bose was killed in an air crash. While all the countries of the world were holding a summit to co – operate one another in accomplishing their selfish ends, the Indian residents in Japan held a conference at Tokyo.
They organized Indian Independence League. They wanted to helplines in getting rid of British slavery. Rash Behari Bose, the Indian resident in Japan, proposed to revive Azad Hind Fauj. Netaji inspired his country more from Berlin radio to raise arms against the English rulers. Netaji’s thoughts had a deep influence on Indians. This is clear from the popularity of his slogans “Dilli Challo” and ‘Jai Hind”.
Indian women too showed great patriotic zeal. A separate regiment of Indian women was formed, Its commander was captain Laxmi Sehgal. It was named as Rani Jhansi Regiment. Azad Hind Fauj became a symbol of Indian unity, dedication and an example of supreme sacrifice. The Britishers had a step – motherly treatment towards Azad Hind Faun.
The British authorities were so furious against the three responsible officers of Azad Hind Faun, viz. Gurdayal Singh Dhillon, Shah Nawaz and P.M. Sehgal, that they were tried at the Red Fort, Delhi as prisoners of war. The British government was forced to announce their acquittal though they had been found guilty of punishable crime. The main cause was the demonstration by the student community throughout the country.