Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 2 Struggle Period of India (1206 A.D to 1757 A.D)
India was continuously attacked by the foreign invaders. Indians strongly resisted these invasions and drove away early Arabs and Muslim invaders by defeating them. The first naval attack by Arabs was on Thane in 636 A.D. at the time of Amar Khalipha.
According to the book Phtuh Al Buldan this campaign failed.
After it Badwas (Bharonch) and Debal port of Sindh were attacked which was also failed. According to Chachnama in Debal struggle commander of Arabs Mudhaira was defeated and killed. There was a severe (furious) struggle held between Muhammad – BinQuasim and king of Sindh Daher.
According to Chachmama non Muslims defeated Muslims so badly that army of Arabs destroyed completely. Coincidently a bow killed king Dahir boarded on elephant and he died but still Prince Jaisia and Rani Bai continuously fought for the security of the fort.
Mahmud Gaznavi had to struggle with Jaipal and Anand Pal of Kashmir. Mohammad Gori defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan many times, but circumstances in 1206 A.D. made possibilities of beginning of Muslim rule in India; but still the resistance and struggle by the Indians was continued till India’s independence.
Delhi Sultanate (1206 – 1526 A.D)
Yamini, llbari or Slave Dynasty
Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 – 1210 A.D.)
His coronation was done in 1206 A.D. He is also called as ‘Lakhbaksh’. His capital was ‘Lahore’, Hasan Nizami got refuge in his court. The first storey of Qutub Minar was built by him and was completed by lltutmish, Qutub Minar was built in the memory of famous sufi Saint Khwaza Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki. In 1210 A.D. Qutubuddin Aibak died by falling from horse while playing
lltutmish (1210-1236 A.D)
He was son-in-law and successor of Aibak. He can be considered the main organizer of Muslim empire. In 1223 A.D he occupied fort of Bhilla. In 1226 he won Ranthambhore later Gwalior and Jalore. He made Changez Khan, a Mangolian, his enemy by not giving help to Mangbarni son of Khwarizm.
Razia Sultan (1236-40 A.D.)
After the murder of Ruknuddin, Razia, the daughter of lltutmish became Sultan. His father chosen her as his successor. It was opposed by the rigid and traditional muslims. Razia left veil and started wearing Kuba (coat) and Kulah (cap). She made Malik Jamaluddin Yakut (Inhabitant of Abesynia) as Ameer Akhoor (Head of the stable). To curb revolt of ruler of Sarhind Yakut was killed. Later Razia married to Altuniya. In 1240 both of them were murdered. Behram Shah, Masood Shah and Nassiruddin Shah ruled from 1240-1265 but they all were disable rulers. The main force behind Nassiruddin was of Gyassuddin Balban.
Balban (1265-1296 A.D.)
Ulukhkhan Balban belonged to famous Turkish slaves group of lltutmish named Chahalgani (Chalis). He sat on throne in 1265. He organized a military department ‘Dewane Ariz’ to face the attacks of Mangols. He started the practice of Sijdha and Pabos in court. He was the main architect who framed Administrative system of Delhi Sultanate. He adopted the policy of ‘Blood and iron’ for enemies in which males were killed and females and children were made slaves. After the death of him, the group of Amirs took a bloody form. Jalalluddin Khilji declared himself Sultan after killing Cumers in 1290 A.D.
Balban’s State Rule or Principle
According to him king is the representative of God on the earth. He is a separate personality than common people. He is vested with qualities gifted by God, which gives him power to rule. He was well equipped with the revolt of Turkish Amirs hence he had a strict discipline in the court.
Functions of Balban
- Maintenance of law and order.
- Curbing of Dacoits and revolts against Zamindars
Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320 A.D.)
The first ruler of this Dynasty was Jallaluddin Feroz Khilji, who was 70 years old. He was decesively murdered by his nephew and son-in-law Allauddin Khilji in Allahabad in 1296 A.D. and declared himself Sultan. He ruled for 20 years and famous for his reforms.
- He illustrated himself as second Alexander on gold coins.
- In his rule Bengal and Kashmir were not included,
- He campaigned against Rajput king Ray Karndev belonged to Baghela of Gujarat,
- He plundered Ranthambhore in 1301 and Chittor in 1303. He earned a great wealth during Gujarat campaign and got company of Hindu converted Muslim Malik Kafoor, with his help he entered in South India. According to Amir Khusrao, he reached upto the Rameshwaram.
He again framed the state Administration and issued four orders to control revolts
- Ceiling of Amir’s wealth and property,
- Conversion of wasteland into agriculturable land,
- Increase in state Revenue
- Alcohol was banned in Delhi
- Organizations of Spy Group.
- Control over mutual visiting of Amirs with each other.
He accepted the power of Khalifa and himself retented the title of ‘Yasmin-ul-Khilafat-Nasiri- Amir-ul-Muminin’. In ‘Khajainul Phutuh’ Amir Khusrao has entitled him ‘Sultan of World’ and ‘Shepherd of People’.
He made many amendments in secret agency, postal systems and provincial administration. The most important amendment was control over market. He appointed following officers and created posts to reform administration.
- Dewan-e-Riyasat (Controller of Business)
- Shahna or Dand Adhikari (Daroga of market)
- Muhatsib (Securer of common people and inspector of measurement weights)
- Barid-e-Mumalik (Secret officer) etc.
Economic reforms to maintain a vast army
- Control over Black marketing and profiteering
- Sarai-e-Adal was a market of local and foreign goods. Allauddin was the first ruler who gave cash salary to soldiers. In 1303 he built fort of Siri or Allai Fort or Kosh-e-Siri (Kusnke Siri), which had seven gates.
Allauddin died in 1316 A.D. His son Qutubuddin Mubarak sat on throne and declared himself Khalifa and adopted the title of Ul-Vasik-Billah. He was murdered. After him, Nassiruddin Khusra Shah became Sultan who was the last ruler of the Khilji Dynasty.
Tughlak Administration (Ruling Period of Tughlak)
Gaji Malik or Tughlak Gaji Gyassuddin Tughlak became the Sultan of Delhi after killing Khushrau Shah in 1320 A.D, he has to face regional revolts.
He sent his son Jauna Khan to Warangal against the king Pratap Rudradev of Telangana and an army campaign in Jajnagar (Orissa) in which Ulukh Khan (Juna Khan) got victory. His last military campaign was to curb revolt of Bengal. In welcome ceremony at Delhi, he died due to collapse of a wooden building in 1325 A.D. Then his son Jauna Khan became Sultan. He was named as mixture of ‘Internal Revolts’ ‘thirsty of blood’.
The main five planning of Sultan according to Barauni:
- Increase in tax in doab.
- Making Devgiri his Capital.
- Introduction of symbolic currency.
- Attack on Khurasan.
- Campaign towards Carachil.
