Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 21 Indian Administration Under the British Rule
Along the establishment of British administration India was divided into two parts in the view of administration:
- The British India and
- The Princely States.
The British India was divided into:
- Centrally administered states and
- 11 provinces with separate governor for each province, all were accountable to Governor General of India.
After revolt of 1857 rule of East India company was ended and the administration of India came under the direct control of British Crown and the Parliament.
Lord Canning was appointed as the Governor-General of India as well as the first Viceroy of India, to establish a systematic administration in India. The Indian government Act, 1885 was passed by which a new administrative set up started in India.
On the basis of Peel Commission’s report the British government increased the strength of of Europeans than the Indian army personnel in the army. Following the policy of ‘Divide and Rule’, the army regiments were classified on the basis of caste, community and religion. The government policies were so framed that the police, courts and the high ranking officials supported landowners and zamindars.
Following are some Acts passed by the British:
Indian Council Act of 1861:
The main aim of passing this Act was to please the Moderates.
Its main rules were
- Number of ordinary members in the executive council of governor was increased from 4 to 5.
- Governor-General was empowered to make laws and frame rules for the executive.
- Legislative council could now enact laws and make rules for the whole British India.
- Governor-General’s consent was mandatory to make a bill of law.
- Any law passed by the Legislative Council could be declared null and void by the British Crown after consulting the Secretary of India.
- Governor-General was given special rights.
- Governor General was empowered to reject or disapprove or amend any law passed by the provincial governments.
Indian Council Act of 1892:
After the establishment of congress demand for constitution, an amendment was raised due to which this act was passed.
The most important provision of this Act. was to introduce electoral system.
- Electoral system was totally indirect.
- The Elected members were given the status of the nominated members.
- Strength of the members in the central and provincial legislative councils was increased.
Indian Council Act, 1909:
- It was the next step of India’s constitutional development.
- Its credit goes to the Indian Secretary, Morley and Governor – General Lord Minto, and hence it is known as the Morley-Minto Reform Act.
- It provided for the separate electoral constituencies and separate Electorate system for the Muslims. Therefore the Minto and Morley are said to be the propounders (father) of the communal Electorate system. This is how the British adopted the policy of Divide and Rule in India.
The Indian Government Act, 1919:
- The administrative system introduced by this Act, in the provinces is called dual administrative system or Dyarchy.
- Now in Provinces partially responsible government was established.
- By implementing this Act, the British government aimed at supporting the affluent class. Salary of the Indian secretary, which was given from the Indian fund now was decided to give from the find British treasury from this Act.
Subjects of Administration were divided between the centre and the provinces as follows:
- Main subjects of the central list: foreign affairs defence, post, telegram, public loans etc.
- Main subjects of the provincial list: Local self-administration, education, medical, land revenue, grants for famine and agriculture arrangements etc. This act is known as Montague Chelmsford Reform act.
Indian Administration Act of 1935:
By this Act
- Federal government was formed for the first time in India.
- Dyarchy implemented in the Provinces was ended but it was set up in the centre.
- Federal court was formed.
- Burma was segregated from India.
- The Governor General had his control over central ministers.
Central Legislature had two houses:
1. Rajya Sabha and
2. Federal Sabha
- Rajya Sabha (Upper house) was the permanent house having 260 members, 104 from the Indian states and 156 from the British provinces. 1/3rd of the members retired every 3 years and new members were elected in their place.
- Federal Sabha-Also known as Lower house, had 5 years term, but could be dissolved earlier. Its strength was 375 members 125 from the princely states from the rest of 250, 246 from the communal and other classes. Four places were unregional which were given to the trade, industry and labor class.
In this Act subjects were divided into three lists as Federal list, State list and Concurrent list.
- Federal list: Army, foreign department, post, telegraph, federal public service, communication, Insurance etc.
- Provincial list: Education, Land Revenue, Local Self-administration, law and order, public health, agriculture, irrigation, canals, forests, mines, trade, industries, justice, roads, provincial public services etc.
- Concurrent list: Civil and criminal law, marriage, divorce, adoptions, inheritance, trust, factories, labour welfare etc.
Change in Education and Social set up:
The aim of implementing the english education in the begining was to get Indian employees for the company at less salary, to spread Christianity in India and to secure the Indian co-operation in administration, but it had its reverse effect as the educated youth, later opposed and criticized the British acts and policies logicaly when they criticized Indian religion, customs and traditions.
Charles Wood Despatch 1854, is known as the Magna-Carta of the Indian Education. Under this English was the medium of the higher education and the provincial languages were also promoted. Sir John Sargent, the education advisor to the government of India proposed a plan to set up-Primary schools and upper middle school and to arrange free and compulsory education for girls and boys between 6 to 11 years of age.
Effects of British rule on the Indian Newspapers:
To ban newspapers government formed many laws out of them one was Vernacular press Act of 1878. By this Act district Magistrate got right that he could get sign from any Indian language newspaper on Bond Paper assuring that it would not print any anti government matter. It was so dangerous that it banned on the freedom of newspapers of local language.
Dispute Related to llbert Bill:
During Lord Rippon’s period the llbert Bill was proposed. In this bill it was said to give equal rights and powers to all the judges whether Indian or the British. According to it the Indian judges too could punish the British. The British opposed this bill strongly.
Main Administrative changes in the states of Rajasthan during the British period:
- Prior to India’s independence, Rajasthan had 19 princely states besides the centrally administered Ajmer province. They were administered under the supervision of English (British) Residents living in these states. Slowly many states started adopting few parts of the British judiciary system. In 1839 when Rajmata of Jaipur was dismissed from the post of guardian, then an Administrative council under the supervision of the British agent was formed.
- In the mean time civil and criminal courts were set up.
- The British agent, Thursbee separated the judicial department from the administrative department. In Jaipur this system continued till 1852. Later the Appellate Courts of 4 members (Judges) were constituted, two of them heard appeals and two attended to the criminal cases.
After some time this council was divided into two parts:
- Izalass and
- Mahkama Khaas. It was the supreme court of the state.
- After 1858, Raja, Maharaja, Maharana and Maharawal under the British, became only the nominal rulers. Even they could not behave independently with the nighbouring rulers. They could be forced to travel abroad by the British government. For example Raja of Alwar was sent to England forcibly. They had to even take permission from the British government for their marital relations permission.
- The Guardian council (Abhibhavak Parishad) under the Chairmanship of the political agent, was formed for the ‘Minor prince’. Thus princely states were put under the British control. Such a step was taken by the British in ‘Udaipur in 1861. After British laws were implemented in Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Kota and Bikaner states.
- In Bikaner state judicial system was introduced on the basis of Theory of Separation of powers and in 1922 Supreme court on the lines of High court was set up.
- By 1930 in all the princely states of Rajasthan judicial system according to British Judiciary System was set up. It was declared that all will be treated equally in the eyes of law irrespective of caste, religion, office, dynasty and individual status. All judicial proceedings were done now in writing.
- There was no change in the gram panchayat set up but the apex body of Gram Panchayats unit Parganas were converted to districts governed by the district collectors. District Collector became the sole owner of the district, subordinating by the Nazim, Tehsildar, Judicial, Tehsildar, Girdawar, Patwari etc. Their main function was to collect revenue and to solve farmer’s land related problems. Arrangements of Justice was the job of the district magistrate and peace and order done with the police officer. English Education in Rajasthan was started in Ajmer region. Mayo College was set up in Ajmer to educate the princes.