Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 12 Human Resources
Man himself is a resource. The number, physical power and mental power of a man make him/her human resource.
Total number of people living at a definite place in a definite time period is called population.
Size, Distribution and Density of Population:
- According to 2011 census, India’s population is 1,21,01,93,422 which is 17.3% of the world’s population. The total land area of India is 32.8 lakh square km which is just 2.4% of the land area of the world.
- Almost half of India’s population lives in five states, i.e. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan is the eighth largest state in terms of population; in spite of being the largest state in terms of area.
- According to 2011 Census the population of Rajasthan is 6,86,21,012 which is 5.67% of India’s population.
The change in population of a country/state/place over a definite period (for example over 10 years) is called population growth. Difference in births and deaths, and migration are the causes of growth in population of a place.
The absolute growth in population gives the difference between populations of any two given years. When growth is calculated in terms of per 100 persons then it is called growth rate.
Population Growth in Rajasthan:
- The decadal growth rate in population of Rajasthan was 32.97% in 1981.
- The decadal growth rate in population was reduced to 28.41% in 2001 and further declined to 21.44% in 2011.
- The growth rate in population of Rajasthan is much higher compared to 17.64% decadal growth rate in population of India.
Causes of Population Growth
There are three important components to affect the growth or change in population, and they are; birth rate, death rate and migration.
Birth Rate: Number of live births per thousand persons in a year is called Joirth rate.
Death Rate: Number of deaths per thousand persons in a year is called death rate.
Migration: Movement of people from one place to another is called migration. Migration can be within the country (internal) or between the countries (international).
Population Density: Number of people living in per square unit area is called population density.
- The population density in 2011 was 381 persons per square km in India.
- Bihar showed the highest population density at 1102 persons per square km, while Arunachal Pradesh showed the lowest population density at 17 persons per square km.
- Population density of Rajasthan in 2011 is 201 persons per square km.
- In 2011 Jaipur was the district with highest population density at 598 persons per square km, while Jaisalmer was the district with lowest population density at 17 persons per square km.
Problem of Population
High population involves excess exploitation of resources to fulfill various needs like food, cloth, shelter, education and healthcare. This also increases the problems of unemployment and poverty and results in scarcity of physical facilities like drinking water, electricity, transport, housing, etc.
A drastic fall in death rate is a good sign in India’s population. But slow decline in birth rate is the main reason of problem of huge population. Hence, this problem can be tackled by reducing the birth rate.
- According to 2011 Census, the literacy rate in the country is 74.04%; among men is 82.14% and among women is
- According to 2011 Census, Kerala is the most literate state with literacy level at 93.91%, while Bihar is the least literate state with literacy level at 55.58%.
- As per 2011 Census 3,89,70,500 people of Rajasthan are literate. The literacy rate of Rajasthan is 67.07%; among men is 80.51% and among women is 52.66%.
- Kota is the most literate district at 77.48% literacy rate, while Jalor is the least literate at 55.58% literacy rate.The growth in literacy rate in our state has been possible because of various programmes like Literacy Mission, Adult Education, Continuous Literacy Programme, special emphasis and encouragement of Girl’s Education, Free & Mandatory Education, etc. But literacy among women is still way behind the literacy among men.
- Many programmes have been started to encourage the education of girls. Some important programmes under this endeavor are Kasturba Gandhi Awasiya Balika Vidyalaya, Transport Voucher for Girls in Rural Areas, Gargi Award, Apki Beti Yojana, Devnarayan Girl Student Scooty Distribution, and Free Bicycle Distribution to Girls.
- The ratio of number of males to females in a country, state or place is called gender ratio or sex ratio. The number of females per thousand male is called gender ratio.
- According to 2011 Census, the gender ratio on the country is 940.
- Kerala has the highest gender ratio at 1084, while Haryana has the lowest gender ratio at 877.
- As per 2011 Census, gender ratio in Rajasthan is 926 which has increased from 921 of 2001.
- The gender ratio in Dungarpur is 990 and that in Rajsamand is 988. Dhaulpur shows the lowest gender ratio in the state, and this figure is at 845 women per 1000 men.
- Migration of people from rural areas to urban areas is called urbanization. Another meaning of urbanization is related to physical expansion of urban area, and growth in population.
- The rural population of India is more than urban population. However, rural population is gradually declining, and urban population is gradually increasing.
- The main reason for this change is migration of people from rural areas to urban areas in search of better opportunities of employment, education and other facilities.
- Out of 121 crore population of India 83.3 crore live in villages and 37.7 crore live in urban areas.
- In Rajasthan 75.13% of the population lives in rural areas, while 24.87% lives in urban areas.
The National Population Policy 2000 provides a policy framework to implement free education for children under 14 years of age, to reduce child mortality rate from 30 (per 1000), to eradicate various diseases by vaccination of children, to encourage marriage at a mature age, and to make family planning a people centric programme.
Population Policy of Rajasthan
- Various activities are under way in Rajasthan to ensure stability in population so that the problem of population can be tackled.
- Eligible couples are given the facilities of family welfare as per their convenience and sensibilities, and they are also being educated on this topic.
- Regular vaccination campaigns (Matri Shishu Swasthya Abhiyan and Mukhyamantri Panchamrit Abhiyan) are conducted so that pregnant women and children can be given proper care and nutrition.
- Jan Mangal Jor are ensuring the availability of means of family welfare under the Jan Mangal Yojana.