He made his capital Devgiri for 5 years (1326-1335 A.D.) and named it Daultabad. When he introduced symbolic currency
in 1380 A.D, people started making fake currency. Hence, he has to stop them. He appointed Ibn-Ba-tuta as kazi of Delhi,
a travellor of Morocco in 1333 A.D, and sent him to China as ambassdor in 1342 A.D. He died in 1351 A.D.
Firoz Shah Tughlak
He was cousin of Muhammad Tughlak. He ascended the throne in 1351 A.D. He did military campaign twice against Hazi Iliyas of Bengal but failed. He made government and military jobs hereditary and rejected the system of ability. He appointed his son Fateh Khan his successor and inscribed his name also on coins.
He gave importance to building architecture. He established cities of Hisar Firoza, Firozabad and Jaunpur, etc. Ashoka’s pillars of Topra and Meerut were brought to Delhi but Intellectuals cannot read them. His greatest achievement was digging of canals in Hansi and Sirsa regions to remove scarcity of water.
A canal was dug from Satluj river to Deepalpur and other from Yamuna to Sirmur. He adopted a concrete policy to face famine and to increase agricultural production. He was also in control of rigid Islamic Amirs. He not only imposed rigid Jazia tax on Hindu but gave sentence to death to Shiya supporters, un-lslamic punishments were ended. Non-Shariyat taxes were removed.
Only four main taxes were kept
There was a tremendous increase in the number of slaves (1,80,000). A new department for slaves was opened named Dewan-e-Bandgan. He encouraged crops of melon and grapes in Delhi and built many gardens. He died in 1385 A.D. The last ruler of Tughlak Dynasty was Nassiruddin Mehmmud. Tomur, the lame attacked and plundered India in the mean time.
Tomur after winning Delhi appointed Khizra Khan his representative, who established sayyid Dynasty. He ruled over from 1414-1421 A.D. After him Mubarak Shah ruled from 1421-1434 A.D. and retented the title of Sher Shah.
The last Sayyid ruler Ahmad Shah left the throne willingly and Bahlol Lodhi occupied Delhi in 1451 A.D. This was the first time that after Turkish, Afghans established their empire over Delhi. After ruling for 38 years he died in 1489 A.D. After him his second son Nizam Shah become Sultan by retented the title of Sinkandar Shah. He expanded his empire up to Tirhut, Bihar and Bengal. His law management and revenue is famous.
He fixed the revenue according to the measurement of land. He started ‘Yard’ which was often of 30. It was prevailed for a long period as ‘Sikandar Yard’. To keep rulers of Itawa, Bayana, Kol, Gwalior and Dhanpur under him, he built Agra in 1505 A.D. His nick name was ‘Gulru Khan’. By this name he wrote poems also. His son Ibrahim Lodhi ascended the throne in Agra after his death in 1517 A.D.
In 1517-1518 A.D. a war was held between Rana Sanga and Ibrahim Lodhi in which Lodhis were defeated. In 1526 A.D. Ibrahim was defeated from Babur in the first Battle of Panipat. This war proved to be change of one Dynasty or end of one period and beginning of other and Mughal Dynasty was established in India.
Administration during Sultanate Period
The title of Sultan was started by Turkish Rulers. Mehmud Gaznavi was the first to retain this title. The whole power of the state was vested in Sultan. He was the master of politics and religion and chief justice. It was expected from Sultans that they should obey the advice of Ulema class.
Sultans were influenced by the power of Amirs. Amirs had two clsses:
In the period of lltutmish group of forty amirs was called Chehalgani. The influence of Amirs depended on their ability and non-ability of administration.
Central Administrative System (Mujlis-e-khalwat)
It was like council of ministers. Its four pillars were
- Arije Mumalik
- Dewane Insha
- Dewane Risalat
Office of the wazir was called Dewan-e-wizarat. It can be called Finance department. Mustaufi (Chief Auditor Khazine (Treasuror) Majamadar (Accounts and data collector) were the workers of this department. Jallaluddin Khilji constituted Dewane wakoof and Allaluddin established Diwane Mustakhraj departments. These were under finance department. To improve agriculture Muhammad Tughlak established Diwane-Amir-Kohi.
The responsibility of postage was of Dewane Insha. Diwane Riyasat act as foreign minister. Sadra was the head of religion department. It has separate treasury in which wealth was collected and received as Jakat.Kazi-ul-kujat (Law) and Barid-e-Mumalik (information departments)
There were six workers for court and palace
- Amir Majlis
The Saltanate period can be called as military, religious, monarchism. The goods plundered during war were called ‘Khaims’. Regional administration was a replica of Central administration. Head of the province was called Wali or Nazim. He was appointed by the Sultan. Shik was the Revenue officer of the Province.
The Mughal Empire (1526-1858 A.D)
Babur founded the Mughal Dynansty in India in 1526 A.D. after defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat. He was a Turkish Muslim and descendent of Timur. Beside Chugtai Turkish descendent. He had relation with commander of Mangol Army Change Khan because his mother belonged to Changez’s ancestors (family). His full name was Jahiroddin Mohammad Babur. He ascended the throne of Phargana with the title of Badshah after his father’s death. He was the first Timur descendent to retain the title of Badshah.
Battle of Khanwa:
It was fought between Babur and Ranasanga which is 40 km, away from Agra at Khanwa in 1527 A.D. Babur fought this battle with ‘Tulguma method’ and gave the slogan of ‘Jihad’. After victory he retended the title of ‘Gaji’. In 1528 A.D he defeated Mediniraya. In 1529 A.D. he defeated Afghans.
He died in 1530 A.D. He was buried on the bank of Yamuna river, but later according to his will, he was buried in Kabul. He wrote his book of daily routine in Turkish language named Baburnaama orTuzuke Babri. Abdur Rahim Khanakhana later translated it in Parsi (Parsian).
Narrisuddin Humayun, son of Babur became the ruler after Babur’s death. He gave Kabul and Quandhar to his brother Kamran, Sambhal to Askari, Alwar and Mewat to Bindal and Badkhwan to his uncle’s son Suleman.
Battle of Chausa:
This battle was fought between Humayun and Sher Khan at Chausa near Buxar in 1539 A.D. in which Mughals were defeated. After Chausa’s victory Sher Khan retended the title of Sher Shah and introduced coins in his name. Sher Shah’s real name was Fareed Khan.
Battle of Beelgram or Kanauj:
It was fought between Humayun and Sher Shah in 1540 A.D. Humayun fled away after defeat. During his exile, he married with Hameeda, daughter of Shekh Ali Akhtar near Bhatkal who later become the mother of Akbar.
Gradually Humayun succeeded in occupying Kabul, Quandhar and Lahore in 1555 A.D. He occupied Punjab after defeating Afghans in Machiwara battle. He again sat on the throne of Delhi but soon on 24 January 1556 A.D. he died falling from the staircase of the library located in Din Panah a city established by him. He was addicted to opium. He believed in astrology hence he had made rule of wearing seven colours clothes on seven days of the week.
