Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 13 Our Fundamental Rights and Duties
Our constitution establishes a democratic welfare state. We know that from an individual a family, from family a society from society a country is formed, means man is the center of the country. Hence the development of a country is possible, if man’s development is also done. Our constitution has arranged a system of fundamental rights for all round development of man’s like – physical, mental, moral and spiritual development. These rights protect the freedom of the citizens against the rigid or harsh rules or laws of the government.
Our Fundamental Rights:
Fundamental Rights are those favorable conditions and opportunities which are availed to the citizens under the Constitution by which they can make their all round development. They are also the evidence or proof that in the state importance and dignity of the man is accepted. In our constitution six rights are given to the citizens.
If they are ignored or violated even by the government one can take the protection of law. Before independence beside the freedom of expression the right for the security of life was not even granted. Even people have no right to oppose the inhuman practices and laws of British government. Our freedom fighters fought of these rights through the struggle for freedom. In 1928 the Nehru Report reference of the Fundamental Rights was made.
Our constitution has incorporated six fundamental rights which as follows:
- Right to Equality: Equality is the base of democracy. Hence every citizen is considered equal before the law and everybody gets equal protection of law. According to constitution state or government will not discriminate any person in the name of religion, creed, caste, sex and birth place. In society untouchability is declared punishable. By this right social titles are ended. Only in the field of education and military titles will be given. Which will be earned by the person by his / her ability and fame.
- Right to Liberty: By the constitution to every citizen various types of freedoms are given. Amongst main are:
- Freedom of speech and expression
- For doing meetings or conferences peacefully.
- Freedom of forming political, social, cultural and economic organisations.
- Freedom of visiting any place with restrictions and freedom of living in any part of the country (except J&K).
- Freedom of doing trade, commerce and occupation.
- Freedom of security of own life to an individual and freedom of legal protection. By the 86th amendment in 1922
- declaring education as right, all children of 6 to 14 years of age have been given right to free and compulsory education.
- Right Against Exploitation: In our constitution right is given to all citizens to make them free from social inequalities, slavery and beggary. It is a punishable offence to employ children below 14 years in any risky job. Under this right trafficking of men and women, wage less labor, forcibly taking work is illegal and punishable.
- Right to Freedom of Religion: India is a secular state i.e. all religions, sects and communities are equally respected and are given freedom to profess, and propagate their own religious principles. There is no state religion and no one can be forced to follow and practice any religion.
- Right to Education and Culture: Citizens have right to conserve their respective language, script and culture. The linguistic and religious minorities have the freedom to run their own cultural and educational institutions.
- Right to Constitutional Remedies: Dr. B.R. Ambedakar, recognized this right as the ‘heart and soul’ of the constitution because declaration of fundamental rights have no meaning till any means is not given to make them effective. This rights is the means of making other rights effective. The responsibility of the protection of fundamental rights is being given to the Supreme Court and High Courts of the States. If the rights of the citizens are violated or hindrance is created in their life they can take legal protection under this right. In special conditions (emergency) these fundamental rights can be suspended or confined.
Our Fundamental Duties:
Right and Duties are complementary to each other. There are 11 Fundamental Duties enshrined
in the Indian Constitution and they are:
India’s every Citizen’s Duty would be
- To abide the constitution and to respect its ideals institutions, National Flag and National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
- To value and preserve the glory of rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect nature and the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild-life and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and spirit of inquiry and feeling of reform.
- To safeguard public property and to abjure Violence.
- To strive towards excellence in all the spheres of the individual and collective activity so that nation constantly rises to the higher levels of endeavor and achievement.
- As a parent/guardian to provide opportunities for education to their children of age from six to fourteen years whatever their economic condition may be.