Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 14 Economic Importance of Plants and Animals
The branch of science in which we study about plants and their products worth economic importance is called Economic Botany.
Economically important plants are classified into following groups:
- Edible Plants: These plants provide cereals, pulses, oils, spices, beverages, fruits, vegetables, etc.
- Medicinal Plants: These plants provide important ingredients for medicines, e.g. ashwagandha, opium, sarpagandha, guggal, white muesli, etc.
- Plants for Timber and Fibre: Timber from plants like teak, sheesham, rohira, khejri, etc. are used for making useful items. Fibres from cotton and jute are used for making cloths bags, etc.
Cereals are the most important food. Cereals come from plants of grass family (Graminae or Poaceae) and are the main source of starch. Starch is the main respiratory substrate in human body. Some cereals are as follows: wheat, rice, maize, millets, barley, etc.
Pulses are the main source of protein for vegetarians. Pulses belong to the Leguminoceae family of plants. Some examples of pulses are as follows: gram, red gram, pea, groundnut, soyabean, etc.
Oil Yielding Plants:
Oils are of three types, viz. edible oils (Goundnut oil, mustard oil, soyabean oil, etc), inedible oils (Castor oil, tubpentine oil, etc) and aromatic oils (Clove oil, sandalwood oil etc)
Different types of spices are used in Indian food, e.g. black pepper, cumin, red chilli, fenugreek, clove, cardamom, cinnamon, turmeric, garlic, ginger, star aniseed, etc.
Tea and coffee are the most often used beverages around the world. India is the largest producer of tea in the world.
Fruit is a mature ovary which is formed after fertilization in flowering plants. Fruits are generally eaten raw. Jams, jellies, squash, etc. are made from fruits. Some important fruits are mango, banana, orange, guava, papaya, etc.
Fibre Yielding Plants:
Plant fibres are very important for us. Different parts of plants make thick-walled structures which are utilized to make clothes, ropes, bags, etc. These thick-walled structures are called fibres. Some fibre yielding plants are jute, sanai, cotton and coconut.
Some timber producing trees are teak, shal, sheesham, deodar, khejri, etc.
Rearing of honeybees for obtaining honey is called apiculture. Apart from providing honey, honeybees also help in pollination in plants and thus help in better yield from farms.
Rearing of silk moths to obtain silk is called sericulture. Life cycle of silk moth happens in following stages:
Adult → Eggs → Larva → Cocoon. Silk is obtained from cocoon.
The resinous substance secreted by lac gland of lac insect is called lac. Rearing of lac insects for commercial production of lac is called lac culture. India produces 80% of world production of lac. Lac is used for making paints and varnishes.
Rearing of fish for commercial purposes is called fishery or aquaculture. Fishery is done in ponds and lakes. India is at sixth position in the world in sea food production.
The branch of science which deals with food, shelter, health, reproduction, etc. of cattle is animal husbandry.
About 55% of world’s buffaloes and 15% of world’s cows are available in India. Buffaloes contribute 53% and cows contribute 43% to total milk production in India.
Rearing of hens and ducks for meat and egg production is called poultry farming. Chicken, meat and eggs are important sources of protein and are easily available.
Wool is mainly obtained from sheep hair. Sheep is mainly reared in northern part of India.
Coral and Coral Reefs:
The calcareous skeleton secreted by polyps is called coral. Coral is important source of many precious stones.
Pearl is obtained from the pearl oyster. Rearing of oysters to artificially obtain pearl is called pearl culture. Pearl is a precious stone which is often of white colour and is shiny round structure.