The founder of this empire was Sher Khan (Fareed) son of Hasan Khan who was a landlord of Sasara (Bihar) under the state Jaunpur. As he killed tiger without weapon, he was given title of Sher Khan by the ruler of South Bihar, Bahar Khan.
Extension of Sher Shah’s Empire:
West Kanauj to hills of east Assam. In north from Himalayas to South upto Bay of Bengal. He occupied Malwa and Ajmer, Jodhpur and Mewar by defeating Maldev in 1544 A.D. In 1544 A.D. during the battle of Kalinger he died due to explosion in gun powder.
Reforms and Achievements of Sher Shah Suri
He managed the measurement of land and revenue called (Galabakshi or Bantai), He introduced Jabti system or cash or Nashk or Muktai or Kankoot.
He built four long roads and many sarais. His longest road was from Sonar village of Bengal to Peshawar (now in Pakistan) which still exists today. This road is famous as Grand Trunk Road. He introduced copper rupee of valued 380 grain and silver rupee valued 178 grain. His tomb was built in the center of a lake in Sasaram (Bihar). It is Damroo shaped which is an effect of Hindu temples.
Akbar (1556-1605 A.D.)
He was born in Amarkot fort (now in Pakistan) in 1542 A.D. His coronation was done by Bairam Khan in the age of 13 years on 14th February 1556 by building a bricks throne in Kalanor. Bairam Khan was made his guardian.
Second Battle of Panipat
It was held between Hemu, army commander of Afghans and Bairam Khan, representative of Mughals on 5 November 1556 A.D. Hemu became unconscious due to stuck of a bow in neck and Afghans were defeated. Hemu was an able Hindu Senapati of Muhammad Adil Shah Afghan of Bihar. He got victories in 22 wars and retended the title of Raja Vikramjeet.
In 1516 A.D. Akbar won fort of Chunar and Godwana music lover Raj Bahadur of Malwa. Fort of Ranthambhore from Surjan Hada Fort of Kalinger from Raja Ram Chandra. In 1570 Marwar and Bikaner both surrendered their forts to Akbar. Akbar snatched the region of Gujarat from Muzaphar Shah and Bengal from Daud Khan.
In 1576 world famous Haldi Ghati battle was held between Rana Pratap (Mewar) and Mughal army in the combined leadership of Man Singh and Asaf Khan but Mughal did not succeed. Pratap did not accept the dependence of Akbar. As the Mughal army returned, he reoccupied his territories and gave back Jagirs to Samantas. Akbar got victory over Kabul, Kashmir, Sindh, Odissa, Quandhar and Khaled. He named Khandesh as Dhandesh. In 1600 he got victory over Ahmednagar by facing severe resist from Chand Bibi. In 1601 on Asirgarh. It was his last victory.
He curbed revolts of Ujbegs in 1564 A.D. Abdurrahim was entitled with Khanakhana in 1584 for curbing revolts of Gujarat. During war Birbal one of the nine jewels of Akbar’s court died in the attack of Yusuf Jahiyo. Akbar himself died after long illness. He was buried in the tomb of Sikandra. This tomb has impact of Buddhist architecture.
Achievements of Akbar
He built Ibadat Khana in 1575 A.D. in Phatepur Sikri for religious conference and invited Portuguese missionaries from Goa. He founded Din-e-ilahi in 1581 A.D. by collecting all good things from all the religions. The first Hindu king who joined, this religion was the king Birbal. Shekh Mubarik declared Akbar Inanadil (Mujathind). He gave patronage to Chishti sect and built Church in Lahore and Agra for Christians. He gave patronage to Jain Muni Harivijay Suri by entitled him Jagadguru.
The main Purohit (priest) of Din-e-ilahi was Abul Fazal. In 1583 A.D. Akbar issued a new calendar llahi Samwat.
Policy towards Rajputs
Marital alliances and by policy of showing power trick he used the power of Rajputs. The first Rajput king who did agreement with Akbar was kachwaha king Bharmal. He appointed Man Singh and Bhagwan Das at high posts. He abolished Jazia tax in 1564 A.D.
Doongarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh dynasties also took dependence but remained independent. He made Fatehpur Sikri his capital from 1569-1584 A.D. He built Buland Darwaza on the south Gate of the mosque in the memory of his victory over Gujarat as monuments.
He was named Salim on the name of Shekh Salim Chisti. Due to services to army, he was rewarded 12 Hajari Mansab. He revolted against Akbar in 1599 A.D. He murdered Abul Fazal in 1602 A.D. who was sent by Akbar to curb the revolt.
He took control over Mughal rule in 1605 A.D. by retening title of Narruddin Muhammad Jahangir Badshah in the Agra fort. He built Mayur Sinhasan/Peacock throne (Takhte Touse)
He gave sentence to death to Sikh Guru Arjun Dev. His victory over Qandhar is considered important in military and trade view. In 1611 A.D, he married to a widow named Mehrunnissa and gave her title of Noor Mahal Noor Jahan. Later she was made Badshah Begum. British Ambassador Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Row came in his court. He died in 1627 A.D.
His childhood name was Khurram. He was married to Mumtaz Mahal daughter of Asaf Khan Arjum and Bano Begum. He was coronated in February 1628 A.D. in Agra. He expanded upto Ahmadnagar in Mughal empire. He defeated Adil Shah Sultan of Bijapur. He made his son Aurangzeb, Viceroy of Deccan in 1652 A.D. In 1657 A.D. Aurangzeb imprisoned Shahjahan in Agra fort. He killed his brother Dara, Murad and Shurja and sat on throne. In 1666 A.D. Shahjahan died.
Battle of Dharamat
It was held between Aurangzeb and Darashikoh for succession. French Travellor Bernior Tevnier and Italian travellor Manuchi have described the rule of Shahjahan.
Aurangzeb (1658 -1707)
He defeated Rathores of Assam, Cooch Bihar, Rangpur Kamroop and Marwar after ascending the throne. He appointed King Jai Singh as the Governor of Deccan.
Treaty of Purandar
It was held between Shivaji and Raja Jai Singh I in 1665 A.D. According to it Shivaji gave his 23 forts to Jai Singh. In 1660 A.D. Shivaji reached in the court of Aurangzeb but because of conspiracy he secretly reached to Maharashtra. In 1686 A.D. Aurangzeb took control over Bijapur himself and occupied Golkonda in 1678 A.D.
In his period 5% tax was increased on Hindu traders. He ordered to collapse temples in 1669 A.D. and imposed Jazia tax again on Hindus in 1679 A.D. He used the religion as weapon. He banned on traditions of Jharokha Darshan and music which were continued from Akbar’s period. He died in Ahmadnagar in 1707 A.D. In his period Satnamis revolted in the 1672 A.D. and Jats in the leadership of Gokul in 1668 A.D. Guru Tegbahadur raised his voice against the atrocities of Aurangzeb. He was kill id due to this reason.
Decline of Mughal Empire
After the death of Aurangzeb successors of Mughal Dynasty were weak and disable. In 1707 A.D. Bahadur Shah Zafar (Mughal) sat on throne. In 1711 East India company of Surat sent a delegation in the court of Bahadur Shah. It had been seen that there was a great impact of a Christian lady named Dona Juliyana Dayas-Da-Costa, who was given the titles of Khatum Bibi, Phidvi Dnago Juliyana. She secured the interests of Portuguese from 1712-1757 A.D. Mughal court and Takht became the center of conspiracies and murders. It’s immediate political power had no place.
Administration of the Mughal Period
- It was a mixture of Indian and foreign system.
- Badshsah was the whole and sole of the administration.
- Sarvesarva-wakin-e-Mutalak (Wazir) was the greatest officer next to Badshah.
- Pradhan Sadra Mire Sama (Dewan) was the head of finance department.
- Provincial administration was divided into subas which become 21 in Aurangzeb’s period.
They were – Subedar, Diwan, Sadar kazi, Prantiya Bakshi, Kotwal, etc.
- District Administration was in the control of Phaujdar, Amalgujar, Bitikachi, Shikdar, Amil,
J.Badshah was the chief commander of the army. Army was based on Mansabdari system. Mansabdari was divided into Jat and Sawar.
Co-operation and Resistance with Power in Context of Rajasthan
He was born on 24th September 1433 A.D. His father Rao Mokal was the ruler under the state of Amer (Jaipur). His mother’s name was Nirvana. He took the responsibility of his father at the age of 12 years1445 A.D.
He was entitled with the title of Maharao by Udaikaran ruler of Amer (Jaipur). His first successful military campaign was victory over Sankhla Rajputs of Multan Sewar, Nagarchal at the age of 16 years. From 1473-1477 he took victory over Nopsingh Jatu and other Jatu Rajputs and occupied Dadri and Bhiwani with the help of Panni Pathans.
He extended his territory by including Hansi, Hisar. He made Amersar his Capital in 1449 A.D. He built Jagdish temple in Amersar in 1447 A.D. and fort of Shikargarh. He died in 1488 A.D. at Ralawata. He fought 52 battles in his life period. He is considered as the founder of Shekhawat the sub class of the Kachwaha Dynasty. His wife Ganga Kumari built temple of Kalyanji at the mouth of fort of Amersar.
Hammir Dev Chauhan (1282 A.D. – 1301 A.D.)
After Bagbhatt his son Jaitra Singh (Jai Simha) became the ruler of Ranthambhore. He made his younger son Hammir Dev his successor in his life period and in 1282 A.D. his coronation was done.
Hammir Dev adopted the policy of Dignijay and defeated king Arjun of Bhimras, collected tax from Mandalgarh. After defeating king Bhoj Parmar of south. He reached back Ranthambhore via Chittor in north, Abu, Vardanpur (Kathiawar) Pushkar and Champa. He did ‘Kotiyajan Yagya’ in the context of his victory. He fought 17 battles among them. He won 16. Jallaluddin Khilji couldn’t tolerate the increasing power of Hammir Dev. So, he surrounded fort of Ranthambhore from Jhine. He couldn’t succeeded in destroying the strong Morchabandi of Hammir, hence went back to Delhi in 1291 A.D.
In 1296 A.D. nephew and son-in-law of Jallaluddin, Allauddin Khijli killed him and sat on throne. He also couldn’t tolerate the power of Chauhans. So, planned to win Ranthambhore. He attacked the fort. According to Hammir Mahakavya it was a way to give refuge to revolutionary of Allaluddin Mangol Muhammad Shah. The Army commander of Allauddin Mangol Shah and Kehabru took refuge near Hammir with wealth of loot (Booty). Hammir denied to give back them to Allaluddin. So, he ordered to attack in anger.
In 1299 A.D. Allauddin sent his army in the leadership of Ulukh Khan and Nusrat Khan to attack on Ranthambhore from the key way to Ranthambhore Jhine. At that time Hammir after completing his Kotiyajan Yajya was retended Maunvrata. He sent his two army officers “Bhim Singh and Dharm Singh” to face the enemy.
Both badly defeated the army of Allauddin. Both the officers returned back with plundered wealth. In the mean time Shahi army again attacked, Bhim Singh sent Dharma Singh to Ranthambhore and alone faced the army. Rajput were defeated and Bhim Singh died while fighting. Ulukh Khan went back to Delhi instead of approaching Ranthambhore. Again Allauddin sent a big army in the leadership of Ulukh Khan and Nusrat Khan to attack Ranthambhore.
Army surrounded the fort and started breaking its wall in the mean time due to a bullet from fort Nusrat Khan died. As this information reached to army, it started running, by seeing this Ulukh Khan asked his brother Allauddin to sent more army. Allauddin himself set on towards Ranthambhore. After a year rainy season started and information regarding severe revolts in Delhi and Awadh reached to Sultan.
He thought to win Ranthambhore with tricks and sent a message of treaty to Hammir. Hammir sent his two commanders Rannmal and Ratipal in Shahi Shivir for treaty. Sultan gave greed to them and they took his side. Due to these commanders Turkish army knew the secret ways to fort.
On the other hand in one year there was a great scarcity occurred in fort of food material. So, Hammir decided to attack. Before attack Rajput women did Jal Johar with Rani of Hammir Rangdevi and his daughter Padmala, then Rajput men opened the gate of the fort wearing kesariya clothes. In a fierce battle Raja Hammir died fighting bravely.
On 11 July 1301 A.D. rule of Allauddin was established on Ranthambhore. Ratipal and Rannmal were killed by saying those who can’t be loyal to their own master. How the hopes of the loyalty could be made from them in future by Allauddin. In the war of Ranthambhore there was an intellectual with Allauddin Khilji, Amir Khusrao. Hammir become famous in the world for his
adamancy. He did not send back people who came in his refuge though. He had to sacrifice his whole family.
It is said about Hammir
“Singh Sawan Satpurush Vachan, Kadli Phlat Ik Bar, Tiriya Tail Hammir Hath Chadhe Na Duji Bar”
In the remembrance of 32 years of rule of his father Jai Singh Hammir built a Chatri of 32 pillars, which is called Chatri of Justice. He also built a Padmala pond in the name of his daughter Padmala. In his fort lived a poet named “Beejaditya” with the death of Hammir the branch of Chauhans of Ranthambhore ended.
Maharana Pratap (1572-1597 A.D.)
He was born on Vikram Samwat 1597 Jyeshtha Shukla Tritiya, Sunday (9 May 1540 A.D.) in Badal Mahal of Kumbhal Garh Fort (Katargarh). His mother’s name was Jaywanta Bai (Daughter of Pali Naresh Akheraj Songara Chauhan). His childhood was spent in Kumbhal Garh fort. He got married in 1557 A.D. to Ajab De Panwar who gave birth to Amar Singh on 16 March, 1559 A.D.
When Pratap was of 32 years then his father Udai Singh died on the day of holi on 28 February 1572 in Gogunda. His cremation was done in Gogunda. Pratap’s coronation was done by the Samants of Mewar and Subject on Mahadev Bawri located in Gogunda on 28 February 1572. Jagmal the successor nominated by Udai Singh dethroned by the senior Samantas of Mewar.
In 1570 Akbar’s court was held in Nagaur in which except Mewar most of Rajputs took dependence of Akbar. Akbar sent four delegations to accept his sovereignty.
- First Time – Jalan Khan in 1572 A.D.
- Second Time – Man Singh Ruler of Amer in June 1573 A.D.
- Third Time – Bhagwan Das of Amer in October 1573 A.D.
- Forth Time – Todarmal in December 1573 A.D.
All these four delegations failed to make understand Pratap.
War of Haldi Ghati
Akbar planned to imprison Pratap in war, in the fort of Ajmer where today museum is located and being the Shastragar of British It is also called Magzine. Akbar made Man Singh the Senapati of this war and-Asaf Khan was made his companion.
Man Singh started from Ajmer on 3 April, 1576 and encamped first in Mandalgarh after two months encamped in village Molala and Hammir adjacent to Nathdwara. Pratap encamped in a narrow valley between hills of Khamner and Gogunda, named Haldighati. In this only one man can pass at a time.
It was an appropriate place for soldiers of Pratap who were familier to these hills. At the end military of both confronted each other morning on 18 June 1576 A.D. In first step attack of Rajputs become successful under the leadership of Hakim Khan. The Mihattar Khan officer of Akbar’s reserved army spread a fake rumour that Badshah Akbar is coming himself with a big army. It encouraged Mughal army and went ahead.
Rajputs also marched and confronted in “Raktatal” at the bank of river Banas. In this war battle was held between Punna and Ram Prasad elephant from Ranas side and Gajmukta and Gajraj from Shah’s side. Due to death of Ram Prasad’s Mahawat it came in the hands of Akbar, it was very important for him and he named him Pir Prasad. Pratap noticed Man Singh, his horse Chetak understood him and attacked Man Singh’s elephant Mardana’s head with his front legs.
Pratap attacked on Man Singh with full power but he hid inside the “Hauda” and his bodyguard died, in the meantime with the poisonous Khanjar tied in Mardana’s trunk cut the leg of Chetak. Pratap was surrounded by the Mughal army. Jhala Manna of Badi Saddi requested Pratap to give his Royal symbols to him and move away from the battle field. Jhalla died (martyred). Pratap’s loyal Chetak died while crossing a small drain located in Baleecha village.
Here a Chatri is located in Baleecha village in the memory of Chetak. Tears were rolled down from Pratap’s eyes for his dear horse. At the meantime, he heard words ‘O! Neela Ghoda Ra Aswar’. He saw his brother Shakti Singh. He apologized for his deeds. Pratap forgave him. The information we get from the scriptures Amar Kavya Vanshawali and Raj Prashasti. It was created by Rann Chod Bhatt intellectual in Sanskrit. Some of the Historians have given it the name result less or unended war or undecided war.
These three bases are worthwhile to analyze the result of the war
- According to object – Akbar’s objective was to catch Pratap alive and present in his court or to kill or to assimilate his whole state in his own empire but Akbar failed in his these objectives.
- Victory of Mughal Army is not proved because displeaseners of Akbar with Man Singh and Asaf Khan, in which their Dyodhi was closed, running of Mughal army by fear, not chasing the army of Mewar are some scenes of war which brought the result of Haldi Ghati war in Pratap’s side.
- In February 1577 and October 1577 to November 1579 three continuous Mewar campaigns were efforts of Akbar to fulfill his objectives which failed. The establishment of temporary capital in Avargarh near Kamalnath Mountain of Kolyari Village by Pratap is a prove as a winner.
In 1580 Akbar sent abdul Rahim Khanakhana to do war against Pratap. The family of Khanakhana also came with him, whom he left in Shahpur, Amar Singh, son of Pratap imprisoned Khanakhana’s family by attacking Shahpur. Pratap got annoyed and asked Amar Singh to leave them back with respect. Mewar was the territorial region of Merwada in North-east 50 kms away from Kumbhalgarh. It was the main thana of Mushals.
Pratap attacked on it with Amar Singh. Amar Singh killed kaka of Akbar with a hit of spear who was an officer here. This event is of Haldi Ghati war. The whole Dewer valley was in the control of Pratap.
On 5 December 1584, Akbar sent Jaganath Kachwaha, younger son of Bharimal Amer against Pratap but he died in Mandalgarh. Pratap built Shiv temple ‘Neelkanth Mahadev’ near Jhalra Pond where he plundered Malpura by attacking Amer.
Pratap made Chawand his emergency capital by defeating Luna Chanwadia of South-West part of Mewar in approx 1585 which was famous as Chappan.
It remained capital of Mewar for the next 28 years. Pratap built here temple of Chammunda Mata. In 1597 A.D. Pratap wounded while keeping ready his bow, because of this, he died in Chawand on 19 January 1597 A.D. His cremation was done at the bank of a drain near Bandoli Village 11 kms away from Chawand.
The 8 pillars Chatri at the Bank of dam Khejad even today make us remember of that great warrior. When Akbar heard news of Pratap’s death, he also became sad. The description of that situation is done in the following way by Dursa Adha who was present in Akbar’s court:
“Aas logo Anndag, Pag Lego Annami Gehlot Rana Jeeti gayo Dasan Moond Rasna usi Nisas mook mariya nayan to Mrit Shah Pratap si”
Means you never bowed your head nor your horse even your enemy flowed tears with surprise. You were the real winner. Cononel James Tod had told Haldi Ghati ‘Thermopalli of Mewar’ and has termed Diver ‘Marathon of Mewar’.
Rao Chandra Sen
He was born on 16 July 1541 A.D. He was the son of Maldev Jhala Rani Swaroop De. Swaroop told Maldev to made him Yuvraj of Marwar. When Maldev died on 31 December, 1562 Chandrasen become ruler of Marwar though he was the youngest of his two brothers.
His elder brother requested Akbar to help him. Akbar sent his army to Marwar in the leadership of Husain Kuli Khan which took control over Jodhpur Fort on May, 1564 Chandrasen fled from Jodhpur and took refuge in Bhadrajunn. Chandra Sen attended Akbar’s Nagaur Court but by seeing his competitor Udai Singh he returned back. Akbar appointed Rai Singh of Bikaner, the officer of Jodhpur.
Akbar sent his army to Bhadrajunn to repress Chandrasen but he reached to Sojat to his nephew kalla (son of Rama) Mughal army chased him. He reached to Sewann (Badmer) from here. He reached to Sanchiyaya (Pali) in the hills of Saran where he died on 11 January, 1581 A.D. His samadhi is located here. Rao Chandrasen is known with the names of follower of Pratap, forgettable
Hero or king etc.
Rai Singh of Bikaner (1574 – 1612 A.D.)
He was the elder son of Kalyanmal Rathore. He was born on 20 July 1541 A.D. He joined Akbar’s Shahi Sena in his Nagaur Court and become loyal to Akbar. Akbar made him first the officer of Jodhpur. His father died on 25 September 1574 A.D. Then he become the ruler of Bikaner.
Rai Singh curbed the revolt of Ibrahim Mirza in Nagaur when he was officer in Jodhpur. Due to conflict between Dewda of Sirohi Surtann and Bija Dewda, he took opportunity and exit Bija from Sirohi after attacking on Sirohi, half of it he kept under Mughals and gave half to Jagmal, step brother of Maharana Pratap who came from Mewar.
Battle of Dultani
It was held between Mughals and Surtann in which Jagmal died and Surtann recaptured Sirohi. Akbar gave Junagarh to Rai Singh in 1593 A.D. In 1604 A.D. He gave him Jagirs of Shamshabad and Noorpur and title of ‘Rai’
Rai Singh built Junagarh (Bikaner) and there wrote a Prashasti in the name of Rai Singh. He was a literalist. He wrote Bal Bodhni Tika on the basis of the language of scriptures – Rai Singh Mahotsav, Vaidyak Vanshawali Jyotish Ratnamala etc.
In his reign there was a famine in Bikaner. He opened ‘Sadavrata’s every where, and made arrangements of water and fodder for animals (cattle). He died in Burhanpur a place in South India on 21st january 1612 A.D. He saw a desert bush ‘Phog’ at a place in South India. He hugged it and said thatTun Sen deshi Rukhda, Mhen Pardeshi log Mahane Akbar Todiya, Kyon tu Aaya Phog which meant you are a local plant and I am a foreigner. I’ve been sent by Akbar forcefully but O! Why Phog you have come here.
Sawai Jai Singh/Jai Singh II (1699-1743 A.D.)
He was born on 3 September 1688 A.D. His father’s name was Bishan Singh. In the beginning his name was Vijay Singh and his younger brother’s name was Jai Singh. By Inspiring of his ability Aurangzeb named him Jai Singh and his younger brother Vijay Singh Sawai Jai Singh sat on throne of Amer on 19 December 1699 A.D. and become the ruler of Amer. In February 1707 A.D. when Aurangzeb died a war of succession begin among his four sons – Muajjam, Ajam, Kambux and Akbar. Akbar went to Paras leaving India, Kambux had no interest to become king.
Battle of Jajjau
It was held between Ajam and Muajjam in 1707 at the Plain of Jajjau (Uttar Pradesh). Sawai Jai Singh took part in the battle and supported Ajam, Muajjam took support of Vijay Singh and won the battle. Muajjam changed his name as Bahadur Shah I. Vijay Singh was made ruler of Amer and Amer was named as Islamabad and later Mominabad, Sawai Jai Singh of Amer and Ajit Singh of Marwar were appointed as Subedar. Amar Singh II kept a term that Sawai Jai Singh should marry his daughter Chandra Kunwari and her son would become the future ruler of Amer.
Jai Singh accepted this term. It is also called as ‘Dewari Agreement’. On this agreement Amar Singh was ready to help Jai Singh and Ajit Singh. Bahadur Shah become annoyed of it but later forgave them.
In Bharatpur Chudaman revolted Rangeela and sent Jai Singh to suppress it. Jai Singh took support of Badan Singh nephew of Chudaman and drove away him from Bharatpur. Jai Singh gave title of ‘Brajraj’ to Badan Singh and Jagir of Deeg. By pleasing from Jats suppression Muhammad Shah adorned Jai Singh with the title of ‘Raj Rajeshwar Shri Raiadhiraj Sawai Jai Singh’.
Contribution of Sawai Jai Singh
- In 1725 to calculate the speed of Nakshatras, he built a pure table (Sarani).
- He wrote a scripture on Astrology ‘Jai Singh Karika
- He built five Vaidhshalas in India to study Astrology. (Jaipur, Delhi, Mathura, Banaras and Ujjain).
The observatory of Jaipur (Janta Mantar) is the biggest. In July 2010 it is included in World Heritage. The old name of Jaipur was Jai Nagar. Sawai Jai Singh made Jaipur capital of Kachwaha Dynasty in place of Amer. Before the establishment of Jaipur there was a ‘Haudi of Shikar’ which was converted into ‘Badal Mahal’ and construction of Jaipur, was started. Sawai Jai Singh was the basic Hindu king who did RajsuyaA/ajpeya/Ashwamedha yogyas. He built Jai Mahal for the living of Yagya Brahmins. He died in Amer on 21 September 1743 A.D. due to blood infection.
Amar Singh Rathore
Maharaj Gaj Singh of Jodhpur had three sons eldest Amar Singh, second Jaswant Singh and the youngest Achal Singh who died in childhood. Amar Singh was brave and fearless. Many young Rajputs assembled with him who had the same nature.
In misguidance of Paswan named Anara, Gaj Singh deprived Amar Singh from his state rights and exiled him. He went to Mughal Badshah Shah Jahan who by impressing from his bravery gave him the title of ‘Rao’.
Once Amar Singh continuously remained absent in the court for 15 days. When Badshah asked the reason of his absence, he replied proudly that he went for hunting, if you want to charge fine then only my sword is my wealth. When Baxi Salawat Khan went to collect fine he denied.
Shah Jahan ordered him to present himself in the court immediately. He obeyed the order and after reaching in Diwane Khas he saluted the Badshah. The Salawat Khan present in the court said him uncivilized. These words he can’t hear and pierced the katar in his chest. Then he attacked on Shah Jahan but he was saved. Scared Badshah ran in the Janana Dyodhi. The brother in law of Amar Singh, Arjun Gaur killed him decisively in the greed of reward.
Hearing this Amar’s sardars and soldiers entered in Shah Jahan’s palace from Bukhara Gate in Lai Kila (Red Fort) Delhi. As Rajputs were few in front of Mughal army so, all were martyred, from that day Bukhara Gate of Red Fort was closed with bricks and it become famous as ‘Amar Singh Phatak’. It remained closed for many years but in 1809 A.D. due to order of an English officer George Steel it was opened.
History of Marathas
The exaltation of Maratha power in special context of Shivaji was not only the work of single person, but the result of circumstances emerged in a special time. The plateaus of Deccan located in the West-Southern part of India was known as Samprate, Maharashtra being most of the part is rocky hence people of here are courageous and hard working. People of Maharashtra are called Marathi have short height and strong physique (body). They are skilled in Guerrila war.
The Bhakti movement and religious reforms of 15th and 16th centuries made social unity strong. In south the leadership of common people based on religious movement was done by- Tukarama, Ramdasa, Eknatha, Vaman Pandit etc. This movement was against low-high caste system and karmkanda which showed Bhakti marg to achieve God. Marathi language was simple and practical.
Chatrapati Shivaji (1627 A.D. to 1680 A.D.)
He was born on 20 April 1627 A.D. in Shivner Fort. He was the son of Jija Bai, first wife of Shah ji Bhonsle. Shah ji was a samanta of Bijapur. Shivaji was brought up by his local guardian. Dadaji Kondev and Guru of Jiya Bai Samarth Swami Ram Dasa, who inspired him for the security of motherland. He got education of military and administration. At the young age of 12 years, he got Jagir of Poona from his father.
At first in 1646 A.D. in the age of 19 years, he made a group of mawle youth and took control over Transport near Poona. He took control In 1646 Rajgarh and Chakan from Sultan of Bijipur, and in 1647 Baramati, Indrapur, Singh garh and Purandar fort. In 1656 kalyan in konlan and javali fort. He made his capital in Rajgarh in 1656. Due to Shivaji’s expansion policy Sultan of Bijapur sent Afjal Khan in 1659 to curb him but Shivaji pierced his stomach by the nail of Tiger. Aurangzeb appointed viceroy of Deccan Shayasta Khan to curb him in 1663 who took control over his center place Poona.
Soon Shivaji attacked on Shayasta Khan’s camp in night in which he had to flee by loosing his son and three fingers of his hand. In 1664 Shivaji plundered Surat which was under Mughals by annoying this Aurangzeb sent king of Amer Sawai Mirza Jai Singh and Diler Khan. Mughal army captured his many forts. After all he did treaty with Jai Singh in 1665 which is called Purandar treaty.
The main provisions of this treaty were:
- Shivaji surrendered 23 forts to Mughals out of 35 and kept only 12 with him.
- Shambhaji son of Shivaji was made Panch Hazari Mansabdar in the Mughal Court.
- Shivaji was made satisfied by Jai Singh to present in the Mughal court. He told Shivaji that he would be made Subedar of Deccan Subas of Mughals, Shivaji presented himself in Mughal Court but he was treated like a third Mansabdar and made Nazar Band, but in 1660 with the help of his son Shambhaji he secretly ran from the prison and reached safely to his house, very next year Aurangzeb gave him the title of king and Jagir of Barar.
After two years Shivaji recaptured his all forts in 1670 A.D. He did a written agreement with local Mughal officers of Khandesh by giving promise to them of security. He collected Chauth (Tax) and plundered Surat again in 1670. In 1674 A.D. Shivaji did his coronation in ‘Rajgarh Fort’ in the form of an independednt ruler and retended the title of Chatrapati on this occasion.
He died in 1680. At this time his Maratha empire was extended from Belgaon to Bank of Tungabhadra river in whole west Karnataka.
In this way Shivaji established an independent Hindu Swarajya in South India. Though he faced resistance of Mughal power,
Sultan of Bijapur, Portuguese of Goa, and Sea Dacoits of Abesynia located at Janjira.
Vijayanagar and Bahamani Empire
Among five sons of Sangam, Harihar and Bukka were the most famous. They founded the foundation of Vijay nagar state at the north bank of River Tungabhadra. They were the samantas of kaktiyo of Warangal and later become the state minister of Kampile in modern Karnataka. Tughlak made both the brothers prisoners at the curbing of Kampile and released later with the efforts of their Guru Vidyaranya. They were purified and they established their independednt state in Vijayanagar, which soon become the powerful state of South India. Today its capital is recognized as remains of Hampi which is included in world’s heritage site by the UNESCO.
His coronation was done in 1336 A.D. He took control over whole Hoysala in 1346 A.D. and included it in Vijayanagar. Bukka become the successor of his brother Harihara in 1346 A.D. and ruled till 1377 A.D. he extended Vijayanagar empire in whole South India-Rameshwaram, Tamil upto Cher Region.
Harihara II (1377-1406 A.D.):
He was the successor of Bukka. In his period, he had struggle with muslims. He was the devotee of Virupaksh form of Shiva. In his reign empire of Vijayanagar spread including Mysore, Vanara, Trichnapalli and Kanjvaram upto South India.
Dev Rai I (1406-1422 A.D.):
He was also defeated by Bahamani Sultans like Harihara II. Dev Rai II, son of Bukka ruled from 1422-1426. He received the title of Gajbetkar (Hunter of elephants). To defeat Bahamanis, he first time appointed muslims in army. In this period travellor of Italy, Nicaloconty and Ambassador of Oharas Abdur Rajak visited Vijayanagar in this period. In this period the boundry of Vijayanagar empire was reached to cuylon’s (Shri Lanka) coasts. The last rulers of this empire were Malikarjun and Virupaksh.
The beginning of this dynasty in south was done by one of the officers of Muhammad Tughlak, Hasan (Zafar Shah) in 1347 A.D.
Hasan established his empire by taking the sympathy of Amirs of South and taking advantage of revolt spread against Tughlak. He was the descendent of brave warrior of Pharas Bahaman. He retended the title of Allauddin Bahaman Shah. He made his capital in Kulberg. At the time of his death in 1358 A.D. Bahamani empire was expanded in north from Penganga, in South Krishna river and in west from Goa, in East upto Bhongir.
Struggle between Vijayanagar and Bahamani rulers
The western boundary of Vijayanagar was collide with Bahamani empire. Hence struggle being continued in both the empires. Right over to boundary forts Mukdal and Raichur was also a reason of struggle.
Ninth Sultan of Bahamni Empire Ahmad
He replaced capital from Kulberg to Beedus. As muslims were minor in number in Bahamani empire, hence many foreign Shiya Muslims on encouragement settled in Bahamani. Because of this reason Sunni Muslims of South and Abysyniyai become annoyed 13th Muslim Sultan Muhammad III hanged Muhammad Ganva who was a service man to the state.
After Ganva’s death decline of Bahamani empire started. In the ruling period of last ruler of Bahamani empire Sultan Mahmud Subedars of five states – Barar, Bedas, Ahmadnagar, Golcunda and Bijapur declared themselves independent ruler. The condition of common people was worse in Bahamani empire as written by Russian trader Athanasius, who visited Bahamani kingdom for four years (1470-74 A.D.)
Emergence of Sikh Religion and Development
Muslim empire was established in Punjab right from the beginning of the 13th century. Muslim rulers gave high rank to muslims and second rank to the Hindus under the establishment of religious state. Due to religious rigidity of Delhi Sultanate struggle arose construction of mosques in place of temples was common.
An atmosphere of hate and unkindness was developing. In such an atmosphere the birth of Guru Nanak Dev occurred on 15 April 1469 A.D. He was married to Sulkhani. He had interest in spiritualism. Nanak visited with the view ‘Manush Ki Jaat Sabe ek’ or caste of all human beings is one. His such visits are called Udasis.
Teachings of Guru Nanak
- Believe in one God
- Greatness of Nam and Upasna etc.
- He gave stress on doing good deeds.
- He was against castism and high-low.
According to him, “Karma the Honge, Navede, Jati kise Puchni Nahin” Japu ji Patti and Aarti and Barah Mah are his famous creations. By preaching Sikh religion, he made his place in world’s religious and social reformers.
He did the great works. He was the disciple of Nanak. He cleared the teachings of Nanak, for this he developed a script Guru Mukhi. He developed Nanak’s Vani as Guru Vani, tradition of Langar, establishment of Satsang centers ‘Manjhia’
Compilation of Guru Granth Sahab are his great works. He died in 1552 A.D. at the bank of river Vyas. Amar Das was also his disciple who was made new Guru. He strictly implemented the Langar pratha, Manjhi Pratha, Vaisakhi was made festival and opposed Sati Pratha. Akbar also came to visit him at Goidwal. Due to Amar Das Goidwal is considered as place of pilgrimage.
Guru Ram Das
He increased the number of the religious centers. He made a sarovar in 500 Bighas known as Amritsar. The famous city of Sikhs Amritsar is named after it. The powerful and prosperous farmers of here have become the followers of Sikh religion. On his efforts Akbar removed the tax of travelling to Haridwar. He stated Masand Pratha to donate poor. He was called Satguru as well as Sucha Patshah.
Guru Arjun Dev (1581 A.D. – 1606 A.D.)
He was the 5th Guru of Sikhs. He proved to be the true organizer of the Sikh Religion. He equipped Guru with religious rights as well as political rights. He was sentenced to death by Jahangir because he blessed his revoltee Khusrao.
Compilation of Adi Grantha, giving a definite shape to Masand Pratha, sending followers to foreign to collect money are such works which made sikh religion self dependent in economic and religious point of view. His sacrifice of life brought a powerful change of becoming militarily powerful among Sikhs. His martyrdom was a revolutionary event of religious history of Sikh religion which made peaceful Sikhs struggle lover. Now Sikh become a military organization.
Guru Har Govind Singh (1606 – 1645 A.D.)
He was the son of Guru Arjun Dev who became Guru after him. He retended with two swords instead of ‘Saili’ (Garland of Wool). One of the sword was the symbol of ‘Piri’ (Religious throne) while other was the symbol of ‘Miri’ (Symbol of Political Post). He started taking arm and ammunitions in place of wealth in the form of gifts. He built a ‘Bhawan’ near Harmandir. In which he built a high Takht (throne). It’s construction was completed in 1699 A.D.
it was called ‘Akal Takht’. It emerged as the symbol of the political prosperity of Sikhs. Jahangir wanted to collect Arjun Dev’s economic fine from Guru Har Govind but he denied. Then Har Gobind was imprisoned in jail and kept in Gwalior Fort.
Guru Hari Rai, Hari Krishn and Teg Bahadur (1645-1661, 1661-1664,1664 -1675 A.D.) only did the work of preaching of the Sikh religion. Teg Bahadur was beheaded by Aurangzeb when he refused to accept Islam. It was written about him – ‘Sir Diya par Sar Nahi Diya’. His monument is located in Chandni Chowk famous as ‘Sisganj Gurudwara’.
Guru Govind Singh (1675 – 1708 A.D.)
He was the son of Guru Teg Bahadur. He was the 10th and last Guru of Sikhs. To oppose the atrocities of Aurangzeb on Punjab, he developed teaching centers for the education of arms and ammunitions. It made Sikh sect strong. He defeated Subedar of Lahore in Nadaun war. He established Khalsa sect in 1699 A.D. to well organize Sikhs, to eliminate their evils and to arise new awareness in them.
By sacrificing five devotees a new tradition of Panj Pyaro, Pahul (Charnamrit) and Amrit Chakana (Patashe diluted water), Sikhs of Khalso sect have to follow Panch ‘Kakar’ or kada, kesh, kach, kripan and kanghi essentially duo the doubt of war with Aurangzeb, he opened a military center in Anandpur Sahib in 1699 A.D.
He was indulged in the best of Sikhs by keeping high ideals of religious freedon and national progress. He had to left Anandpur Sahib in 1705 A.D. due to attack of Mughals. His sons Zarawar Singh and Fateh Singh were arrested and brick layered alive in the wall of Sarhind Fort, but they did not converted religion. His other two sons Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh become martyred. In war of khudrana forty Shikhs were martyred. They were called ‘Mukta’ and place was called Muktasar.
Govind Singh reached to Talwandi from Anandpur Sahab. There he did writing of literature for a year. He was going to visit Aurangzeb on his invitation on the way he got the news of his death. On 1 October 1708, he also died.
Banda Bairagi (1708 – 1716 A.D.)
Band Bairagi’s (Bahadur) original name was Madho Das. He was born in 1670 in a rajput family. He lived in a Ashram on the bank of Godavari river. At the time of south Pravas of Guru Govind Singh. He said himself Banda Bairagi. By the order of Guru he reached Punjab to complete the rest of the work of the Guru. People of Punjab were tired of Wazir Khan’s atrocities.
They all organized under Banda’s leadership. He first attacked on sarhind. Wazir Khan called upon all muslims of Punjab in the name of Jihad to face Banda. With the co-operation of Mujhayal Jats of Majha, Wazir Khan was turned into pieces at Chappar Chidi. Banda started ruling at a region of 36 lacs revenues place. He abolished zamindari system to give relief to farmers.
In excitement of the victory over Sarhind people of Punjab took control over Amritsar, Batala, Kalanaur and Pathankot, Mughal Rule ended in Punjab. Mughal Samrat Bahadur Shah has to sent army in Punjab. Banda went in hilly fort of Lohagarh attacked on Mughal with gurilla war. Bahadur Shah died on 28 February sent an army under the leadership of Safdar Khan against Banda. After a long period surrounded, Delhi with his hundreds of soldiers he was killed.
Banda Bairagi was a great, brave and securer of religion. He faced the Mughals fearlessly and arouse a new wave of conciousness in Sikhs.
He was born in Gujranwala 13 November 1780 A.D. His grandfather was a brave leader of Chakiya Misal. He fought many wars against Ahmad Shah Abdali. His father was Maha Singh, who died in 1792 A.D. His mother, mother-in-law and Diwan Lokhpat Rai were in Administrative council from 1792 to 1797 A.D. At the end of 18th century Sikhs were in a position of disintegration.
Ranjeet Singh took advantage of this and very soon on the basis of power he established an empire in Central Punjab. He also occupied Lahore in 1799 A.D. and Bhangi Misal of Amritsar in 1805 A.D. in 1803 on Akalgarh in 1804 he attacked on Gujaranwala and defeated. He won Ambala, Maleskotta, Faridkot across Satluj river in 1808 A.D. but after Amritsar treaty control over regions across Satluj were accepted as the regions of English. In 1818 Multan, 1834 Peshawar were occupied. In 1839 Ranjeet Singh died.